Avro Aldershot / Type 549
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1922


Трехместный бомбардировщик
Описание:
Avro серии 549 Aldershot
Flight, December 1922
THE NAPIER "CUB" FLIES
Flight, July 1923
Gothenburg International Aero Exhibition 1923
Фотографии

Avro серии 549 Aldershot

Серия 549 Aldershot стала первой серией военных самолетов "Avro" после окончания войны.Впервые фирма выпустила самолеты с металлическим фюзеляжем.
  Самолет Aldershot Mk I проектировался Роем Чедвиком как конкурент de Havilland Derby. Фирма получила заказ на два прототипа, которые впервые полетели в 1922 году. Испытания показали, что фюзеляж необходимо удлинить примерно на 1,80 м. После такой переделки первый прототип продемонстрировали на выставке, проходившей на базе британских ВВС в Хендоне в июне 1922 года. Позже машину доработали: мотор Rolls-Royce Condor заменили на 16-цилиндровый Х-образный двигатель Napier Cub. Поскольку он был намного тяжелее, потребовалось усиление моторамы, шасси и фюзеляжа. Самолет получил обозначение Aldershot Mk II. В дальнейшем он использовался для испытаний авиадвигателей.
  В 1923 году Министерство авиации заказало 15 самолетов с двигателями Condor под обозначением Aldershot Mk III. Бомбардировщики были очень устойчивыми и широко использовались для ночных полетов. Но к 1925 году в министерстве решили, что бомбардировщик должен быть двухмоторным, поэтому Aldershot заменили на Hyderabad.


Варианты

  Aldershot Mk I: два прототипа
  Aldershot Mk II: один самолет с двигателем Napier Cub 1000 л. с. (746 кВт)
  Aldershot Mk III: серийный вариант
  Aldershot Mk IV: Aldershot Mk II с двигателем Beardmore Typhoon I мощностью 850 л.с. (634 кВт) под фирменным обозначением Type 549C


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Avro серии 549 Aldershot Mk III

  Тип: трехместный бомбардировщик
  Силовая установка: V образный двигатель Rolls-Royce Condor III мощностью 650 л. с. (485 кВт)
  Характеристики: макс, скорость 177 км/ч на уровне моря; крейсерская скорость 148 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; практический потолок 4420 м; дальность полета 1006 км
  Масса: пустого самолета 2862 кг; максимальная взлетная 4967 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 20,73 м; длина 13,72 м; высота 4,65 м; площадь крыльев 98,85 м
  Вооружение: один турельный пулемет калибра 7,7 мм для стрельбы назад и 907 кг бомб внутри фюзеляжа

Flight, December 1922

THE NAPIER "CUB" FLIES

  AFTER a long and searching series of tests on the bench, the 1,000 h.p. Napier "Cub" carried out last Friday afternoon, its first official test under actual flying conditions, incidentally marking another eventful day in the history of British - and the world's, for that matter - progress in aviation. This was the first occasion on which an aero engine of such a high power as 1,000 h.p. has ever successfully taken the air - in flight, that is, not for consumption!
  It is most satisfactory to know that this notable event was achieved by a British firm - or more correctly - firms, for it is not much use designing and building an aero engine of ever-so-many horse-power if you cannot also produce a machine, into which to put it, that will fly. So we must not forget the share of this achievement due to A. V. Roe and Co., Ltd., the builders of the Napier-Avro Bomber which successfully bore aloft the "Cub," roaring, as Shakespeare would have said, "as gently as a sucking dove."
  Air Vice-Marshal Sir W. G. H. Salmond, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., Director of Research, and several officials of the Air Ministry were present at Friday's demonstration, and, we understand, that the Director of Research was very impressed by the performance of both engine and machine.
  Inasmuch as this Napier-Avro combination is the property of the Air Ministry, we are, unfortunately, unable to give any particulars either of the Napier "Cub" or the Avro. Bomber other than those already generally known to our readers from what has been previously published in FLIGHT. For the purpose of placing on record this notable event, however, we give herewith those brief particulars available of engine and machine.
  The aeroplane to which this huge Napier is fitted is a specially constructed long-distance Bomber for the British Air Ministry designed and built by Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co., Ltd., of Southampton, one of the oldest aircraft firms, whose machines have achieved a great reputation It is a further development of the Avro "Aldershot" which made its debut at the last R.A.F. Pageant at Hendon, where it won the Air Force Handicap.
  This bomber, the most powerful single-engined aeroplane in the world, is designed to give an exceptional wide range of action. In its fuselage are two decks. On the top one the machine gunner and pilot are accommodated whilst the lower deck is fitted with bomb sighting and dropping gear.
  To carry out all its functions this machine needs a crew of three, and arrangements are ingeniously contrived that they can change places whilst the machine is in flight. Ladders are in position between the decks, making it easy for the crew to change positions as required. The wings of this machine are designed so that they will fold back, thus economising considerably in space for housing purposes.
  The whole machine, with the exception of certain parts of the wings, is constructed of metal. It is provided with dual control, with side-by-side seating, and is fitted with self-sealing petrol tanks.
  As this machine is designed for long-distance flights, special electrical equipment is installed for keeping the hands and feet of the crew warm, and at the same time preventing the guns from freezing.
  The motive power is a single 1,000 h.p. Napier engine, whose performances on its bench tests have been so satisfactory. It is interesting to note the compactness of the machine, and the small appearance of the nose when one considers that a 1.000 h.p. is stored away in a length of only 7 ft. 6 ins. A petrol engine starter is fitted, and does its job well without any fuss.
  The "Cub" was designed and built at the Napier factory at Acton, and although this is the first engine of its type to fly, there are other machines in course of construction for this engine, which will be flown in due course. The principal features in the design of the "Cub" are now well-known. It is built "X" shape of 16 cylinders - 4 rows of 4 cylinders - and h.p. for h.p., even better results have been obtained with this engine than with its famous prototype the 450 h.p. "Lion." Although the engine develops over 1,000 h.p., its total weight is only 2,200 lbs. - truly a remarkable achievement. It is particularly economical in oil and petrol consumption considering the power developed.
  As regards the performance of the Napier-Avro combination, from our observations of Friday's test both appeared to give entirely satisfactory results. The engine ran with remarkable smoothness and silence. In fact, after the flight Hinkler said he could not realise he had over 1,000 h.p. in front of him. The machine took off after an extremely short run - well under the 200-yd. mark - and climbed very well indeed. Once in the air, Hinkler put it through all kinds of manoeuvres, including some fine banked turns. He told us that it is very nice on the controls and easy to manage. In landing the machine runs but a very short distance after first touching.
  As for its pilot, the hero of the London-Turin non-stop flight, etc., we all know Bert Hinkler, so need say nothing further about him other than that the next time we go to see him fly the Napier-Avro we will take a magnifying glass to find him when in situ. After the flight, Hinkler was presented with a handsome cigarette case by the Napier Co.
  Later in the afternoon we witnessed a test flight with an Avro "Bison" fitted with a Napier "Lion," and just as we were leaving the aerodrome we saw Hinkler execute a beautiful loop.

Flight, July 1923

Gothenburg International Aero Exhibition 1923

THE MACHINES

A.V.Roe and Co., Ltd., Manchester

  THE machine which will be exhibited by A. V. Roe and Co., Ltd., at the Gothenburg Exhibition, Aircraft Section, is an Avro "Aldershot-Cub," fitted with a 1,000 h.p, Napier "Cub" engine. Unfortunately, having been but recently designed for the British Air Ministry, constructional details of this interesting machine are not available, and we are, therefore, only able to give but the briefest general description.
  The "Aldershot-Cub" - the most powerful single-engined aeroplane in the world - is a development of the standard Avro "Aldershot" long-distance bomber, which is fitted with a 650 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Condor" engine. This latter machine, it may be of interest to note, made its first appearance at the 1922 Royal Air Force Pageant, when it took part and obtained first place in a handicap race flown on that occasion.
  As fitted with the "Cub" engine, the "Aldershot" has been modified in one or two details as compared with the Standard machine - for instance, a four-wheeled oleo undercarriage in place of a two-wheeled one.
  The most interesting feature of this machine is its very large fuselage, which has two decks. On the top deck, or upper storey, the pilot, and machine gunner are accommodated, the former being located under the trailing edge of the top plane, with the gunner immediately behind him. The lower deck is fitted with the bomb sighting and dropping gear. This "pill dispensing compartment" is provided with port-hole windows in the sides of the fuselage, and is remarkably roomy.
  To carry out all its functions this machine needs a crew of three, and arrangements are ingeniously contrived so that they can change places whilst the machine is in flight. Ladders are in position between the decks, making it easy for the crew to change positions as required.
  The wings of the "Aldershot" are swept back, and are designed so that they will fold back, thus economising considerably in space for housing purposes. Considering the size of the wings the arrangements for folding - a by no means easy problem in this particular case - have been exceedingly well carried out, and alone constitute a remarkable piece of designing.
  The whole machine, with the exception of certain parts of the wings, is constructed of metal.
  The tail plane, which by itself would almost serve as a wing for a light 'plane, is mounted above the rear extremity of the fuselage, on the top of a large vertical fin. The ailerons on the top plane are provided with small auxiliary balancing planes, which extend above and forward of the ailerons.
  Another interesting point is that the machine is fitted with self-sealing tanks, so that should they be pierced by bullets they would not leak, burst or catch fire. The machine is fitted with dual control, the two pilots being seated side by side.
  As this machine is designed for long-distance flights, special electrical equipment is installed for keeping the hands and feet of the crew warm, and at the same time preventing the guns from freezing.
  It is interesting to note the compactness of the machine and the small appearance of the nose when one considers that a 1,000 h.p. is stored away in a length of only 7 ft. 6 ins. It is necessary to have a small petrol engine, which is fixed in the machine, to start the big engine.
  As regards the performance of the "Aldershot-Cub," while no actual figures are available, it may be said that on the occasion of the Royal Air Force Pageant held this year at Hendon, when it took part in the parade and "fly past," together with various other types of Service machines - from single-seater scouts upwards - it seemed to take off, "zoom," and land with as much ease as did the smaller fry.
Самолет J6955 был предпоследним в серии из 15 машин Aldershot Mk III, которые стояли на вооружении 99-й эскадрильи британских ВВС.
Avro Aldershot squadron colours
The first prototype Aldershot in original form, with short fuselage and long dorsal fin. The men standing in line with the machine and the Avro Baby just behind them give some idea of the huge size of the 68ft-span bomber.
The first prototype Aldershot with original short fuselage and enlarged rudder balance, circa March 1922. Note the "park bench" aileron balances.
THE "AVRO" ALDERSHOT AT THE R.A.F. PAGEANT: This machine is the latest "Hush-hush" production, and is fitted with a 650 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Condor." It won the Handicap Race, event No. 5.
The first prototype Aldershot at the RAF Display at Hendon on June 24,1922, its public debut.
THE R.A.F. AERIAL PAGEANT: Interesting machine which will make its first public appearance at the Pageant: The Avro "Aldershot" (650 Rolls-Royce "Condor"), designed for long-range duties. The fuselage has two decks, or floors.
One of the prototype Aldershots with wings folded at Hamble. Note the original-type undercarriage.
This photograph possibly shows the prototype Aldershot taking off for its first flight from Hamble in October 1921.
J6853, the second prototype Aldershot, on February 17, 1925, shortly after the completion of modifications which brought it up to Aldershot III standard, with a Rolls-Royce Condor III and swept wings.
The second prototype, with lenghtened fuselage and swept wings, but with early undercarriage, aileron control and tailplane bracing - circa autumn 1992.
The Avro "Aldershot-Cub" long-distance bomber, fitted with a 1,000 h.p. Napier "Cub." This is the largest single-engined machine in the world.
BRITAIN AT I.L.U.G.: This set of photographs, kindly supplied by the S.B.A.C., shows some of the British exhibits at the Gothenburg International Aero Exhibition, which has just closed. The Avro "Aldershot," with 1,000 h.p. Napier "Cub."
The massive 68ft-span Avro Aldershot heavy bomber prototype, J6852, powered by a 1,000 h.p. Napier Cub. The man standing at right gives some idea of the size of the wooden four-bladed propellar.
FIRST FLIGHT OF THE 1,000 H.P. NAPIER-AVRO BOMBER: On the left, Bert Hinkler and crew take off at Hamble. December 15, on the Avro Bomber, fitted with a Napier 1,000 h.p. "Cub." Below, just before the flight. On the right, a close-up view of the "Cub" safely installed in its cage.
Two views of the prototype Aldershot fitted with a 1,000 h.p. Napier Cub engine, at Hamble in December 1922. Note the four-wheel oleo undercarriage. In this form J6852 became the Aldershot II.
A "close-up" of the 1,000 h.p. Napier "Cub" in the Avro "Aldershot-Cub," which made its first public appearance at the R.A.F. Pageant.
FIRST FLIGHT OF THE 1,000 H.P. NAPIER-AVRO BOMBER: Three views of the Avro Bomber, with Napier "Cub," a modification of the Avro " Aldershot."
VISITORS INSPECTING THE MACHINES AT CROYDON ON SATURDAY: The machines in the foreground are a Supermarine "Seagull," a Parnall "Plover," and an Avro "Aldershot," with 1,000 h.p. Napier "Cub."
Another view of Aldershot III J6944 of 99 Sqn. After squadron service this aircraft went to the Home Aircraft Depot in April 1926.
J6852 after modification to Aldershot III standard, with swept wings, revised aileron controls, oleo undercarriage and horn-balanced elevators - circa December 1924.
Aldershot III J6943 of 99 Sqn.
Production Aldershot III J6954 of 99 Sqn. Note the wingtip flare brackets, fitted for night flying.
A production Aldershot. The erks standing in front give some impression of the huge size of the 68ft-span bomber.
A 99 Sqn Aldershot at RAF Bircham Newton with unofficial markings beneath the wings blacked out.
Avro Aldershot III J6944 of 99 Sqn.
A 99 Sqn Avro Aldershot at Bircham Newton in 1924. Note the unofficial squadron star painted on the undersurface of the lower wing. These were later painted out.
The Avro "Aldershot" is a long-distance night bomber, with 700 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Condor" engine.
Aldershot III J6942 of 99 Sqn at RAF Bircham Newton. The bomber was not fitted with brakes - hence the size of the wheel chocks.
Avro 549 Aldershots.
A rare photograph of a lineup of six 99 Sqn Aldershots at RAF Bircham Newton, Norfolk in 1924.
THE GRANDE FINALE AT THE R.A.F. DISPLAY: (3) Three Avro "Aldershot" heavy bombers
The Avro "Aldershot" with 800 h.p. Beardmore "Typhoon" engine. Three-quarter front view.
The Beardmore "Typhoon" is a six-cylinder "inverted" engine. Our photograph shows it mounted in the Avro "Aldershot ". The radiator is placed aft of and below the engine.
Another view of Aldershot prototype J6852 flying with the Beardmore Typhoon engine. Note the long exhaust pipes and the four-bladed propeller.
Avro Aldershot first prototype J6852 pictured in 1927, being used as a testbed for the Beardmore Typhoon engine. In this form the aircraft was known as the Type 549C Aldershot IV.
Aldershot Mk IV - финальный вариант серии 549. Самолет оснащался двигателем Typhoon I. Еще один самолет сделали с металлическими крыльями под обозначением Avro серии 549M.
The Avro "Aldershot" fitted with the new Beardmore "Typhoon" engine in various attitudes of flight, piloted by Mr. Bert Hinkler. The inverted engine results in an excellent view from the pilot's cockpit.
KEITH WOODCOCK’S painting shows Avro Aldershot III J6947 of 99 Sqn, based at RAF Bircham Newton.
KEITH WOODCOCK'S painting depicts groundcrew of 99 Sqn unfolding the wings of an Aldershot at Bircham Newton in the mid-Twenties.
A Patent drawing showing an early stage of Aldershot's design.
Avro Type 549 Aldershot