Flight 1930-01
Typical Aerial Derby machine: Sopwith "Camel" (130 h.p. "Clerget").
A Nieuport monoplane, also with Gnome engine, which differed little, except for the engine, from the Nieuport shown before.
The Breguet mail 'plane about to leave Hounslow for Paris in 1920.
Next comes the little Bristol scout, the first of which was shown at Olympia in 1914, and on which later Harry Busteed made a flight in record time from Netheravon to Brooklands. As the Bristol "Bullet," the type later took part in the war.
Walter L. Brock - chewing hard, no doubt - on his Bleriot, is being rapidly overhauled by M. Martz on the Morane Saulnier during the First International Contest, October, 1913.
"Robert" lending a helping hand in holding back Marcel Desoutter's Bleriot monoplane before the latter sets out on one of his excellent exhibition flights.
M. Pegoud setting out to give his first demonstration of looping in England at Brooklands, September, 1913.
Walter L. Brock - chewing hard, no doubt - on his Bleriot, is being rapidly overhauled by M. Martz on the Morane Saulnier during the First International Contest, October, 1913.
A two-seater Bleriot monoplane of 1913 which was extremely popular in its time, and was flown a lot by such famous pilots as Hamel, Hucks and Brock. The tail skid, placed far forward on the fuselage, acted as a fairly effective brake. The positively-cambered tail plane and negatively-cambered elevator feature was retained in this machine, but never afterwards.
This is a "snap" of Claude Grahame-White executing a then remarkably steep bank on a Henry Farman during the Hendon "Demonstration" in May, 1911.
A cross-country race in progress at Brooklands during the summer of 1913
In 1913, the late Sir John Alcock - then plain "Jack" - winning the Easter Aeroplane Handicap at Brooklands on Ducrocq's Henry Farman.
A machine of somewhat unorthodox design was the "Valkyrie" tail-first monoplane - the 1911 racing model being shown here - designed by H. Barber and built at Hendon. The machine illustrated had a Gnome engine, but other models had Green engines. It will be noticed that there was no horizontal tail surface at the rear, only two vertical rudders. In front, however, there was a fixed horizontal plane, as well as an elevator.
Designed at the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough, the B.E.2A was the forerunner of the B.E.2C, but had wing warping instead of ailerons for lateral control.
Air Transport in Portugal: A Junkers F.13 monoplane, "Lisboa," used on Servicos Aeros Portugueses.
REFERENCE was made on the previous page to the 1911 type Martin Handasyde monoplane. A little more of this machine is shown here. In this view the skid under the "nose," terminating in a "spoon" shoe, can be clearly seen, as well as the kingpost system of wing bracing employed. The earliest Martin Handasyde monoplanes, produced at Brooklands were strongly influenced in their design by the French Antoinette monoplanes, and the engine fitted in the machine illustrated, was in fact, an Antoinette water-cooled engine. Actually it would be more correct to say that it was a steam-cooled engine, for the water in the jackets was permitted to boil, and the steam was condensed in large condensers mounted along the flat sides of the triangular-section fuselage. In view of the modern tendency to revert to evaporative cooling, it is interesting to recall that this was employed fairly successfully 19 years ago.
The photograph shows the cockpit of an early Martin Handasyde monoplane. It will be noted that the cockpit is very shallow, the triangular-section fuselage being largely responsible for the high position of the seat. Mounting the windscreen on the control column now seems an unusual procedure, but probably the idea was also to relieve a certain amount of tail heaviness.
The original Short seaplane, flown by Commander.Samson in 1912. It was fitted with a 100-h.p. Gnome.
In Full Flight: The original Short seaplane, Type S.41.
N. Spratt flying the 60 h.p. "Dep" in a speed handicap at Hendon in 1913, and the photograph raised the question "are these wings bending?" Put a rule along the leading edge and see for yourselves.
A close finish to one of the handicap races round the pylons between P. Verrier on the Maurice Farman and Jules Nardini on the Deperdussin monoplane.
A scene just before the start of a race at the Sixth London Meeting held during August, 1913.
A typical example of the Deperdussin monoplane, as produced both in France and England in 1911. There were various models of this machine, for racing, school work, etc., both single or two-seaters, but all were on much the same lines.
Here we see Hubert Latham flying the graceful Antoinette monoplane in a "gale" of 30 m.p.h. at the Blackpool meeting, 1909.
Another view of the Voisin biplane, exhibited at the First Olympia Aero Show, 1909.
One of our first pioneers, J. T. C. Moore-Brabazon - and, incidentally, perhaps our first Private Owner - made his first flights on a Voisini biplane, "The Bird of Passage" - shown in our illustration - on which he flew in France in 1908, and later brought to Eastchurch. The Voisin was a curious looking machine, the principal features of which were the side "curtains" between the main planes - which were claimed to give stability - and the box-tail. It had no lateral control such as ailerons or wing warping, for the side curtains were supposed to render this unnecessary. For horizontal control a pair of elevators were mounted forward, on the nose of a short nacelle or body carrying pilot and engine. The latter was a 50-h.p. Vivinus, but E.N.V. and Antoinette engines were also used in these machines.
AN EARLY FLYING MEETING : The Easter Monday Meeting at Brooklands, 1910. The Machines are: J. D. Astley's Lane monoplane, A. V. Roe's triplane, and Moreing's Voisin.
THIS shows the start for the first (and only) Oxford v. Cambridge Air Race, held at Hendon on July 16, 1921. It was a thrilling event for the competitors, from the two Universities, all flew S.E.5a's and started together.
ALTHOUGH, strictly speaking, the early Wright biplane, shown herewith, had advanced a little beyond the "hopping" stage at the time we open our Twenty-one Years' review, it is only proper - we nearly said "Wright" - to include it, for the improved version figured prominently during the first two or three years of "our" life. Original Wright-type biplanes were, it will be remembered, constructed in England by Short Bros, at their Eastchurch factory, and several British aviators owned or flew them, including the Hon. C. S. Rolls, Hon. M. Egerton, T. McClean, Alex. Ogilvie, Colin Defries, and others. The first models employed the starting rail gear for getting into the air, but subsequently wheels were fitted to the skids, and a horizontal tail was also added.
The famous Maurice Farman "Longhorn" with Grahame White in the nacelle and Louis Noel standing by the wing.
A close finish to one of the handicap races round the pylons between P. Verrier on the Maurice Farman and Jules Nardini on the Deperdussin monoplane.
The Breguet was of all-metal construction, and had but a single tubular wing spar.
M. Moineau, the French pilot, flying the Breguet biplane - or "flying coffee-pot," socalled because of its metal construction - when it made its first appearance at the London Aerodrome.
The Farman Goliath;
The D.H.34;
A photograph recalling the extraordinary series of Royal Air Force Displays which have been held annually at Hendon Aerodrome since 1920.
The Sopwith Antelope;
"Thames as an airport," showing a photograph of the Vickers "Viking" amphibian flying boat immediately after had alighted on the Thames at Westminster in February, 1921. The manoeuvre was in the nature of an experiment, to ascertain if it were possible to operate an air service direct to and from the Thames.
The first Avro 504 made its public appearance at Hendon in 1914, and won instant admiration. We recollect that on the day of its visit it was flown in turn by a number of pilots, and they all expressed themselves delighted with it. Among those who flew it was the late Mr. Gordon Bell.
The post-war Avro 504, which was for years a familiar sight and which is only now being superseded as a training machine.
A cross-country race in progress at Brooklands during the summer of 1913
The Bristol biplane (Gnome engine) constructed by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., which eventually became the present Bristol Aeroplane and Motor Co. They were very similar to the Henry Farman, and large numbers were built and used for training purposes.
The Avro triplane "Mercury" was exhibited at the 1910 Olympia Aero Show, and may be described as being the original type, on which A. V. Roe had accomplished his initial efforts, thoroughly cleaned up and "modernised." It was fitted with a 35-h.p. Green engine.
AN EARLY FLYING MEETING : The Easter Monday Meeting at Brooklands, 1910. The Machines are: J. D. Astley's Lane monoplane, A. V. Roe's triplane, and Moreing's Voisin.
The 1911 Roe triplane, built at Brooklands by A. V. Roe. As will be seen, it differs from the early models in many respects, mainly in the absence of the triplane tail. Fitted with a 35 h.p. Green engine, this machine flew well, and it was frequently seen in the air at Brooklands.
Flight-Lieut. Jones in a Siskin doing the fastest time in the King's Cup Race of 1924.
SPORTSMANSHIP IN INDIA: The Moth which Mr. Lakhmicard Isardas has lent to the Karachi Aero Club.
The finish of the King's Cup in 1927, won by L. Hope in a Moth.
L. Hope in Moth winning the King's Cup in 1928 at Brooklands.
Hassene in Bey, the first Chamberlain to King Fuad, has recently acquired the Moth G-EBTD (of the 600 hours test fame). He hopes to fly to Egypt in this machine, which he has named Princess Falka.
The little monoplane is a "Bristol," and was flown in several races after the war, winning one of them (Aerial Derby) piloted by the late Larry Carter. The almost totally enclosed rotary engine is an interesting feature.
Typical Aerial Derby machine: Bristol "Bullet" (400 h.p. Bristol "Jupiter").
Among the earliest types of aeroplane to be produced in Germany was the "Taube," one of which is seen here.
IN FULL FLIGHT: Although not revolving at more than about 160 r.p.m., the rotor blades of this "Autogiro" defeated our photographer.
Flt.-Lt. Rawson demonstrating the Auto-Gyro at Hanworth before the Japanese visitors.
THE CIERVA "AUTOGIRO": The machine Is seen during its take-off run. Note that the rotor blades have not yet risen to their normal flying position.
THE SELF-STARTER: In this view the elevator is at its maximum position for deflecting the slipstream on to the rotor blades.
Sir Sefton Brancker piloted an Autogiro C.19, Mark II, on January 7th at Heston and made one take-off and one landing. He said that it was very easy to fly and gave him a great feeling of confidence.
TESTING THE "AUTOGIRO": On the left Sir Sefton Brancker, Director of Civil Aviation, and on the right Mr. Nigel Norman, one of the owners of Heston Air Park.
Another view of Claude Grahame-White banking on a Henry Farman - this time the "Wake-up, England!" 'bus of later date - 1913.
The Henry Farman, which was a very familiar sight at Hendon during 1912-13-14. It was on a machine of this type that Chevillard did his famous "Chute de Cote," or side-slip stunt.
M. Chevillard, the well-known French pilot, giving one of his extraordinary exhibitions of stunt flying on the Henry Farman.
The Dunne biplane constructed by Short Bros. to the design of Lieut. J. W. Dunne, who had been experimenting with the principles involved for some time previously. The outstanding feature of the Dunne biplane was the arrangement of the main planes, which were in V-fashion viewed from above; that is, they sloped sharply backwards from the centre, where they joined the body, and their extremities lay a little behind the rear of the body.
Typical Aerial Derby machine: Martinsyde F.4 (300 h.p. "Hispano").
The classic and popular air race known as the Aerial Derby, inaugurated in 1912. At the photo is the "line-up" of competing machines before the start of the fifth contest, which took place in July, 1920. The machine in the foreground is. the Nieuport "Nieuhawk" piloted by "Jimmy" James, who finished second. Next are the two Martinsydes - the F.6 and the F.4.
The foundation of the greatness of the House of Sopwith may be said to have been laid with the "Tabloid" biplane, shown here, which was the forerunner of the Schneider Trophy winner and of the "Pup" and "Camel."
At one of the August meetings the spectators experienced a thrill by the sudden appearance of a tiny tractor biplane with a remarkable turn of speed - for those days. It was Harry Hawker on the Sopwith "Tabloid," who had flown over from Brooklands. Here you see him "hurrying" past the hangars.
Other than the knowledge that the Edwards Rhomboidal Biplane was produced in Britain during 1911, little on this particular machine appears to have survived the years. What can be said, however, is that even at a time when virtually every new design was truly experimental, the Edwards machine was certainly different. The first of two points of interest clearly visible in this photograph is the purely accidental selection by the designer of a modern, tricycle landing gear arrangement, in this case chosen simply to ensure that the machine did not tip over onto nose or tail when at rest on the ground. Secondly, the machine's method of power transmission, using chain drives with multiple right-angled power take-offs may have been similar to those used by the Wrights' 1903 Flyer, but actually has its roots in the first mechanical power transmission systems used in the early industrial mills of more than a century before
FLYING FOR NEW GUINEA GOLD: Two views of a Junkers W.34 (Bristol "Jupiter") monoplane of Guinea Airways, Ltd. On the right, arriving at Lae as a seaplane. On the left, unloading the monoplane (now a landplane).
The machine is generally and officially known as the D.H.1. That is merely a designation of the first machine designed by Geoffrey de Havilland for the Aircraft Manufacturing Co. The real D.H.1 was a very different affair, produced several years earlier, and having flaps in front and flaps behind as well as on the sides. Perhaps Capt. de Havilland can be persuaded later to send us a photo, of the real D.H.1? We remember being present when Capt. de Havilland made the first test flight on the official D.H.1. Without any preliminary "straights" he took it into the air, and at once commenced to circle, thus showing his confidence in the machine. He was, and is, one of the most remarkable examples which has come to our notice of the successful aircraft designer who is also a good pilot.
Один Rohrbach Ro VI в середине 1920-х годов был построен компанией "Beardmore". Ro VI с размахом крыла 48,00 м до начала Второй мировой войны оставался самым большим британским сухопутным самолетом. Самолет получил серийный номер J7557, утилизировали его в 1930 году.
The Beardmore "Inflexible" was an interesting experiment in size. Its wing span was more than 150 ft. Like a good many other very large machines, the weight of the structure was somewhat great, and the useful load correspondingly reduced. Nevertheless, the machine has been flown in public on several occasions, attracting great attention.
The return of the "Iris."
Sir Alan Cobham is shown flying the Singapore, in which he made a tour round Africa in 1927, accompanied by Lady Cobham. He flew down the Great Lakes, and then round the coast, returning by West Africa, where a flying boat was a most unique sight. No man has done more than Sir Alan Cobham to induce air-mindedness in the people of the British Empire.
Sqdr.-Ldr. A. Kubita in his Avia monoplane, which he flew to Lympne for the air meeting. He is the Czechoslovakian Air Attache in England.
Round about 1910, A. V. Roe returned once more to Brooklands, where, backed by the experience gained from his early efforts, he constructed a number of successful machines. One of these, this time a biplane, of 1911, is shown, and it was from this that the famous 504 was developed.
It does not require a great deal of imagination to trace in the photograph the beginnings of the famous Avro 504. This biplane, with a Green engine, was produced in 1912, and was flown a lot by Mr. Raynham.
Before the advent of the famous Avro 504, several Avro biplanes were produced which all tended towards that type. The machine shown here was the such type, of 1913 vintage. Like the later 504 it had a Gnome engine, but the nose was of different shape and the horizontal top longerons had not yet disappeared.
Commander Schwann's Avro, the first tractor seaplane to get off the water. In the photo, Sippe is in the cockpit.
The Avro enclosed cabin monoplane fitted with Viale radial air-cooled engine.
The Avro Coupe;
"Bert" Hinkler adjusting the "Cirrus" engine of his Avro "Avian" light 'plane before setting out on his remarkable lone flight from England to Australia in 1928. He accomplished the journey to his native land in the record time of 14 days, and on arriving there flew on to his home town and other parts of the Commonwealth - naturally receiving an enthusiastic reception everywhere.
The little Bat "Bantam" which follows was designed by Frederick Koolhoven, and was used until comparatively recently for scientific tests of spinning.
The D.H. type 61 was originally known as the "Canberra" from the first one, which was sold to Australia. A more recent version has been given "Giant Moth" as its class name, and it was on one of these that last summer Sir Alan Cobham did his great tour of Britain. That machine had been christened "Youth of Britain." The photograph shows a D.H.61 sold to Canada undergoing tests on the Medway at Rochester.
The fleet of Travel Air monoplanes and biplanes lined up in front of the Government hangar at St. Hubert Airport.
Among the pioneers of British aircraft constructors were the Blackburn Brothers, notably Mr. Robert Blackburn, and the photograph shows the monoplane which he exhibited at Olympia in 1911. Like the Martin Handasyde monoplane, the Blackburn had a triangular-section fuselage, but the engine fitted was the first British radial air-cooled, the Isaacson. Looking at this early Blackburn monoplane one is struck by the very deeply-cambered aerofoils used, and by the liberal strutting in the undercarriage. Skids were used on nearly all early aircraft, sometimes a single central one, and sometimes, as in the Blackburn, two skid each carrying two wheels. It seems likely that a good many m.p.h. could be added merely by substituting a modern undercarriage to this machine, and such an experiment would be very interesting.
Flight-Lieut. H. Schofield (who is in charge of instructional flying at Hanworth) with Miss Macdonald, who obtained her "ticket" after a course of instruction given as the result of a Reid testing apparatus at the Aero Show, in one of the new "Bluebirds" (Cirrus III).
The first flight of "Bluebirds" (Cirrus III) "rolling" home over Hanworth Club.
Many years after the first historical flying meeting at Bournemouth in 1910, this popular resort again held a meeting, two events from which are shown here. On the left, seven machines are seen flying in a race, and on the right three R.A.F. "Gamecocks" give a display.
King's Cup machines. (2) Bristol 10-seater (400 Bristol "Jupiter")
One of the Coanda-designed Bristol monoplanes which took part in the Military Trials of 1912. This machine was of very clean design, but the top bracing wires were at a bad angle.
The little Caudron C.109 (Salmson) which Lt. de Vaisseau Sala uses.
IN FLIGHT: The larger photograph gives a good idea of the clean lines of the "Swift," while the smaller inset illustrates the good view.
SIDE VIEW OF THE COMPER "SWIFT": Mr. Dawson, Junior, standing by the nose of the machine, gives a good idea of its small size
The Comper "Swift" is an extremely neat little machine, and with an engine of 40 h.p. has as good a performance as the more powerful two-seater light 'planes.
The deck fairing is detachable so as to facilitate fuselage inspection, and contains a luggage locker.
The Comper "Swift": On the left, details of rib construction. The nose ribs are covered with plywood up to the front spar. On the right, a typical fuselage joint.
The Undercarriage of the Comper "Swift" is of somewhat unusual arrangement.
Details of the tail plane and elevator construction.
The aileron crank and its operating rod.
Stern post, rudder post, etc. (in metal), of the Comper "Swift."
C(LA) 7 "Swift" A.B.C. "Scorpion" Engine
THE SIKORSKY "S-40" AMPHIBIAN: Side and plan drawing of the hull of the 41-passenger flying boat, which will be fitted with four Pratt and Whitney "Hornet B" (575-h.p.) engines
It shows the "Flying Cathedral," constructed in 1910 by S. F. Cody, biplane developed from the British Army "flying machine" of 1908-9 which Cody flew with varying degrees of success. The "Cathedral" was 46 ft. span and powered with a 60 h.p. E.N.V. engine. It flew remarkably well, and similar improved and modified models were produced.subsequently.
AN ANGLO-AMERICAN PIONEER: The late Col. S. F. Cody, who carried out tests with the British Army biplane in 1908-9, and later became a naturalised Britisher.
The D.H. Hercules.
FIRST KARACHI-DELHI AIR MAIL: Mail and freight being loaded in the Imperial Airways' "City of Delhi" D.H. "Hercules" air liner at Karachi, on the occasion of the opening of the extension of the England-India air route between Karachi and Delhi.
Although it was never put into production, the machine shown was one of considerable interest. Designed by Mr. J. D. North and built by the Grahame White Aviation Co. of Hendon, this early scout (1914) showed features which do not look out of the way even to-day. Note, for example, the very pronounced stagger, which was an unusual feature in those days. In spite of its small size the machine was a two-seater. It as also tested as a seaplane.
The close-up of the Mann and Grimmer biplane illustrates the unusual arrangement of the airscrews. There were two of these, mounted as "pushers" aft of the wings, and they were chain-driven from a 100 h.p. Anzani engine mounted in the nose of the fuselage. Not unlike Horatio Barber's "Viking" in a general way, the Mann and Grimmer machine did quite a lot of flying, having the advantage of more power than was available to Mr. Barber. On one occasion one of the driving chains broke, but Mr. Rowland Ding, who was flying the machine at the time, managed to land safely.
The Howard Flanders biplane, Isaacson engine
The monoplane was designed and built at Brooklands by Mr. L. Howard Flanders.
Another interesting machine, one of which was owned by Moore-Brabazon, was the British-built Short biplane shown in the illustration. As will be seen, this machine was very similar to the Wright biplane - and also used the starting rail - the main differences being in the "chassis" and control surfaces.
The Gloster Survey machine flying with starboard engine throttled right down, and propeller ticking slowly over.
Lord Thomson gives his impressions of his flight to the microphone.
On the left, a Travel Air "4,000" about to leave for Quebec with passenger and luggage. Right, another Travel Air machine at St. Hubert Airport, with the Airship mooring mast in the background.
The fleet of Travel Air monoplanes and biplanes lined up in front of the Government hangar at St. Hubert Airport.
The Handley Page biplane. This machine had the same type of crescent-shaped wings as the earlier H.P. monoplanes, and the machine was actually flown without a tail, i.e., without a horizontal tail plane. The wing design as such that the machine could, apart from the need for rudders, have been made into a "tailless" type. The machine had a lot of flying, piloted first by Mr. Whitehouse and afterwards by the late Mr. Ding.
A Handley Page monoplane of 1912. It had the crescent-shaped wings of its time, and was fitted with a 70 h.p. Gnome engine.
The luggage locker is placed, in the Junkers "Junior", between the two cockpits.
THE JUNKERS "JUNIOR ": In this three-quarter rear view the machine is shown pegged-out, and with covers over cockpits and engine.
The Junkers "Junior" in flight: This photograph gives a good idea of the excellent view obtained from the two cockpits. The engine is an Armstrong Siddeley "Genet."
One of the latest Junkers Junior all-metal machines which has been fitted with an 80/88 H.P. Armstrong Siddeley Genet engine.
The Short "pusher" biplane was built by Short Bros, in mid-1911. Although of the Farman type, it actually differed from it very considerably, as is clearly shown, especially as regards the tail, enclosed nacelle, and chassis. It was fitted with a 50 h.p. Gnome engine.
The Howard-Wright, a British-built version of the Sommer-Farman. It was on one of these machines, with K.N.V, engine, that T. O. M. Sopwith won the Baron de Forest Prize for the longest flight from England to the Continent, in December, 1910.
King's Cup machines. (3) Vickers "Vulcan" (450 Napier "Lion")
The Westland limousine;
Typical Aerial Derby machine: Nieuport "Nieuhawk" (300 h.p. A.B.C. "Dragonfly").
The classic and popular air race known as the Aerial Derby, inaugurated in 1912. At the photo is the "line-up" of competing machines before the start of the fifth contest, which took place in July, 1920. The machine in the foreground is. the Nieuport "Nieuhawk" piloted by "Jimmy" James, who finished second. Next are the two Martinsydes - the F.6 and the F.4.
The biplane designed by "Tony" Fletcher for the L. & P. School at Hendon during the war. The machine might be claimed as a light 'plane, as the engine was a 60 h.p. Anzani and a passenger was carried in addition to the pilot. Among its achievements may be recalled the establishment of a record for consecutive loops, piloted by the late Mr. Smiles.
The little machine is the Austin "Whippet" with 45 h.p. Anzani, designed by John Kenworthy and produced in 1919. This machine was the first post-war light plane, but it was, unfortunately, before its time, there was then no demand for such a machine, and it never went into quantity production. We believe the machine is still in existence, or was until quite recently.
The classic and popular air race known as the Aerial Derby, inaugurated in 1912. At the photo is the "line-up" of competing machines before the start of the fifth contest, which took place in July, 1920. The machine in the foreground is. the Nieuport "Nieuhawk" piloted by "Jimmy" James, who finished second. Next are the two Martinsydes - the F.6 and the F.4.
An Air Ministry competition for commercial landplanes was also held in 1920, and the photograph shows the Austin "Kestrel." This competition was won by a Westland limousine, in which wheel brakes were fitted so as to enable the machine to pull up quickly.
Messrs. S. Instone and Co., Ltd., and their new London-Paris service from Hounslow Aerodrome: The D.H.4 gets away on its first public trip on February 18, 1920, this machine being scheduled to make two trips per week with parcels and passengers;
Before the beginning of the Light 'Plane Movement, a glider meeting was held at Itford Hill in Sussex. This was won by a Frenchman, M. Maneyrol, who is seen here during his flight of more than three hours.
The light 'plane of to-day may be said to have been evolved from machines of much lower power. Shown is one of single-seaters from the Lympne competition: the A.N.E.C.
Of very efficient aerodynamic design, but always rather heavy structurally, were the little monoplanes produced in the early days by the Nieuport brothers of France. The photograph shows an example exhibited at Olympia, where it attracted very favourable attention on account of its "clean" design. The engine used was a horizontal opposed water-cooled two-cylinder engine of some 30 h.p., and it is of interest to note that the performance was just about what one would expect of a modern machine with the same power and of approximately the same weight.
The two-seater Bleriot monoplane "Big Bat," fitted with a 50-h.p. Gnome, which was flown at Brooklands by Graham Gilmour in 1910.
A Hanriot monoplane of French design, and affectionately known as "Henrietta," was much in evidence at Brooklands in 1912-13. It had a semicircular section boat-built fuselage, and almost the whole of the pilot's body was exposed to the propeller slipstream. To modern ideas the rudder looks somewhat inadequate, but the tailplane was of ample dimensions. Lateral control was by wing warping. The machine did some very hard school work, and was, if we remember right, used by those early birds who styled themselves "Bois Casse Unlimited."
In 1913, one of the "natives" of Brooklands, Gordon England to wit, flying the Hanriot monoplane "Henrietta," on the occasion of the race to Brighton in May of that year.
The Short "Crusader" (with Bristol racing "Mercury" engine) designed by Mr. Carter as a Schneider Trophy machine. The crossing of the aileron cables caused the machine to crash at Venice before it had a chance to show what it could do.
The latest Short Seaplane: The "Gurnard" is fitted with a Rolls-Royce engine, and provides an interesting comparison with the first Short Seaplane.
Well-known modern light 'plane: Simmonds "Spartan."
Mr. E. C. Brown demonstrating the Coupe Moth belonging to the Chairman of W. B. Dick and Co.
Capt. Broad, entertaining the Japanese delegates at Hanworth with a polished aerobatic display.
The Humber Bleriot-type monoplane, designed by Le Blon and exhibited at the '1910 Olympia Show. It had a hollow wood boom of tapering circular section for the fuselage, on which the pilot sat more-or-less astride!
Among the younger FLIGHT readers there may well be a belief that the cabin machine is a modern, or comparatively modern, "invention." That this is not the case is brought out by the photograph, of a monoplane exhibited by Piggot Brothers in 1911. The machine had a very "fat" fuselage, of streamline form, and the pilot obtained his view (such as it was) through windows in the fabric covering.
AN EARLY FLYING MEETING : The Easter Monday Meeting at Brooklands, 1910. The Machines are: J. D. Astley's Lane monoplane, A. V. Roe's triplane, and Moreing's Voisin.
One of interesting "experiments" hailing from Brooklands of the 1910 period. The Macfie biplane. As will be seen it was of the Farman type, and was fitted with a 35 h.p.. J .A.P. engine, although originally intended for a 60 h.p. engine of the same make.
One of interesting "experiments" hailing from Brooklands of the 1910 period. The Hammond triplane, about which, unfortunately, we have very little record. Apart from being a triplane, its principal feature consisted of the twin tractor airscrews driven from the engine by belt transmission!
The Neal VII biplane, designed by J. V. Neal, who also was responsible for a Bleriot-type monoplane. In general design, the biplane was of the Farman type, but its main point of interest lay in the original system of control, which was evolved primarily to avoid the Wright patents. This was accomplished by means of vertical surfaces hinged at the leading edges to the outer front interplane struts and connected to the "joy-stick." These, in conjunction with the fore and aft elevators, steered as well as balanced the machine alone, and ailerons were unnecessary - those seen in the photograph being fitted as a precaution during trials.
The biplane designed by Sir Hiram Maxim, which possessed many novel features. Steel and duralumin entered very largely in its construction. It will be noticed that the main 'planes are in three sections, the two outer ones being arched and set at a pronounced dihedral angle. Biplane elevators were mounted fore and aft, carried from the main 'planes by tubular outriggers or spars, which actually extend the whole length of the machine and constitute the main members of the framework of the machine.
The Mann and Overton monoplane, which was similar to the Santos-Dumont "Demoiselle."
One of the machines that embody extremely interesting ideas and depart radically from usual practice, not only of their period - 1910 - but of the present time. The Louis Paulhan's machine d'voler, a biplane fitted with a Gnome engine. Its most striking feature was the method employed in the construction of the framework and wings. It had a forward elevator and stabilising tail plane, with the main planes midway between. The angle of incidence of the outer sections, of the main planes could be altered for purposes of lateral control.
An interesting machine designed by Maj. Baden-Powell, and exhibited at the Stanley Show of 1910.
The Dunne monoplane, which was built in 1911 and embodied, in modified form, the principles evolved by Lieut. Dunne, previously referred to.
The Fritz monoplane, designed by Mr. Fritz Goetze, and constructed by Messrs. Oylers, Ltd., of London, in 1911, was practically an overgrown Santos Dumont "Demoiselle." It was constructed mainly of bamboo and was fitted with a 40 h.p. E.N.V. engine.
A monoplane, bearing the name of "Steward." It was exhibited at the 1910 Stanley Show by the Scout Aero Club, and had a 20 h.p. Alvaston engine.
The Early - Pre-Twenty-One! - experiments of Jose Weiss, with his bird-like gliders, are well known. In 1910 a power-driven machine (40 h.p. E.N.V.) embodying his theories was built, and, piloted by Gordon England, several successful flights were made, mostly at Brooklands in 1911 - one of these latter being depicted in our photo.
The Star monoplane shown on the left was produced in 1911; and was chiefly remarkable for a feature which does not, unfortunately, show in the photograph. The two elevator flaps, of diamond shape, were independently operated to give lateral control. That they failed to do so is scarcely surprising nowadays.
Mr. Horatio Barber's "Viking," a 1912 single-engined twin-screw biplane.
The Vickers monoplane, No. 6 was influenced by French R.E.P. practice. The fuselage structure was of steel tube, although the machine was produced as early as 1911 or 1912.
The Coventry-Ordnance biplane was designed by Mr. W. O. Manning for the Military Trials of 1912.
In the Military Trials of 1912 was the Mersey monoplane, designed and flown by Fenwick. Although the engine was in the nose the propeller was a pusher. The machine collapsed and killed its pilot.
A Caudron with 35 h.p. "Anzani."
Rene Caudron introducing the 35 h.p. (Anzani) Caudron to Hendon - its future English home - early in 1912 with, if we remember rightly, "Jimmy" James seated on the wing.
A little Piggot biplane with the 35 h.p. "Anzani."
The machine was built for the "Circuit of Britain," and was remarkable for the fact that the occupants sat in the floats, which were clinker built. It was designed by Gordon England.
The Perry-Beadle flying boat exhibited at Olympia in 1914. The hull was, if we are not mistaken, built by S. E. Saunders, of Cowes, and was of verv beautiful construction. The lower wing was planked with Saunders "Consuta," the machine being designed without outboard floats, and the idea being that the lower wing should act to steady the machine on the water. In spite of low engine power and consequent heavy power loading, the machine did actually get off the water, but it never became a success. Something of the same idea was incorporated a few years ago by Mr. W. O. Manning in the English Electric Co.'s "Ayr" flying boat, in which also the lower wing was partly submerged when the machine was at rest on the water.
The Grahame White machine "Lizzie," on which many pilots had their first experience of looping. The machine was ultimately bought by a man who had never flown, but who took "Lizzie" for a flight and turned her upside down on landing, but with amazingly little damage.
The pusher seaplane designed by Howard-Wright while chief designer to Samuel White of Cowes. Superficially the machine does not look very unusual, but it had an extraordinary wing profile in which the bottom camber was normal, but the top surface was "double-cambered," i.e., was pinched inwards at about mid-chord. Wind tunnel tests indicated the wing to be very efficient, and Howard-Wright applied the same principle to the airscrew. Whether there really was "anything in it," is, perhaps, now open to doubt, but at the time the invention caused quite a stir.
George Beatty, of U.S.A., giving one of his low-flying exhibition of stunts on the Beatty-Wright biplane.
THE CAPRONI CA.79: A recent Italian bombing biplane, equipped with four 500-h.p. Isotta-Fraschini "Asso" engines. As will be seen from the view, the planes are arranged in typical Caproni fashion - "the higher the smaller."
THE CAPRONI CA.79: This view shows the arrangement of the four Isotta-Fraschini engines, and the under-carriage.
Caproni Ca.79 Bomber. 4-500 h.p. Isotta Fraschini "Asso" Engines
THE "EMSCO CHALLENGER": A New American Three-engined eight-seater commercial monoplane, fitted with 170 h.p. Curtiss "Challenger" engines
Side view of the new Etrich "Taube" light 'plane.
Herr Igo Etrich has recently produced a new "Taube." This photo, shows the nose, and gives a good idea of the small size of the machine. The engine is a 40 h.p. Salmson. Note the unusual cowling.
A SECOND AVRO "FIVE" FOR KENYA: Our picture shows the "Knight Errant," the second Avro "Five" ordered by Wilson Airways of Nairobi, Kenya Colony. The first machine, "Knight of the Grail," was delivered by air by Capt. Campbell Black, who will shortly fly this second machine out to Kenya.
The Handley Page biplane about to start on the first London-Paris service from Cricklewood in 1919