Foster Wikner Wicko
Австралиец Джеффри Уикнер спроектировал в начале 1930 годов три недорогих легких самолета. В мае 1934 года он отправился в Великобританию в надежде заняться проектированием нового двухместного легкого самолета, который можно было бы поставить на серийное
производство. В результате его усилий была образована компания "Foster Wikner Aircraft Co. Ltd", а на предприятии Дж.Ф. Ласти в Ист-Лондоне был построен прототип его самолета Foster Wikner Wicko F.W.1 (G-AENU), представлявшего собой высокоплан полностью деревянной конструкции, с фанерной обшивкой, стандартным хвостовым оперением, неубирающимся шасси с хвостовым костылем и закрытой кабиной на двух человек, располагавшихся плечом к плечу. Прототип был оснащен автомобильным двигателем Ford V-8 мощностью 85 л. с. (63 кВт), но после первого полета машины, состоявшегося в сентябре 1936 года, его заменили на двигатель Blackburn Cirrus Minor мощностью 90 л. с. (67 кВт), после чего обозначение самолета изменили на Wicko F.W.2.
Для участия в гонках на Королевский кубок в 1937 году был построен второй самолет - F.W.3, оснащенный двигателем Blackburn Cirrus Major мощностью 150л.с. (112 кВт). Мотор затем заменили на Gipsy Major - аналогичный двигатель стоял на девяти серийных Wicko G.M.1, построенных в 1938-1939 годах. Начавшаяся вскоре Вторая мировая война поставила на дальнейшей работе компании крест, а большая часть готовых самолетов ушла в армию, где использовалась в качестве легких транспортных и связных под обозначением Warferry.
Foster Wikner Wicko G.M.1
Тип: двухместный моноплан
Силовая установка: один 4-цилиндровый рядный ПД с перевернутым блоком цилиндров de Havilland Gipsy Major мощностью 130 л. с. (97 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 225 км/ч; крейсерская скорость 193 км/ч; практический потолок 6095 м; дальность полета 772 км
Масса: пустого 569 кг; максимальная взлетная 907 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 10,52 м; длина 7,09 м; высота 2,01 м; площадь крыла 14,21 м2
Flight, July 1936
NEW BRITISH CABIN TWO-SEATER
The Wicko Wizard, with Converted Ford V8 or Cirrus Minor: "Popular" Price: 120 m.p.h.
MR. G. N. WIKNER may be recalled as the designer of the Wicko Wizard monoplane built in Australia in 1934 a n d illustrated in Flight on August 16 of that year. Now, with Mr. V. Foster, he is a partner of the Foster, Wikner Aircraft Co., ol Lusty's Works, Colin St., Bromley by Bow, London, E.3, which company is constructing a new two-seater cabin monoplane to be marketed at a comparatively low figure.
Although it is laid out on strictly orthodox lines, the G.A. drawings show that the machine loses nothing in appearance. According to the designer, ease of control, stability and range of vision have been governing factors in the planning.
The wing is strut-braced and non-folding, and the tail plane a cantilever structure. A cantilever undercarriage is incorporated, the wheels being furnished with spats. In the cabin the two seats are mounted side-by-side and are adjustable fore and aft.
Normally the engine will be a converted Ford V8, known as the Wicko F. This model will be submitted for type tests at an early date. The reduction gear is a one-piece unit. Other modifications affect the ignition, water pump, generator and starter. Naturally the power/weight ratio compares unfavourably with specialised engines, but it is claimed that, for a machine of the nature of the new Wicko, this is comparatively unimportant.
With the Wicko F it is hoped to market the machine at a little under L400. The Cirrus Minor will be an alternative engine and the machine so powered will cost about L600. In this case a considerable increase in payload will follow. The main data are: Span, 31ft. 6in.; length, 22ft. 3in.; height, 6ft. 7in.; chord, 5ft.; wing area, 135 sq. ft.; weight, empty, 1,000 lb.; gross weight, 1.500 lb.; wing loading 11 lb./sq. ft.; power loading, 17.6 lb./h.p.; top speed 120 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 100 m.p.h.; landing speed, 45 m.p.h.; cruising range, 250 miles.
Flight, November 1936
The Wicko Monoplane Flies: A Cabin Two-seater with a Converted Ford F-8 Engine
ORIGINALLY described in flight of July 30 this year, the Wicko monoplane has been flying at Stapleford Abbots for several weeks. The machine is primarily interesting because it shows what can be done with an almost standard car engine, and secondarily because, by using such an engine, the price can be kept down to a very reasonable figure. How the Ford V-8 engine will stand up to this new work in its geared form, and whether owners will be prepared to sacrifice payload and range for a very considerable reduction in initial price, remains to be seen. A second machine will be fitted with a Cirrus Minor engine, and the price of this model will still be low enough to be attractive.
In its present form the Ford engine has been modified hardly at all, save for the arrangement of a double-helical spur reduction gear for the airscrew, and the mounting is rigid. In the future, rubber shock absorbers will be incorporated and there will be dual ignition, the twin plugs being fitted in Y-type adapters, which will be screwed into the normal plug orifices. A Gallay radiator is mounted beneath the fuselage with a header tank above the engine, the circulation being forced by dual pumps.
The machine itself is of very straightforward construction with a ply-covered fuselage and fabric-covered braced high wing of Clark YH section. The undercarriage is of engaging simplicity. Rigid cantilever legs are pivoted at the lower longerons, and inward extensions of these legs are held in a cradle of shock-cord.
Though arranged in the dash the throttle can comfortably be held in the pilot's left hand, while a second pilot, or instructor, could also reach it very easily. The side-by-side seats provide plenty of elbow room and each is adjustable. Naturally enough, the top of the engine cowling is high in comparison with that of modern inverted engines, but the somewhat restricted forward view is partially balanced by the excellent field of view at the side. In rain the pilot's window can be opened and held open by a catch on the lower surface of the wing.
When we visited Stapleford, visibility was a matter of half or three-quarters of a mile with a light rain and no appreciable wind. In such circumstances it would have been a dangerous waste of time to a newcomer to have attempted to take the Wicko up, but a member of the staff flew round with Mr. Wikner, the designer. Though knowing the district very well, even he got himself lost for a few minutes! The Ford engine gives something like 85 b.h.p. at 3,500 r.p.m., but, because, perhaps, of a slightly unsuitable airscrew, the engine on this occasion reached its maximum at 3,000 r.p.m. - at which the indicated air speed was 100 m.p.h. The fact that the engine was running too cool, after a modification to the radiator, may have had something to do with the lack of revolutions. With an almost full load the take-off was poor, about fifteen seconds elapsing between the moment of opening up and the final bounce off the rough surface. One up, the figure was nine seconds. In a breeze and with better air and surface conditions these figures should be considerably improved, but, for the use of the amateur pilot, we suggest it would be better to sacrifice a little of the performance and have more wing area. The indicated landing speed was just short of 50 m.p.h.
It is possible to make accurate turns on the rudder alone and we were told that the machine is very stable at the stall, though the weather conditions did not permit a safe demonstration of this. No tail-trimming gear is fitted and none, it appears, is needed, though a little motor during the final approach obviously relieves the load on the stick. The makers are: Foster, Wikner Aircraft Co., Ltd., Lusty's Works, Colin Street, Bromley-by-Bow, E.3.
85 h.p Ford or 80 h.p. Cirrus Minor engine.
Specification with Ford engine.
Span 31 ft. 6 in.
Length 22ft. 3in.
Power Loading 20 lb./h.p.
Wing Loading 12.5 lb./sq. ft.
All-up Weight 1,700 lb.
Pay Load 260 lb.
Maximum Speed 115 m.p.h.
Cruising Speed 100 m.p.h.
Landing Speed 50 m.p.h.
Range 250 miles
Flight, July 1937
The Cirrus-engined Wicko Cabin Monoplane: Production Features: Interesting Flying Qualities
SOME time ago we published details and a few impressions of a cabin monoplane which had been flying quite successfully with a converted Ford Vee-Eight engine. Although the Ford-engined model still remains as an interesting possibility, the Wicko monoplane is now in serious production with the 90 h.p. Cirrus Minor engine, which gives it a useful performance coupled with a very reasonable degree of economy and full cabin comfort for two people and their luggage. The machine actually cruises at something rather better than 100 m.p.h. while using a matter of four and a quarter gallons of fuel in the hour.
The Foster Wikner Aircraft Company, who are making the machine, have now settled down in their Southampton Airport quarters and the first production machine should be out within the next month or two. This will probably be fitted with a Cirrus Major engine and it seems, if rumour is to be believed, that it will fly in the King's Cup race next September. The prototype Wicko has a number of features which, in the light of experience, will be modified in the production model, and one's impressions must necessarily be confined to those of flying characteristics - which are interesting enough.
THE WICKO CABIN MONOPLANE
90 h.p. Cirrus Minor Engine
Span 31ft. 6in.
Length 23ft. 3in.
Weight empty 938 lb.
Useful load 562 lb.
Payload 220 lb.
Maximum speed 120 m.p.h.
Cruising speed 103 m.p.h.
Landing speed 40 m.p.h.
Cruising range 450 miles.
Makers: Foster Wikner Aircraft Co., Ltd., Southampton Airport.
The production machine, for instance, will be an entirely ply-covered structure, while the prototype has fabric-covered wings. Again, the cabin will be five inches wider, the roof window area will be increased, there will be two doors of ample width and an oil-damped undercarriage. The structure will be of a straightforward type, designed for easy production and maintenance, consisting of a "box"-type fuselage and two-spar strut-braced wing. Inspection doors are provided in the skin of the wing so that the control and attachment points may be reached without difficulty, and Mr. Wikner has evolved a simple method of building up the fuselage without the use of expensive jigs or of later readjustment. Both the sides and the upper and lower surfaces are jigged up complete with split longerons, and the four ready-made surfaces can be erected very simply, each split longeron becoming, in the process, a laminated whole.
However, apart from the lack of the normal trailing-edge flaps which will be found on later models, the prototype may be taken as possessing exactly the same flying characteristics. The slight extra weight involved in the ply construction should be balanced in the matter of performance by the greater cleanliness of the design, and the flaps should both bring landing speed down and improve the take-off - which is already quite convincing.
It is customary for pilots to demand what are known as harmonised controls - each being of the same weight and efficiency. The three controls of the Wicko are quite unlike one another, yet one would not care to have them altered. The machine can be flown indefinitely on the light and effective rudder (hands are more useful than feet when there are other jobs to be done), the unused ailerons are' on the heavy side but are fully effective right down to the stall, and the elevators are effective but not too light. Curiously enough, there is very little change of trim between the full and closed positions of the throttle, and cruising trim can be adjusted really accurately by throttle action.
Up to any reasonable angle the ailerons need not be used in a turn and the machine takes up its own bank as soon as a little rudder is applied. Only in steeper turns is it necessary to apply a light pressure on the stick to hold the nose up. Although no form of air brake is fitted to the prototype, one is soon accustomed to the flat angle of approach, for the machine's sideslip is so virile and controllable that there should be no question of overshooting. Three approaches were made without previous experience of the machine and no difficulty was experienced in adjusting any one of them so that a landing could be made within fifty yards or so of the boundary. The great thing is to get one's speed down to 60 m.p.h. in the early stages of the approach. A sideslip, whether steep or flat, can be held at 60 m.p.h. or less while using about half the rudder's range of movement, and the machine is almost uncannily stable during the process; there is no tendency for the machine to demand more and more rudder and aileron, or to "build up" in such a way that a change of bank is necessary. Landing is a very simple business.
At the stall the Wicko appears to be without vice, though no doubt it would be possible to spin it with due provocation. The machine can be held up at an indicated 40 m.p.h. without dropping either its nose or a wing, though the sink is, of course, necessarily pronounced. When stalled with the engine on or off the nose drops below the horizon as soon as the stick is released and the machine automatically picks up its cruising or gliding angle if left to itself. Altogether, the stalling characteristics provide interesting possibilities in the way of approach technique, though it would hardly be safe to carry the sink much below 500ft. in anything but fairly calm conditions.
It would not be useful to discuss the machine from the occupant's point of view, since the production machine will be considerably modified m detail, but even now the standards of view, silence and general comfort are reasonably good – and they improve with acquaintance.