Bristol Bombay / Type 130
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1935


Бомбардировщик/транспортный самолет с экипажем из трех человек
Описание:
Bombay / Type 130
Bristol Type 130 Bombay
Flight, June 1935
NEW and EXPERIMENTAL TYPES at HENDON
Flight, August 1939
OUR NEWEST BOMBER TRANSPORT
Flight, November 1939
Britain's Military Aircraft
Фотографии

Bombay / Type 130

Самолет двойного назначения (транспортный и бомбардировщик), предназначенный в первую очередь для эксплуатации в колониях. Представлял собой двухмоторный цельнометаллический моноплан с двухкилевым оперением и неубирающимся шасси. Его создали в КБ фирмы "Бристоль эйрплейн" под руководством Ф. Барнуэлла. Опытный образец этого самолета под названием "тип 130" впервые поднялся в воздух 23 июня 1935 г. Серийное производство "Бомбея" осуществлялось с марта 1939 г. на заводе "Шорт энд Гарланд" в Белфасте. Всего изготовили 51 экз.
Экипаж - 3 - 4 чел., 24 пассажира или груз до 1000 кг. Моторы "Пегасус" XXI. Вооружение 2x7,69, бомбы до 910 кг.
"Бомбей" состоял на вооружении только в Великобритании, с сентября 1939 г.
В строевые части эти машины впервые прибыли в октябре 1939 г., когда ими оснастили одну из эскадрилий в Египте. В мае 1940 г. "бомбеи" осуществляли перевозки для Британского экспедиционного корпуса во Франции. С июня того же года их вынуждены были использовать как ночные бомбардировщики. В сентябре они осуществляли регулярные налеты на Бенгази в Ливии. В качестве бомбардировщиков в Северной Африке "бомбеи" летали до сентября 1941 г.
В апреле 1941 г. самолеты этого типа высадили диверсионную группу у Абруццо в Италии, взорвавшую там виадук. В том же месяце "бомбеи" начали вывоз из Греции эвакуируемых оттуда английских солдат и местных беженцев. Эта работа осуществлялась до мая, после чего эти машины привлекли к переброске подкреплений в Ирак в связи с мятежом Рашида Али. В том же 1941 г. "бомбеи" доставляли грузы осажденному гарнизону Тобрука.
В 1942 - 1943 гг. эти самолеты вели рутинную транспортную работу в Северной Африке. Часть машин использовалась как санитарные. Интересный эпизод был связан с дозаправкой с "бомбеев" в тылу противника, в безлюдной пустыне, эскадрильи торпедоносцев "Альбакор", атаковавших затем итальянские суда в районе, считавшемся недосягаемым для союзной авиации. В июне - августе 1943 г. "бомбеи" вывозили раненых с Сицилии. Это были их последние боевые вылеты. В Африке их списали в основном к июню 1943 г., в метрополии - к октябрю. Последние "бомбеи" летали до августа 1944 г.


"Бомбей" I||
Размах:||29,28 м
Длина:||20,76 м
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2x1010 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||9100 кг
Максимальная скорость:||306 км/ч
Практический потолок:||7620 м
Дальность:||3560 км

Bristol Type 130 Bombay

Type 130 Bombay был разработан в соответствии с требованиями спецификации С.26/31 Министерства авиации для замены самолетов Vickers Valentia, несших службу на Ближнем Востоке и в Индии. Главной задачей новой машины была перевозка войск и грузов, но она также имела оборонительное вооружение и могла использоваться в качестве дальнего бомбардировщика. В марте 1933 года был выдан заказ на постройку одного прототипа, а 23 июня 1935 года эта машина, оснащенная парой радиальных двигателей Bristol Pegasus IIIA мощностью 750 л.с. (559 кВт), совершила первый полет. По результатам официальных испытаний, проведенных в центре А&АЕЕ в Мартлешем Хит, в конструкцию внесли ряд доработок - в частности установили более мощные двигатели Pegasus XXII.
  Был выдан контракт на одну партию из 50 самолетов (уже согласно спецификации 47/36), но предприятие в Филтоне было загружено выпуском высокоприоритетных бомбардировщиков Blenheim. Поэтому приняли решение поручить изготовление Bombay фирме "Short Brothers & Harland" из Белфаста, в распоряжение которой поступил новый государственный авиационный завод. В производство был запущен слегка доработанный вариант Type 130 Mark II, получивший официальное обозначение Type 130A Bombay Mk I.
  Первый серийных Bombay взлетел в марте 1939 года, а в сентябре машины этого типа начали поступать в 216-ю эскадрилью в Египте. За ней последовали 117, 267 и 271-я эскадрильи. В ходе Ливийской кампании 1940 года Bombay широко использовались и как бомбардировщики, и как транспортные машины. Несмотря на свою немногочисленность, действовали Bombay очень активно. Например, с их помощью в Египет с Крита была эвакуирована греческая королевская семья. Не сколько самолетов, базировавшихся в Великобритании, совершали транспортные рейсы через Ла-Манш вплоть до падения Франции в 1940 году. Bombay, в конечном итоге, заменили более современными транспортными самолетами, так как концепция двойного применения устарела. Окончательно самолет завершил службу в середине 1940-х годов.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Bristol Type 130 Bombay

  Тип: бомбардировщик/транспортный самолет с экипажем из трех человек
  Силовая установка: два радиальных двигателя Bristol Pegasus XXII мощностью по 1010 л.с. (753 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1980 м - 309 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на высоте 3050 м - 257 км/ч; начальная скороподъемность 340 м/мин; потолок 7620 м; дальность полета 1416 км или 3589 км с дополнительными баками в фюзеляже
  Масса: пустого 6260 кг; максимальная взлетная 9072 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 29,18 м; длина 21,11 м; высота 5,94 м; площадь крыла 124,49 м2
  Вооружение: по одному 7,7-мм пулемету Vickers К в носовой и хвостовой турелях и до 907 кг бомб на внешней подвеске под фюзеляжем

Flight, June 1935

NEW and EXPERIMENTAL TYPES at HENDON

  The Bristol Type 130: This is a twin-engined high-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, including the covering. The wings are fitted with split trailing edge flaps, hydraulically operated, and the fuselage is of metal monocoque construction. As will be seen from the photograph on the next page the machine is particularly "clean," and its lines are pleasing. When used as a bomber the 130 carries a crew of four. As a troop carrier it carries a crew of three and 24 fully-armed troops.
  Two Bristol "Pegasus III M3" engines are neatly faired into the leading edge of the wing, and the wheels of the undercarriage are "spatted." With a wing span of 96 ft. and an overall length of 67 ft. 9 in. the machine has a gross weight of 18,000 lb.

Flight, August 1939

OUR NEWEST BOMBER TRANSPORT
Features of the Bristol Bombay : Great Adaptability Plus Useful Performance

  ALTHOUGH the prototype was first produced and flown in 1934 the Bristol Bombay, as now in production at the Short and Harland works at Belfast, may still be considered a very worthy addition to the R.A.F. Since 1934 the machine has been considerably improved, notably by the installation of more modern power plants and airscrews, and a top speed of 186 m.p.h. is attainable.
  The Bombay has been designed for troop-carrying, bombing or transporting spare engines and provisions, and in view of the peculiar requirements from a machine in this category it has been arranged as a high-wing monoplane.
  The wing comprises a centre section and two outer panels, the centre portion lying on top of the fuselage and carrying the engine nacelles at its outer ends. Hydraulically-operated split trailing edge flaps are fitted on this section.
Structurally it comprises seven spars with ribs and light alloy plating riveted on. Two fuel tanks of 99 gallons capacity each are fitted in the centre section, the lower surface of which has detachable panels giving access to the engine and flying controls.
  The outer wing panels each consist of a main portion with a detachable tip and detachable leading edge. Like the centre section, they have seven spars. The outer fuel tanks are situated at the inboard ends of these panels and twin landing lamps are housed in the leading edge on the port side. Formation-keeping and navigation lights are carried in the detachable wing tips. Metal construction with fabric covering is used for the ailerons which are mass-balanced and are carried on ball-bearing hinges. A trimming tab is inserted in the trailing edge of the port aileron. The flaps are made in four sections, the ribs being bolted to a tubular spar; the covering is stressed metal skin.
  Of light alloy monocoque construction the fuselage comprises formers and stringers with riveted on Alclad sheeting. It is built in six sections. The floor is made up of Alclad sheets covered with plywood except at the pilot’s platform. In the floor of the nose is a hinged trapdoor giving access to the tail drift sight mounting and behind this is a second door which can be used as an emergency exit. The "pilot's platform" is part of a self-contained non-magnetic superstructure accommodating the pilot and the navigator. On the port side are a hinged ventilator and fixed window for the wireless compartment, and on the starboard side are two additional windows.
  In addition to accommodating the pilot, navigator and wireless operator, the front fuselage contains a locker for rations.

Double Doors
  In the floor of the main fuselage are inspection doors giving access to the electrical bomb gear and the downward identification lamp. Amidships on the port side is the entrance door which may actually be considered as two doors, the main, or inner door, being hinged for the use of personnel, while the outer door (including the inner door) can be bodily removed from the machine for loading spare engines, fuel, water, tanks, etc. The lower half of the inner door hinges inward to permit a bomb trolley to be run out into the airstream for bombing operations.
  Six main windows are fitted on the port side of the main fuselage and nine on the starboard side, two being rectangular to provide ground emergency exits. Twelve breathing tubes for air conditioning the cabin are fitted to a vent duct under the windows on each side and may be used by the passengers when required.
  The empennage has twin braced fins and rudders. The upper portion of the tail structure forms the centre section of the tail plane, which has a single main spar and two secondary spars joined by ribs and light alloy skin.
  Two fixed single-wheel units comprise the undercarriage. These have Vickers oleo struts and the wheels are fitted with Dunlop low-pressure tyres and pneumatically operated brakes. Of the fixed, fully castoring and self-centring type, the tail wheel also embodies an oleo pneumatic leg.
  When wheel fairings are fitted a hinged door on the inboard side gives access to the engine ignition switches which are situated just behind the forks.
  The engines of the Bombay are of the Bristol Pegasus XXII type, which gave 1,010 h.p. each for take-off and 890 h.p. at 6,500ft. They drive Rotol airscrews and are carried on standard Bristol ring mountings, the lower segments of which are detachable to facilitate removal of an engine complete with carburettor. All panels on the engines’ nacelles, which are steel and Alclad structures, are detachable. As already stated, the centre section of the wing accommodates two 99-gallon fuel tanks. There are, in addition, two tanks in the outer wing holding 107 gallons each. Fuel supply to the engines is maintained by dual engine-driven pumps. There are separate oil tanks and oil coolers for each engine. These are mounted in the nacelles and incorporate a high-initial oil-pressure device, ensuring an adequate supply of oil to the vital parts when starting from cold.
  The petrol tanks can be replenished either from outside or internally by connections on the fireproof bulkheads. When refuelling the tanks from the auxiliary fuel containers which can be carried in the main fuselage, a hand pump and hose is provided and operated by a member of the crew. There are three of these auxiliary containers, each of 180 gallons capacity, and these in turn can be refuelled by pressure from outside or with the assistance of the internal pump. The aluminium alloy oil tanks are mounted behind the fireproof bulkheads and hold 30 gallons each.
  Engine controls are mounted in a quadrant on the starboard side of the instrument panel, the carburettor cutout and air intake control being fitted on the same side of the false roof aft of the pilot. Vacuum pumps, fuel pumps and generator are carried on the engine mountings and an air compressor is driven by the port engine.
  The starboard engine drives a Bristol hydraulic pump for working the gun turrets, flaps, etc. Apart from means for starting the engines electrically there is a special turning gear consisting of bevel wheels and extension shafts fitted to supporting bracket on the forks on the undercarriage.
  Although single control is normal, provision is made for dual.
  Armament comprises four machine guns, one being fitted in each of the hydraulically-operated gun turrets, nose and tail, and one firing through each side of the rear fuselage. The dome of the rear turret may be jettisoned by means of quick-released fasteners.
  In view of the varied nature of its duties the Bombay carries very complete equipment. Apart from the armament there is provision for pyrotechnics, including reconnaissance flares and a launching chute, an automatic pilot; power supply for lighting, heating, wireless, accumulator charging, etc.; fresh-water tanks, parachute stowage, first-aid boxes, tool boxes, fire extinguishers, spades and axes. The wireless services include long- and short-range sets, direction finding and intercommunication. The seats for the twenty-four fully armed troops may be removed to provide for various bomb loads, ten stretchers, spare engines, the three fuel tanks already mentioned, or three water storage tanks.
  Finally, it might be added that the Bombay is exceptionally nice to handle.
  
BRISTOL BOMBAY
(Two Bristol Pegasus XXII Engines)
Span 95ft. 9in.
Length 60ft. 3in.
Height (tail down).. 16ft. 6in.
Wing area 1,340 sq. ft.
All-up weight 20,000 lb.
Top speed at G,500ft. 186 m.p.h.
Service ceiling 21,800ft.
Climb to 10,000ft 10.6 min.
Take-off run (to clear 50ft.) 500 yd.
Landing run (after 50ft. barrier) 600 yd.
Range (all tanks) at 120 m.p.h 2,500 miles.

Flight, November 1939

Britain's Military Aircraft
A Survey of Our Service Machines

SHORT and HARLAND

  THE Hereford bomber and the Bombay bomber transport are the two types selected for initial production in the Short and Harland works.
  The Bombay is of Bristol design and is fitted with two Bristol Pegasus XXII engines. It was designed for troop carrying, bombing or transporting spare engines and provisions and is arranged as a high-wing monoplane.
  The armament comprises four machine guns, one being fitted in each of the hydraulically operated gun-turrets in the nose and tail and one firing through each side of the rear fuselage.
  The span is 95ft. 9in.; the length, 69ft. 3in.; and the wing area, 1,340 sq. ft. At an all-up weight of 20,000 lb. the top speed is 186 m.p.h.

Short and Harland, Ltd., Queen's Island, Belfast.
Этот Type 130A Bombay Mk l в 1940-1941 годах состоял на вооружении базировавшейся в Египте 216-й эскадрильи RAF. На самолетах Type 130A использовалось хвостовое оперение новой конструкции.
Опытный образец самолета "Бомбей" в полете, Филтон (Англия), 1935 г.
THE “BRISTOL” BOMBAY, in production for the R.A.F.,is an all-metal bomber-transport troop-carrier accommodating 24 fully-armed troops and equipment in addition to its crew. Fitted with "Bristol” Pegasus engines.
The Bristol "Bombay" Bomber-Transport Monoplane (two Bristol "Pegasus" engines).
Adopted by the R.A.F. as the standard type of bomber transport, the Bristol Bombay has medium supercharged Pegasus engines. Despite the fixed undercarriage and the demands of the specification, the performance is excellent.
Metal skin construction is used in the Bristol Bomber Transport (two Bristol "Pegasus" engines).
TROOPER-BOMBER: The Bristol Bombay (Type 130) bomber-transport which recently conveyed British Staff Officers to the German manoeuvres. The Bombay is being built in quantity by Short and Harland. With two Bristol Pegasus Xs (960 h.p. max.) the performance is a revelation.
The Bristol Bombay bomber transport (two Bristol "Pegasus") is being made in the Short and Harland factory.
THE CANARY TEST: Most people know the one about the early pioneers who turned a canary loose between their wings before taking off and concluded, if it escaped, that the rigger had omitted a few wires. Things really have changed when it is considered that a big Service transport machine can be built with such clean lines as those of the Bristol 130, Bomber Transport seen here through the inter-plane obstruction of a not-quite-so-modern type.
The graceful Bristol 130 is another bomber transport and employs two moderately supercharged Pegasus radials.
The Bristol 130 bomber-transport has been adopted by the R.A.F. with two Pegasus X engines.
Type 130 Bristol Transport Bomber
The Bristol Troop Carrier, unlike most modern machines, is a high-wing monoplane. The engines are Bristol "Pegasus" of 700 h.p. each.
This view gives an excellent idea of the size and appearance of the production type Bristol Bombay as built by the Short and Harland concern at Belfast.
THE PRODUCTION TYPE BOMBAY: An exclusive view of the first Bristol Bombay bomber-transport built by Short and Harland at Belfast. It will be noted that the nose has been revised and that the Pegasus engines now drive Rotol airscrews
An admiring crowd is seen surrounding the Bombay.
THE MEN AND THE JOB: A group snapped at the Belfast Works of Short and Harland Ltd., after a test flight of the first production Bombay bomber transport. Fifth from the right is Mr. J. H. Lower (manager) and the fourth from the right is Mr. H. L. Piper, of Short Brothers, who has been carrying out the test flying.
The nose of the production-type Bombay differs considerably from that of the prototype. This view shows the new bomb-aimers' position and the installation of the Bristol Pegasus XXII engines which drive Rotol airscrews.
Our new standard bomber transport aircraft is the Bristol Bombay, seen in its production form. The Bombay is fitted with two Bristol Pegasus engines giving over 1,000 h.p. each for take-off and makes use of Rotol constant-speed airscrews.
TROOP TRANSPORT TRIAL: Several bomber transports were recently used to carry troops from Bembridge, I.O.W., to Yatesbury. A contingent is seen deplaning from a Bombay.
"Бомбей" I из 216-й эскадрильи в Северной Африке, аэродром Эль-Ханка, начало 1942 г. Под фюзеляжем машины смонтированы бомбодержатели
Пятый серийный "Бомбей", 1939 г.
The Bristol Bombay bomber transport which is built at the Short and Harland works.
One of the first views of the production-type Bristol Bombay as standardised by the R.A.F. for bomber-transport duties. It is built in the Short and Harland factory at Belfast.
Bristol Bombay.
Showing how a spare engine is loaded into the capacious fuselage of the Bombay when the machine is used as a freighter.
MEDIUM BOMBER AND BOMBER TRANSPORT: The Bristol 142 (two Mercury VI S engines), although a fairly large machine, is dwarfed in this view by the Bristol 130 (two Pegasus III M engines) in the foreground.
The gun turret in the nose of the Bristol Bomber Transport.
His Majesty at the controls of the Bristol 130 bomber-transport monoplane at Martlesham.
The Armstrong-Whitworth Bomber Transport (two Siddeley "Tiger VI") has a transparent gun turret at each end of its fuselage. This picture shows the rear turret.
The business-like pilot’s cockpit of the Bombay.
From left to right these interior views of the Bombay show the stretchers installed when the machine is employed on ambulance duties; the special bearers which permit the transport of spare engines; and the auxiliary fuel tanks which permit a range of 2,500 miles.
Khartoum airfield August 21, 1941 showing the after-effects of a storm. Bombay ‘P’ of 117 Squadron lies wrecked.
An aileron "tab" on the Bristol bomber transport.
Bristol Bombay I
Bristol Bombay