Northrop N-9M
Страна: США
Год: 1942

Northrop. Самолеты схемы "Летающее крыло"

   Полученный в ходе работ по N-1M опыт привел Джона Нортропа к уверенности, что по такой схеме можно будет построить бомбардировщик. После рассмотрения специалистами ВВС Армии США его предложение было одобрено, и компания получила контракт на разработку самолета под обозначением XB-35. Были построены четыре масштабные модели N-9M с размахом крыла 18,29 м, одна из них, совершившая первый полет в декабре 1942 года, была потеряна в начале следующего года. Первые три N-9M имели по два двигателя Menasco мощностью 275 л.с. с воздушным охлаждением, а четвертый, N-9MB, оснащался двумя моторами Franklin мощностью 300 л.с, причем во всех вариантах использовался толкающий воздушный винт. Трехлетняя программа испытаний, проводившаяся на авиабазе Мурок, дала разработчикам немало ценной информации, а летчики получили опыт пилотирования машин новой конструкции. Позднее для XB-35 был разработан и опробован на самолете N-9M автопилот, а все самолеты N-9M имели убирающееся шасси. Машины окрашивались по разным схемам: первые две были полностью окрашены в желтый цвет, третья, N-9MA, имела голубой верх и желтый низ, а четвертая, N-9MB, - желтый верх и голубой низ.
Ron Hackworth taking off from Avi Suquilla in the 'Planes of Fame' Northrop N9M-B flying-wing.
На авиабазе Эдвардс рядом с AV-6 стоит оригинальный самолет N-9MB - один из первых летательных аппаратов фирмы "Northrop", созданных по схеме "летающее крыло". В ноябре 1994 года его восстановили до летного состояния по случаю 50-й годовщины первого полета.
Don Lykins, Chairman of the Planes of Fame Air Museum, flying the N9MB past the Edwards AFB control tower. Note the Rockwell B-1B Lancer on the ramp in the background.
Chase plane for the test flights out of Edwards AFB was the Planes of Fame Museum's Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless. Even this relatively high performance aircraft was pushed to the limits when pacing the N9MB, as witnessed by the oil streaks on the fuselage sides after highspeed sorties.
On approach to land at Edwards AFB after a successful test flight. Note the ruddervons on the port wing and the tail bumper wheel. The ruddervons increase drag and reduce lift on the wing, thus yawing and rolling the aircraft - effectively combining the effects of ailerons and rudder.
The Northrop N-9M Flight Research Flying-Wing. It was slightly more than one-third the size of the XB-35.
John Myers in the cockpit of the N-9M1, circa January 1943. Early flights indicated that longitudinal and lateral stability were generally satisfactory, but some difficulty was encountered in obtaining adequate directional control.
The second of the Northrop flying wings to take to the skies, the N-9M, of which four were built, was produced as a just over 1/3 scale flying test bed for the huge four-engined XB-35 bomber ordered by the US Army Air Force in November 1941. First flown on 27 December 1942, with John Myers at the controls, this N-9M was powered by two 275hp Menasco C6S-4, as were the second and third machines, the fourth N-9M using twin 300hp Franklin 0-540-7s to give a top speed of 275mph. Speed, however, was very much secondary to exploring the projected bomber's handling. The vital nature of this work was tragically underlined with the loss of the first N-9M and its pilot, Max Constant, in early 1943. Constant had been carrying out stability checks with an aft centre of gravity when the aircraft crashed. The only witness, a farmer, reported that he saw the wings twinkling in the sun as the aircraft fell, indicating either a spin, or a tumble. In what must have been one of its first uses, a hydraulic 'stick pusher' was subsequently fitted to the remaining trio of aircraft to assist the pilot recover from a stalled attitude.
The N-9M, the XB-35 research aircraft.
Самолет N-9M-B в испытательном полете в районе авиабазы Мюрок
Restored to flying condition by the Planes of Fame Museum at Chino, California. Don Lykins, flying the N9M-B, December 1994.
N-9M был схож с N-1M. Единственный оставшийся N-9M был сохранен и сегодня летает в ретроавиагруппе "Planes of Fame".
The Northrop N9M-2 eventually served as a training instrument at Northrop Aeronautical Institute. It is seen here in company of the Northrop JB-1a, a piloted glider variant of the JB-1 (MX-543) ‘buzz bomb’.
Опытный самолет N-9M-1 - аэродинамический прототип будущего бомбардировщика
Fuel bowser and figures give a sense of proportion to the N9MB which was conceived as a one-third scale development model for the Northrop B-35 and B-49 flying wing bomber programme.
The Northrop N-9M1 was the first of four third-scale models of the XB-35 strategic bomber. As the N-1M, the N-9M1 retained a wooden structure which enabled easy modifications, and saved strategic metals. The N-9M1 was destroyed during a flight test killing pilot Max Constant.
Сборка самолетов N-9M-A (справа) и N-9M-B
The Air Museum's Northrop N9M flying wing, currently being restored in California. The Brisfit reproductions in the background are presumably two of those built for the film The high road to China.
Examples of all three of Northrop’s Flying Wings at Muroc (now Edwards AFB) in the California desert. Parked in the shade of the XB-35 is the flying wing proof-of-concept N-9M, with the jet-powered YB-49 making a pass overhead.
Кабина самолета N-9M-B
На месте катастрофы самолета N-9M-1. 19 мая 1943г.
Авария самолета N-9M-2, которая произошла из-за ошибки летчика майора Ритча, забывшего выпустить шасси. Внизу - самолет уже поднят на шасси. Авиабаза Мюрок, 20 апреля 1944г.
N-9MB, 1945г.
Northrop N-9M.