Avro Avro 504N
Варианты:
Avro - Avro 504N - 1920 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1920


Описание
Фотографии
Avro серии 504

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  Удачный опыт использования самолета в годы Первой мировой войны в качестве учебного заставил конструкторов задуматься о возможности оснащения машины одним из новых звездообразных моторов. В результате появилась серия 504N, отличавшаяся от предшественников новым шасси без центральной лыжи и элеронами новой формы. Два таких самолета в 1925 году заказало Министерство авиации, их собрали из двух недостроенных в 1918 году экземпляров. На одну установили 100-сильный звездообразный мотор Bristol Lucifer, на вторую - 180-сильный звездообразный мотор Armstrong Siddeley Lynx. Для серийных машин выбрали мотор Lynx, всего в 1925-1932 годах было построено 598 самолетов.
  Самолеты серии 504N в авиационных училищах британских ВВС пришли на смену серии 504K и использовались в качестве связных во вспомогательных ВВС Британии и авиационных эскадрильях университетов.
  Обучение пилотированию по приборам в Британии впервые началось в сентябре 1931 года в Уиттеринге, куда поступили шесть самолетов серии 504N,снабженных специальными колпаками и указателями крена.
  Фюзеляжи первых серийных самолетов собирались из дерева, но затем перешли на ферменную конструкцию, сваренную из стальных труб. На первые машины ставили сужающиеся в плане элероны, на поздние - элероны прямоугольной в плане формы. Почти 80 ранее построенных самолетов серии 504K модернизировали до уровня серии 504N.
  Самолеты серии 504N экспортировались в Бельгию, Бразилию, Чили, Данию, Грецию, Японию, Швецию, Таиланд и Южную Африку. Лицензионная сборка была налажена в Дании и Бельгии. В Канаде некоторое число самолетов серии 504K канадских ВВС силами фирмы "Canadian Vickers" прошли модернизацию в серию 504N, эта же компания также строила серию 504N "с нуля" в сухопутном и морском (с одним поплавком) вариантах.
  Один самолет серии 504N продали в 1927 году Японии, где было налажено производство этих машин под обозначением Yokosuka K2Y, а в 1928 году появился K2Y1 с мотором Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose мощностью 130 л.с. производства фирмы "Mitsubishi". В 1929 году начал летать улучшенный K2Y2 с мотором Gasuden Jimpu 2 мощностью 160 л.с. До 1940 года различными фирмами было построено примерно 360 самолетов K2Y.
  В 1932 году британские ВВС выбрали для замены учебных Avro серии 504N самолет Avro Tutor. Но некоторое количество самолетов серии 504N продолжали эксплуатироваться как гражданские. На военную службу серию 504 "призвали" в 1940 году, когда семь гражданских машин были реквизированы для военных нужд британскими ВВС. Два из них сгорели при пожаре в ангаре, а еще два пришлось утилизировать. Три уцелевших аэроплана поступили на вооружение звена специального назначения, где их использовали для буксировки деревянных планеров над морем в целях тренировки расчетов РЛС.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Avro серии 504N

  Тип: двухместный самолет первоначального обучения
  Силовая установка: один звездообразый мотор Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью 180 л. с. (134 кВт)
  Характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 161 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 137 км/ч; скороподъемность 235 м/мин; практический потолок 4450 м; дальность 402 км
  Масса: пустого 718 кг; максимальная взлетная 1016 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 10,97 м; длина 8,69 м; высота 3,33 м; площадь крыльев 29,73 м1
Самой известной частью британских ВВС, эксплуатировавшей Avro 504N, стала Центральная авиационная школа. Данный самолет использовался школой с 1931 года. На фотографии хорошо виден колпак, который в раскрытом положении закрывал кабину курсанта.
THE AVRO-LYNX: A development of the 504, this machine differed mainly in the engine unit and undercarriage.
INSTRUMENT FLYING: These two pictures of the same Avro-Lynx illustrate instruction in flying solely by instruments. In the first the head of the pupil can be seen, in the second it is hidden by the hood. The instructor is in the front cockpit.
Известный как Lynx-Avro, 504N сменил 504K в пяти авиационных школах британских ВВС. Самолеты также использовались во Вспомогательных ВВС в качестве связных самолетов и как учебные в авиационных эскадрильях университетов.
Lynx-Avros flown by the Oxford University Squadron group diving in formation over Manston
Oxford University Air Squadron is at present undergoing its annual training at Eastchurch. This photograph shows a formation of "Avros" (Lynx) over the estuary of the Thames.
A FORMATION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES USED FOR INSTRUCTION AT THE CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL: From left to right, Gamecock, Atlas, Moth, III.F, Avro-Lynx, Siskin and Bulldog.
A MIXED GRILL: A formation of seven different types over Wittering, viz., "Gamecock," "Atlas," "Moth," "Fairey III F," "Avro-Lynx," "Siskin," and "Bulldog."
Nine Avro 504 Ns put up an unusually good exhibition of formation flying at Hendon on Saturday.
A CAMBRIDGE FORMATION OVER SALISBURY PLAIN: Light blue bands are painted round the fuselage, the chief instructor's machine having two bends.
The Oldest and the Youngest.
Old Sarum: An aerial view of one of the Cambridge Air Squadron's Avro-Lynx machines flying low and parallel to the old Roman ruins of Old Sarum in Wiltshire, close to the aerodrome where the Squadron is now in training.
WINGED WORDS. The 150 ft. Remembrance appeal which was towed over London by a Lynx-Avro piloted by Mr. F. Gordon Freeman. The letters, which are of fabric, with stiffeners in the leading edges, are mounted on tapes. The sign is laid out on the ground, and the pilot then flies over it, picks it up with a hook, and "peels" it off. Aerial Sites Ltd., of Hanworth and London, were the operators.
A Cambridge "Rag."
The instructor just avoids collision with his clumsy pupil in the demonstration of instructional flying on Avro-Lynx.
Пара Avro серии 504N выполняют крены в полете на предельно малой высоте. Превосходные летные качества позволяли самолету оставаться на вооружении британских ВВС до начала 1930-х годов.
CRAZY FLYING: FLT. LT. DAMANT AND F.O. BEAUMONT INDULGE IN A LITTLE SIDE-STEPPING.
Crazy Flying: F/O Campbell and P/O Whittle, of No. 2 Training School, give an exhibition on Avro-Lynx Machines.
EVENT 11, "CRAZY FLYING": Two Avro-Lynx of No. 2 Flying Training School, piloted by F./O. G. E. Campbell and Flt./Sergt. Brown mix themselves up so much, that we regret we cannot say which is which
STUNTING AT HENDON: Avro-Lynx machines flown by Flying Officers Bremridge and Campbell of No. 2 Flying Training School.
THE MORNING'S PROGRAMME: 1, Aerobatics on an "Avro-Lynx."
THE BIRMINGHAM AIR PAGEANT: Three Avro-Lynx "bombers" from No. 605 County of Warwick Squadron attempt to blow up an Eastern Castle Bromwich.
CRAZY FLYING AT NORTHOLT: Three studies of "Air-Madness" on the part of Flying-Officer Campbell and Flight-Sergt. Brown on Avro-Lynx machines
Sherburn Air Pageant: Two R.A.F. officers, Flight-Lieuts. Lydford and Fogarty, put up a thrilling exhibition of crazy flying both on the ground and above. Here Flight-Lieut. Fogarty is seen landing on one wheel in the Avro-Lynx.
"LET'S ALL GO MAD": Crazy Flying at the Birmingham Air Pageant was crazier than ever. On the left Flight-Lieut. F. J. Fogarty is executing a pirouette with one wheel of his Avro-Lynx actually touching the ground. We are not quite certain but we think he is flying backwards in the right-hand picture.
AVRO "504-N": Training machine, with Armstrong Siddeley "Lynx."
TAKING OFF SOLO BY INSTRUMENTS ONLY: An instructor takes off solo with the hood up. He put the machine into a spin and flattened out before lowering his hood. We believe that this is the first photograph ever published of this extraordinary feat.
"Avro-Lynx" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx"). This is one of the offshoots of that ancient and valiant old warrior, the 504K, which was designed as long ago as 1912, and which has since then passed through several modifications - this particular machine being one. Fitted with the Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx," this version of the 504 has given very satisfactory results. It is safe to say that more pilots have passed through their preliminary training on Avros of various models than any other type. In fact, the Avro is sort of "handy man" always to be relied upon for any purpose.
AB INITIO: The Special Reserve officers of No. 502 (Ulster) (Bomber) Squadron are taught to fly ab initio in the squadron in Avro "Lynx" two-seaters.
THE AVRO "504 N": View showing Siddeley "Lynx" engine, oleo undercarriage, and gravity petrol tanks. This machine will be exhibited at Prague.
GENTLE PERSUASION: Staging the "Lynx" engine on one of the C.U.A.S. Avro 504's by means of a Hucks starter.
THE AVRO-LYNX: One of the variations on the famous old "504," this machine has been the standard training machine of the R.A.F. for many years. The engine is a "Lynx."
THE AVRO "LYNX" IS A TRAINING MACHINE.
The "Avro-Lynx" will be exhibited at Prague.
A REAL 504 "K": The Avro-Lynx "Tourer" was seen in public for the first time at the Norwich demonstration. It is characterised by wings of bi-convex section, "K" interplane struts, and Frise type ailerons on the bottom plane only. This machine handles extraordinarily well, and the wing section used gives a stationary centre of pressure.
FLYING BETWEEN SERMONS: By using an Avro aeroplane the Bishop of Willochra, S. Australia, who attended the Anglo-Catholic Conference in London, was able to preach in London on Sunday morning last, and in Manchester in the afternoon, Our photograph shows the Bishop at Woodford after landing. His pilot was Mr. Goodfellow, of the Lancashire Aero Club. The machine left London at 1 p.m. and landed at Manchester at 2.30 p.m.
"THE FIRST AIR LORD": Mr. John Lord flew over with Bert Hinkler in the new Avro "Tourer" with Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" engine. Inset the machine coming in to land.
NECK AND NECK: Hamersley on the Avro "Lynx" and Watt on his S.E.5A approaching the finishing line in the High-Power Handicap. Watt won by a few feet.
GOOD HANDICAPPING: Four machines approaching the finishing line in the first heat of the Holiday Final Handicap on Easter Monday. The machines are, in the order of finishing: OU (Sempill), QL (Cantrill), JT (Openshaw), and KQ (Hamersley).
With the fleet
One of the tightly packed queues of people waiting for joyrides in an Avro ("Lynx").
Avro 504N G-ADBM was originally K1055, and flew with the CFS until sold off on April 23, 1934. Its first civilian owner was Air Travel Ltd, and after various other owners ’DBM's last prewar home was Heston, with Air Publicity Ltd, where it did much banner towing. In June 1940 ’DBM was impressed into RAF service and was allotted the serial AX871, although it is doubtful if it ever bore service markings. Because of its towing gear the 504N joined the Special Duties Flight at Christchurch, when it was flown by the author, but its career was cut short when it hit a watch hut whilst taking off from RAF Hawkinge on August 1, 1940.
Old Avro. This delightful shot of one of Plane Advertising's Lynx-engined Avro 504Ns, G-ACOM (ex-E430), was taken at Ford in 1937, and shows the underwing banner rollers.
This yellow and silver Mongoose-powered Avro 504N was owned by National Aviation Day Displays from April 1934 until March 1936, when it was sold to L. J. Rimmer at Hooton.
THE KING'S CUP: Some of the first day's starters. 3, Bert Hinkler gets away on the Avro 504N.
AVROS FOR GREECE: Our photograph shows four of a batch of "Avro-Lynx" biplanes built for Greece. With its Oleo undercarriage and reliable Siddeley "Lynx" engine, the Avro 504N, is a remarkably successful training machine. Standing in front of the second machine from the right are representatives of the Greek Government.
Avro "Lynxes" of The University Air Squadron. The University Crest can be clearly seen.
The three types of machines with which this Squadron is equipped, namely, on the left: the D.H.9, of which there are four; centre the Westland "Wapiti," which number eight, and finally - sundry Avro "Lynx" biplanes.
AUXILIARY AIR FORCE MACHINES AT LYMPNE: In the foreground two Avro-Lynx, and behind a number of D.H.9a's.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY AIR SQUADRON AT OLD SARUM: The afternoon parade. Three Bristol Fighters and six Avro Lynx.
THE DARK BLUE AEROPLANES: Four "Bristol Fighters" and eight "Lynx-Avros" at Eastchurch. A dark blue line is painted on each fuselage.
THE GOOD OLD AVROS: The training machines of C.U.A.S.
THE SQUADRON'S AIRCRAFT: In the front are the nine Westland "Wallaces" (Bristol "Pegasus"), while behind are two "Avro-Lynx" training machines with a "Wapiti" ("Jupiter") in between them.
GENERAL VIEW FROM THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL AERO EXHIBITION AT PRAGUE: The photograph shows the British stand, with the "Avro-Lynx" on the left and the Blackburn "Dart" on the right.
AN AVRO FOR GREECE: We show above an Avro-Lynx seaplane about to start on a test flight before being delivered to the Greek Government.
FOR SEAMANSHIP: The good old Avro 504 is sufficiently difficult to handle on the water to teach pupils all there is to know about that side of the training; it is not used for flying training.
WITH "BOOTS" ON: The A.S.T. seaplane fleet flying over our photographer at Hamble. Left to right, the " Avian," "Tutor," "504."
Построенный для арктической экспедиции Оксфордского университета, самолет серии 504Q был спроектирован на базе моделей серии 504N и серии 504P. Самолет отличал фюзеляж большего объема с закрытой кабиной.
AN ARCTIC AVRO: These photographs show the Avro-"Lynx" of the Oxford University Arctic Expedition, which, under Mr. George Binney, has been making good use of the seaplane. The machine and its Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" carries a very heavy load, but nevertheless on test got off the water easily. The general views, 1 and 5, give a good idea of the lines of the machine. In 2 it is seen taxying, while 3 shows the special engine mounting designed for the "Lynx." A cowl is, of course, fitted for actual flying in the Arctic. 4 shows the Norwegian sled carried under the deck fairing. The front view, 6, shows the long floats, and the two extra petrol service tanks under the top plane. A third tank is built into the top centre-section.
Capt. Percival Phillips and Mrs. Phillips in front of the victorious Lynx Avro
THE KING'S CUP CONSOLATION HANDICAP: 3, Bert Hinkler, who obtained third place on A. V. Roe's Avro 504N.
A FEW DETAILS AT LYMPNE: 4. The Oleo under-carriage of the Avro-Lynx is characterised by a very long travel.