Avro Biplane и Triplane
Потерпев неудачу с бипланом, Роу решил создавать триплан в партнерстве с Дж. Прествиком, конструктором мотора JAP. Но начавшиеся работы по постройке нового самолета пришлось прекратить из-за нехватки денег. Тем не менее, вскоре Роу продолжил
создание нового триплана. Сначала конструктор поставил на аппарат мотор JAP мощностью 6 л. с, а потом - 9-сильный JAP. В результате появился Avro Triplane № 1 (Roe I Triplane) - неуклюжий хрупкий аппарат с тремя крыльями и горизонтальным хвостовым оперением. Фюзеляж треугольной формы обшивки не имел, внешние части крыльев длиной 1,52 м складывались для удобства хранения и транспортировки аппарата.
Собранный в Эссексе самолет получил имя "The Blues" - в честь компании брата Роу, обеспечившей финансовую поддержку. На самолете было выполнено несколько подскоков, первый - 5 июня 1909 года. По мере обретения Роу навыков техники пилотирования, высота полетов увеличивалась, и 23 июля он поднялся на высоту 274 м. К этому времени на аппарате уже стоял мотор Antoinette мощностью 24 л.с. В октябре на аппарате удалось выполнить несколько полетов, но уже 24 декабря Triplane № 1 разбился. Было построено еще три таких триплана с двигателями JAP мощностью 9,20 и 35 л.с.
Следующим изделием Роу стал Triplane №2 (Roe II) с мотором JAP мощностью 35 л. с, который, несмотря на наличие мотора большей мощности, смог подняться лишь на высоту 183 м.
Далее Роу приступил к постройке более мощного самолета, но снова - триплана. Двухместный Mercury имел фюзеляж с фанерной обшивкой, оснащался 35-сильным мотором Green в комбинации с тянущим двухлопастным воздушным винтом (на ранних аппаратах стояли четырехлопастные винты).
Как конструктор Роу быстро прогрессировал, результатом чего стал самолет Triplane № 3 (Roe III). Шесть таких аппаратов построили в Манчестере. Подобно Mercury, новый триплан был двухместным, но отличался более прочной конструкцией. Управление по крену осуществлялось элеронами, а не перекосом плоскостей крыла, а для управления по тангажу использовались рули высоты. Второй и третий самолеты Triplane № 3 с моторами Green и JAP соответственно были направлены на авиационный слет в Блэкпуле в июле - августе 1910 года, и оба сгорели во время пожара в процессе транспортировки(причиной послужили искры из дымовой трубы паровоза). Роу доставил в Блэкпул четвертый аппарат, спешно собранный из разных запасных частей в Манчестере.
Avro Triplane N3 (Roe III)
Тип: двухместный триплан
Силовая установка: один мотор жидкостного охлаждения Green мощностью 35 л. с. (26 кВт)
Характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 64 км/ч
Масса: макс, взлетная 249 кг
Размеры: размах верхнего и среднего крыльев 9,45 м, нижнего - 6,10 м; длина 7,01 м; высота 2,74 м; площадь крыльев 33,63 .м
Flight, July 1925
THE ORIGINAL AVRO TRIPLANE FOR SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM
THE presentation, by A. Y. Roe & Co., Ltd., of the original Avro triplane to the South Kensington Museum, where it will be kept for the nation for all time, brings back some interesting recollections of its constructor, that pioneer of aviation Mr. A. V. Roe.
The first flight ever made over British soil was made by A. V. Roe, in a machine of his own construction. Appropriately enough, Roe, we are reminded, obtained his first incentive to design aircraft from watching birds in flight. During three years he spent in the merchant service as a marine engineer he studied the seagulls and the albatross, and on his return commenced to make model gliders.
From 1906 onwards, Mr. Roe devoted all his time and savings to aviation. In 1907 he won the first Daily Mail prize for flying models and constructed a full-size flying machine, which he took to the Brooklands motor track. He was kept waiting many months for a 24 h.p. Antoinette engine he had ordered from France, and in the interval it was his practice to prevail upon sympathetic motorists to give him experimental towing flights. It was difficult, Mr. Roe says, to induce the motorists to let go at the proper moment when the machine began to swerve in the air, and the result of their holding on often ended in a dive and a crash.
In the spring of 1908 the Antoinette engine arrived from France, and on June 8 Roe made the first flight ever accomplished in England. This consisted of some 60 yds. at a height of 2 ft. from the ground.
At this point he received notice to quit Brooklands. He had never enjoyed anything like ideal conditions. He was not allowed to sleep in the shed where his machine was kept, nor could he use the track when it was open to motorists. Still his entire exclusion was a severe blow.
He applied to the War Office for leave to erect a shed by the side of Mr. Cody's at Laffan's Plain, but was refused permission. He finally decided to continue on Lea Marshes, where some large fields were available. He also rented and boarded up a couple of railway arches in the vicinity.
In the stable of his brother's house at Putney he had by this time constructed a tractor triplane, and this is the machine which has been presented to the Science Section of the South Kensington Museum. This he removed to Lea Marshes. Circumstances had compelled him to dispose of his Antoinette engine of 24 h.p., and he had nothing better than a 9 h.p. J.A.P. motor-cycle engine designed by John Alfred Prestwich. With this he made the first successful flight on an all-British aeroplane. This was in June, 1909, and for fourteen years the machine held the record of being the lowest-powered engine to fly in England.
After this he made many successful flights, the earliest being short and low, earning him the title of "Roe the hopper." One of his troubles at this period was the back firing of the J.A.P. engine, which occasionally set his machine on fire.
In the summer of 1909 a young woman came down to the river Lea intending to commit suicide. The sight of Roe's machine skimming about arrested her, and she went home. The next morning Mr. Roe received a letter asking him to allow her to take his place as pilot of the machine so that his life might be saved at the expense of her own. Roe tactfully replied that he would gladly allow her to fly his machine when he had perfected it, thus giving her something to look forward to.
Roe was not left in peace to carry out his experiments. The local authorities employed a bailiff to watch him and to prevent him from flying. For a long time the bailiff was circumvented because of Roe's early-rising habits, but eventually he was caught in the act. Police court proceedings were instituted, but just then Bleriot flew the Channel and the case was dropped.
Roe moved on to Wembley Park, now the site of the British Empire Exhibition, and flew with consistently increasing success. In 1910 he entered into partnership with his brother in Manchester and in the same year was welcomed back to Brooklands. After a visit to America the famous Avro machine, so named after its inventor, was produced, and from then onwards Roe reaped the success he deserved.
Early in 1914 the German Government bought an Avro seaplane, which was the first heavier-than-air machine to make the voyage from the main land to Heligoland.
The part the Avro played in the Great War is well known. In the early days it raided the airship sheds of Friedrichshafen, and, handled by Commander A. W. Bigsworth, it was the first British machine to damage a Zeppelin in the air. Throughout the war, and to this day, it has been the standard training machine of our Flying Services.
Since the war the firm of Avro has been linked up with the manufacturers of the Crossley car, a fitting alliance, as they worked together through the war, Crossley cars as land transport for the R.A.F. and Avro machines in the air.
На Roe I Triplane летчик сидел сразу за топливным баком, установленным на стойках над фюзеляжем.
A contemporary tinted postcard showing Roe at the controls of his triplane in September 1909.
1909 A.V.Roe triplane in the Science Museum, London.
Roe sits in his nearly complete triplane at Lea Marshes in early 1909. The machine has been temporarily fitted with the 6 h.p. JAP two-cylinder vee engine from Roe’s original biplane, pending the delivery of something more powerful from Tottenham-based JAP.
Roe carrying a passenger in the third Roe III at Blackpool on August 10, 1910. This uncovered machine had been hastily constructed after the destruction of the Mercury and second Roe II in a fire on the train on which they were travelling to the event. The passenger is seated with his back to the radiator, facing the pilot, with his arms over the rear spar of the middle wing, although passengers could face forwards and look through the radiator grille.
Pioneer Work! This early Avro triplane had variable incidence wings, but in almost every other respect all the features of a modern tractor aeroplane were incorporated
The original Avro Triplane, which has been presented to South Kensington Museum.
FEW of the early British-built aircraft recall as much interest - and glory - as the Roe triplane shown in the photograph. "A V.'s" early efforts at - but not his interest in aeronautics date back to 1908-9, when he built a biplane at Brooklands. Later he built a triplane, with a 9 h.p. J.A.P. engine, which he flew at Lea Marshes. The machine shown here is the one, fitted with a 20 h.p. engine, on which he made a number of successful flights at Wembley in December, 1909, and the following year.
A.V.Roe's paper-covered triplane (13 July 1909).
The Avro triplane "Mercury" was exhibited at the 1910 Olympia Aero Show, and may be described as being the original type, on which A. V. Roe had accomplished his initial efforts, thoroughly cleaned up and "modernised." It was fitted with a 35-h.p. Green engine.
The beginning of a long line - the first product of A. V. Roe & Co was the Mercury triplane, seen here being readied for display at the 1910 Olympia Aero Show in March. Its workmanship was much admired by the aeronautical press; the March 19, 1910, issue of Flight remarked that Roe was "ever getting nearer to his goal”.
The first Roe III triplane at Brooklands in the summer of 1910. The aircraft was powered by a 35 h.p. JAP engine and was fitted with large ailerons on its top wing only and a square-cut rectangular rudder. This machine underwent its first taxying trials in mid-June 1910.
AN EARLY FLYING MEETING : The Easter Monday Meeting at Brooklands, 1910. The Machines are: J. D. Astley's Lane monoplane, A. V. Roe's triplane, and Moreing's Voisin.
Alliott Verdon Roe with the Roe III.
Перенос управляющих поверхностей на новое место привел к аварии Triplane в парке Уэмбли в сочельник 1909 года. При попытке совершить вираж, самолет столкнулся с землей, повредив крыло.
Hard Work Ahead: Mr. A. V. Roe standing in front of one of his early machines after a fairly typical landing. It is thought that the A.I.D. would not have passed the construction.
The "crash" was the result of outgrowing his "aerodrome," for on one occasion he remained up until the boundary line was reached, and attempting to turn resulted as shown! This machine was the forerunner of the tractor-fuselage types of aircraft which became common in subsequent years.