Saro A.17 Cutty Sark
В 1928 году британский энтузиаст авиации сэр Эдвин Эллиот Вердон Ро купил компанию «S.E. Saunders Ltd»; фирма изменила название на «Saunders-Roe Ltd», но очень часто именовалась сокращенно - “Saro”.
Первой конструкцией, изготовленной на фирме
под новым названием, стала легкая летающая лодка-моноплан A.17 Cutty Sark, рассчитанная на перевозку трех пассажиров и одного летчика. Первый полет прототип с двумя моторами ADC Hermes I мощностью по 105 л. с. выполнил 4 июля 1929 года.
Позже лодка стала амфибией - на ней установили убираемое колесное шасси. Вслед за прототипом построили еще 11 гидропланов A.17, отличавшихся силовой установкой - на большинстве стояли моторы de Havilland Gipsy II мощностью по 120 л. с., но на трех последних установили более мощные Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major I.
За исключением одного самолета (G-ABVF) все летающие лодки выполняли полеты с японскими летчиками на линии Япония - Сан-Франциско. От более ранних A.17 они отличались мотором - Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью 240 л. с., увеличенным запасом топлива и отсутствием колесного шасси. Карьера большинства A.17 выдалась длинной, три лодки в Хэмбле эксплуатировались с 1933 по 1938 год.
Saro A.17 Cutty Sark
Тип: легкая летающая лодка-амфибия
Силовая установка: два звездообразных мотора Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major I по 140 л. с. (104 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 172 км/ч; практический потолок 2745 м; дальность 507 км
Масса: пустого 1236 кг; максимальная взлетная 1769 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 13,72 м; длина 10,46 м; высота 3,40 м; площадь крыла 29,73 м2
Flight, June 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
S. E. SAUNDERS, LTD.
THE firm of S. E. Saunders is known throughout the world as pioneers of high-speed surface vessels, while the experience of the firm in marine aircraft goes back to 1912. Recently, Sir A. V. Roe and Mr. John Lord became financially interested in the company, and a vigorous policy was at once laid down, one of the first results of which is the little four-seater flying-boat, which is to be exhibited at Olympia.
The "Cutty Sark," as the Saunders' four-seater flying-boat has been christened, is a more than usually interesting machine, not only because it represents a type of aircraft likely to become extremely popular during the next few years, but also because it combines what may be termed the two extremes in aircraft construction: all-metal and all-wood. The flying-boat hull is built entirely of Duralumin, or rather "Alclad," while the wing is a wooden structure, with three-ply wood skin or planking. This form of wing construction has been used by Fokker for years, and has been proved satisfactory, both for cheap production and for durability with but little attention.
The boat hull of the Saunders' "Cutty Sark" is of a type developed by this firm during the last few years, and is claimed to possess remarkably low water resistance. It differs from the hulls of larger flying-boats, in that it has but a single step, situated a short distance aft of the centre of gravity of the machine. The Vee bottom extends aft of the step, and at the sternpost the keel sweeps down slightly. Constructionally, the hull consists of frames of "Z" section, to which the planking plates are riveted. The use of "Z" sections in the frames greatly facilitates riveting, as the riveting tools can be brought against the rivets at right angles to the frame flanges. Approximately half-way between keel and chines runs, on each side, a deep fore and aft member or stringer, which is so arranged that it transmits the loads from the planing bottom to the gunwales, and thereby to the whole hull. This form of construction is not only cheap, but should be very strong. It avoids the need for panel beating, always rather a costly and laborious process, and in the "Cutty Sark" the only parts requiring this treatment are the chines and one or two plates in the extreme bows of the hull. Model tests in the tank have indicated that the hull shape is to be regarded as good, so that it would appear that we have here a form of construction which combines cheapness with hydrodynamic efficiency.
The cabin of the "Cutty Sark" is exceptionally roomy, and as it has windows on all but the aft side, it is unusually light and airy in appearance. The side windows are made to open, as is also the starboard half of the roof window, and a triangular window above the instrument board. Thus, ventilation should present no problems, while the triangular window should enable the pilot to pick up his moorings without going forward in the hull, where a mooring hatch is provided. The four seats are very comfortable, and the cabin gives ample room for legs and elbows, so that even on very long flights the occupants are unlikely to suffer any undue fatigue. The cabin is ahead of the wing and engines and thus not in the slipstream, and, consequently, but little should be heard of the engine noise. In this respect, the "Cutty Sark" comes nearer to the comfort of the "pusher" machines of the old days than anything we have seen, and with the added protection of a cabin. In fact, it would be almost impossible to imagine a lay-out more likely to give a maximum of comfort.
The pilot's seat is the port forward one, and beside it is a seat for another pilot, or for a passenger, dual controls being provided. When not needed, the starboard controls can be removed. This arrangement has much to recommend it, not least its obvious suitability for instructional work, and as the time is undoubtedly coming when the flying-boat will be extensively used on our long Empire air routes, it would appear that among its other uses the "Cutty Sark" might form a very excellent training and practice machine for seaplane pilots. The fact that the machine is fitted with two engines would reasonably simulate conditions on a larger flying-boat.
The one-piece monoplane wing rests direct on the gunwales of the boat hull, and the two A.D.C. "Hermes" engines are mounted on steel struts above the wing, each engine being a readily detachable unit with its mounting. The main petrol tanks are housed inside the wing, and in the fairing behind each engine is a small gravity tank, separated from the engine by a fireproof baffle. As the crew can walk the wing, the engines are remarkably accessible.
Lateral stability on the water is obtained by two outboard floats of large volume, and it is of interest to note that should the main hull spring a leak and become partly flooded, the machine would probably sit nearly upright on the water, supported by these two floats. While, in case of total flooding of the main hull, the wooden wing has been made watertight (and divided into a large number of compartments), and would support the machine for a very long period. Thus, the "Cutty Sark" should be one of the safest aircraft imaginable.
The space inside the hull is unobstructed, and a large quantity of luggage or mails can readily be stowed away there. One could suggest dozens of uses to which a machine of this type could be put, but space forbids. As a really comfortable "air yacht," the "Cutty Sark" would be difficult to beat, while for passenger work on a small scale, seaside joy riding, and as already mentioned, training of seaplane pilots for larger flying-boats, the machine appears to have obvious claims to attention.
The main dimensions and areas of the "Cutty Sark" are as follows :- Length, overall, 34 ft. 4 in.; wing span, 45 ft.; overall height, 11 ft. 2 in.; wing area, 320 sq. ft.; area of tail plane and elevator, 36 sq. ft.; area of fin and rudder, 20 sq. ft.
The show machine will be fitted with two A.D.C. "Hermes" engines, but it is pointed out that, within reason, any engines giving a total of about 200 h.p. may be used. For instance, should three engines be preferred, one presumes that the A.B.C. "Hornet," or the Pobjoy types, would be suitable.
Fitted with the "Hermes" engines, the "Cutty Sark" has a tare weight of 2,375 lbs., and a permissible gross weight within the C. of A. of 3,500 lbs. The normal weight of fuel and oil (for 4 hrs.) is 365 lbs., leaving a normal weight of pilot, passengers and luggage, of 760 lbs. Assuming that the pilot weighs 160 lbs., the pay load is 600 lbs., or nearly 3 lbs./h.p. Looked at in another way, the expenditure of power is 70 h.p. per paying passenger, or 52-5 h.p. per occupant. The estimated top speed is 105 m.p.h., and the cruising speed 85 m.p.h.
Flight, April 1930
AIRCRAFT FOR THE PRIVATE OWNER
SAROS' Cutty Sark is the only flying machine of its kind at present manufactured in England. As a private owner's machine, it comes into the class which caters for people who want a machine capable, of carrying four people and it is built by Saunders-Roe at Cowes.
As a flying-boat it is unique in its construction, being a combination of metal and wood. The hull is built entirely of "Alclad." This is duralumin protected on the outside with a coating of pure aluminium which acts as a very good protection against corrosion. Fitted with two "Cirrus-Hermes" engines, it has a good performance, and in its latest version it should have a wide appeal to those who wish to travel widely in their machines. The wing structure is plywood, and is divided into many watertight compartments, so that in the case of a crash when the hull becomes waterlogged, the wing tip floats would keep the machine above water, and should they fail, the wing itself would support the whole machine for a very long time.
A further development which should even more widen its appeal is the fitting of an amphibian undercarriage. With this undercarriage, which allows it to land on aerodromes or on the water, the "Cutty Sark" must be considered as the air-yacht par excellence.
The seats are arranged in pairs and dual controls are provided for the front pair, so that the "Cutty Sark" might well be used for instructional work for seaplane pilots, or in any case as a private owner's machine it will have the advantage of a reserve pilot being able to take over the controls for a spell. Further developments of this machine are being planned in the "Windhover" and the "Cloud." Both these are really in the luxury class for private owners, but for the man who can afford them they should be among the best in their class. The former is a three-engined version with a cabin accommodating five persons, while the latter is a 6-8 seater, with two larger engines.
All of these can be fitted with the amphibian undercarriage, and if they follow out the promise offered as developments of the "Cutty Sark," they should prove a type for which we have been waiting for some time.
Flight, November 1932
Cowes, Isle of Wight
FROM the time Sir Alliott V. Roe and Mr. John Lord joined forces with Mr. H. E. Saunders, the firm of Saunders-Roe has pursued a vigorous policy of flying-boat development. During a period of a few years no less than four distinct types of flying boat have been produced, of which three are civil types, the fourth a military machine.
"Cutty Sark," "Windhover" and "Cloud"
The family of civil flying boats includes the above three, the "Cutty Sark" being the smallest and the "Cloud" the largest. In the structural methods adopted the three machines are similar, with "Alclad"-covered metal hull and plywood-covered wooden wing.
The "Cutty Sark" is a small four-seater amphibian flying boat, with two Armstrong-Siddeley Genet Major engines (Gipsy II, Gipsy III and Hermes IV are optional alternatives). The engines are placed on struts above the wing, where they are very accessible, and where the propellers are well clear of water spray.
As a plain flying boat, with the Genet Major engines, the "Cutty Sark" has the following characteristics:
Length o.a 34 ft. 4 in. (10,45 m.)
Wing span 45 ft. (13,7 m.)
Wing area 320 sq. ft. (29,7 m2.)
Tare weight 2,555 lb. (1 160 kg.)
Pay load 850 lb. (386 kg.)
Gross weight 3,997 lb. (1 817 kg.)
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEW
SARO CUTTY SARK
IT has often been a source of wonder that more amateur pilots have not interested themselves in the seaplane, and, to particularise, in the small amphibian. The fact that there is only one type of amphibian on the British market is neither here nor there, since the demand would automatically have produced the supply in due course. The performance of the amphibian must naturally be down on the straightforward machine, both in the matter of payload and speed, but one or two recent designs have shown us that the difference need not be so very great.
However, for the present the Saro Cutty Sark - or, perhaps, the larger Cloud - are the only machines of this type available, and each of these has been on the market for a number of years. Naturally, if the demand was present, Saunders-Roe could now improve considerably on these designs. So far as we know, only two Cutty Sarks are in use in this country, though the Cloud has been adopted by the Air Ministry for training purposes. The former, fitted with two Gipsy Major engines, has, however, been adopted by a foreign Government for coastal reconnaissance duties, and in this form the Sark has a very good performance.
The cabin seats four in two pairs, while there is a luggage compartment under the cantilever wing and the locker in the nose for nautical gear. Dual control can be fitted and the two centre panels of the screen hinge back to obtain access to the forward compartment and to enable one of the crew to deal with moorings, and so on.
The specification of the Cutty Sark when fitted with two Gipsy Major engines and when equipped as an amphibian is as follows: Weight empty, 2,670 lb.; disposable load, 1.180 lb.; span, 45ft.; length, 34.3 ft.; maximum speed, 107 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 90 m.p.h.; initial climb, 500 ft./min.; endurance, 3.5 hr. Makers: Saunders-Roe, Ltd., East Cowes, Isle of Wight.
SAUNDERS "CUTTY SARK" (2 A.D.C. "Hermes").
THE FIRST PRIVATELY-OWNED "CUTTY SARK": Mr. Norman Holden has the distinction of being the first private individual to purchase one of the Saunders-Roe "Cutty Sark" Amphibians with "Hermes" engines. Last week he visited Hanworth in his machine, which carries the identification letters G-AAIP.
The original Saro Cutty Sark, G-AAIP, with "uncorrugated" hull and Cirrus Hermes I engines.
We show a selection of views of Mr. Norman Holden's "Cutty Sark." The clear view forward from the cabin can be seen, as also the wide track of the undercarriage. On the right is Mr. Holden, Mrs. Holden and Mr. E. Hordern (pilot).
Saro "Cutty Sark" (2 "Gipsy II") four seater.
A Saro "Cutty Sark" ready to leave Heston on a tour towards Greece, with Lord Lymington, Capt. Balfour, and Flt.-Lt. Pope.
The Saunders "Cutty Sark" is a small four-seater, twin-engined, flying-boat with metal hull and wooden wing.
A PRIVATE OWNER'S AIR YACHT: The Hon. A. E. Guiness now owns another air yacht, a Saunders-Roe "Cutty Sark," which we show here, about to set out from Cowes on a trial flight.
The fourth Cutty Sark as G-AAVX. It went to the Royal Singapore Flying Club as VR-SAA.
THE "CUTTY SARK" AT SINGAPORE: The Singapore Flying Club is using a Saro "Cutty Sark" - loaned by the Straits Settlements Government - for advanced training.
Saro Cutty Sark 4-seater flying-boat.
A BRITISH VISITOR AT LA BAULE: Air Vice-Marshal Sir Sefton Brancker flew to La Baule in the Saunders "Cutty Sark" flying boat (two "Cirrus" Hermes engines) seen here after arriving from England.
THE "CUTTY SARK" IN TASMANIA: The Matthews Aviation Saro "Cutty Sark" amphibian arriving at Hobart after a flight from Australia on December 18 last.
THE MODERN VERSION: The old "Cutty Sark" was one of the most famous of the China Tea Clippers. The Saunders-Roe "Cutty Sark" is just as much of a thoroughbred. A four-seater, with "Cirrus-Hermes" engines, she should be almost the ideal "Air Yacht."
In the Saro "Cutty Sark" Messrs. Saunders-Roe Ltd. have produced an ideal 4-seater cabin flying boat for the private owner. The rudder and elevators are the only portions of the machine which are fabric covered - they are, of course, doped with Cellon. The wings are of plywood and the hull of aluminium alloy - both are finished with Cerric Cellulose Lacquer, which is specially designed to give complete protection against sea-water corrosion, etc.
THE SARO AMPHIBIAN FAMILY: On the left is the "Cutty Sark," in the centre the latest "Windhover," and on the right the "Cloud."
G-ABBC Progress, the Cutty Sark used by British Amphibious Air Lines on the Blackpool - Isle of Man services, in conjunction with Progress buses.
Captain S. D. Scott, Saunders-Roe's chief test pilot, who piloted the "Cutty Sark" on her cruise.
LOCAL INTEREST: The "Cutty Sark," with a few admirers, at Sarajevo.
AN ARMY MARCHES ON ITS STOMACH: The Napoleonic dictum might be paraphrased in modern times by saying that a club flies on its ground staff.
ON THE SLIPWAY: A Saro "Cutty Sark" and two "Cirrus-Moths" belonging to the Royal Singapore Flying Club.
The second Cutty Sark, with Gipsy Ils, went to Australia as VH-UNV. It crashed on April 5, 1938.
READER'S QUIZ. Mr. P. Hughes of Portarlington, Vie., asks us to identify this "joyriding" amphibian (VH-UNV) photographed in Australia in the 1930s. It is a Saunders A.17A Cutty Sark four/five-seater of 1929. Mr. A. J. Jackson recalls witnessing the acceptance trials of this second built Cutty Sark at Leigh on 1st February 1930 - bearing a Class B registration L-1. VH-UNV was powered by two 105-h.p. Hermes II inlines. Span 45 ft.; length 34 ft. 4 in.; empty 2,246 lb. ; 3,200 lb. Max. speed, 150 m.p.h. Crashed, 5/4/38, Queensland.
Шестая построенная лодка Saro A.17 Cutty Sark в декабре 1930 года была передана в учебное звено гидросамолетов британских ВВС в Кэлшоте. На лодке стояли моторы Gipsy II, использовалась она как учебная.
SARO "CUTTY SARK" AMPHIBIAN: Two de Havilland "Gipsy II" engines.
A SERVICE AMPHIBIAN: Four views of the Saro "Cutty Sark" amphibian flying boat (two D.H. "Gipsy II" engines), which has been supplied to the Royal Air Force for specialised training in navigational instruction, as well as permitting additional experience of the amphibian flying boat. It is a standard "Cutty Sark," very fully equipped with instruments and electrical gear, and is arranged as a three-seater machine with full dual control.
DECEMBER IN THE SOLENT: The photographs show, on the left, the Saro "Cutty Sark" taking off, and, on the right, alighting. Note the general "cleanness."
A COOL VIEW: Visitors find the high diving board a good grandstand. F/O. Murray flying past in the "Cutty Sark" of A.S.T. The Avro "Cadets" are also from A.S.T.
The staggering formation of aircraft was flown by instructors of Air Training Services Ltd in 1934. The aircraft are, from top to bottom: Avro Avian IVM, Avro Cadet, Avro Tutor, D.H.9J, Avro 626, Armstrong Whitworth Siskin III, Armstrong Whitworth Atlas, Saro Cutty Sark and an Avro Five.
AST grouping within the huge Avro/AW works building on the southern airfield. Foreground, left to right: Avro 616 Avian IVM floatplane G-ABKB, entered service in March 1931 and served on until being impressed, as instructional airframe 2073M, in February 1940. Saro A.17 Cutty Sark G-ACDP served AST from April 1933 until April 1939 when it was scrapped. Avro 504N G-EBKQ was converted by Avro at Hamble and flew for them in several capacities, the most famous of which was as Bert Hinkler’s mount in the gruelling 1925 King’s Cup which was staged out of Croydon over 1,608 miles and two days in July. In 1930 it was converted to 5040 seaplane status and joined AST, retiring in June 1931 to act as an instructional airframe.
SARO "CUTTY SARKS" FOR CHINA: Two of these machines were shipped recently. They are fitted with two Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet Major" 7-cylinder engines, which give a materially improved performance; extra fuel tanks have been fitted, giving a maximum duration of 7 hours.
An amphibian has its advantages. The Cutty Sark descends the new slipway at Hamble while Flt. Lt. Middleton gives instructions from the control cabin. When the tide is out the "Cutty" can be landed on the aerodrome and taxied to its hangar.
Picking up moorings: The Saro Cutty Sark is used for preliminary training
Air Service Training’s Genet Major-engined Cutty Sark G-ACDP at Hamble in November 1936 while being used to train Empire Flying-boat crews.
The Saro Cutty Sark amphibian used for initial training in flying-boat work.
The Saro Cutty Sark is seen carrying out some high-speed taxying
A NEW SARO "CUTTY SARK": Fitted with a direct-drive Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" engine, this machine has been equipped with extra tanks and special instruments, and is being flown by the Japanese pilot Yoshihara from San Francisco to Japan - as previously reported in "Flight."
APPOSITE: Christmas greetings from Air Service Training Ltd. at Hamble. The message is formed by white-overalled humanity "on the hands down," and the "A.S.T." consists of the ten different aircraft types which form the organisation's fleet: Avro V, 626, Avian, Tutors and Cadets; two-seater Siskin; A.W. Atlas; two Cutty Sarks; and D.H. Leopard Moth and Hornet Moth.
DECEMBER IN THE SOLENT: The pictures show the cabin specially equipped for service use.
A REAL "AIR YACHT": The Saunders "Cutty Sark," a flying-boat with two "Hermes" engines, has a four-seater cabin of quite exceptional comfort. Situated ahead of the engines, the noise which reaches the occupants is not offensive, and the transparent covering all round results in a very light and airy cabin.
KEITH WOODCOCK’S painting shows the Saro Cutty Sark G-AAIP Silver Bat as operated by Kirston and Mace.
The water rudders on the "Cutty Sark" are mounted on the sides of the hull, and when operated together, form useful brakes.
Details of the hull construction of the Saunders' "Cutty Sark." On the left a wing float, and on the right is Shown the bows, with fore hatch open.
The wooden wing on the Saunders's "Cutty Sark" rests on two brackets
One of the seats, with hinged back framework, of the Saunders "Cutty Sark."
Saunders "Cutty Sark" 2 A.D.C. "Hermes" Engines