Flight 1939-04
Flight
THE RISING TIDE: This impressive photograph points its own <...>. It was taken inside Rootes’ shadow factory at Speke, Liverpool, which was inspected by the Secretary of State for Air last week. The Blenheims are lifted out of the lines by overhead cranes as completed.
Capt Harold Balfour, Under-Secretary of State for Air (and a very accomplished pilot), paid a visit last Friday to Rootes’ shadow factory at Liverpool. He is seen examining Blenheim tail-trimming controls in company with Mr. W. E. Rootes (right), chairman of Rootes’ Securities, and Mr. Trowbridge, works manager of the factory.
An impressive line-up of part of the transcontinental and Western Air Fleet at Newark Airport, New Jersey; this sort of picture brings air transport into its true perspective.
COMING IN: The machine shown about to land with flaps and wheels lowered is Douglas D.C.3.
FASTEST ON THE LEVEL: Flight Captain Dieterle in the specially prepared Heinkel in which he is claimed to have covered 3 km. (1.86 miles), at a speed of 463.8 m.p.h. Presumably - though confirmation is unobtainable - this was a two-way mean speed. The engine is a Daimler Benz inverted vee-twelve of unknown horse-power, but certainly delivering more than the 1,175 h.p. quoted in the Press.
The pilot, Dieterle, was promoted to Flight Captain on breaking the record.
Two shots from the Pathe Gazette newsreel. The machine shown in it has a radio mast. Those unfamiliar with cine technique will be interested in the sound track in the picture right
TRACTIVE EFFORT: Capt. J. H. Cordes retracts the undercarriage of a Hampden as he passes - on the L.M.S. line skirting Handley Page’s Radlett Aerodrome - a “Garratt” type locomotive, which is capable of a tractive effort of 45,620 lb. The combined take-off output of the Pegasus engines of the Hampden is between 1,900 and 2,000 h.p.
AERIAL PORTRAIT: Sqn. Ldr. J. W. Donaldson of tne Station Flight, Northolt, smiles polite acquiescence to the proximity of the photographic Hart to his Hurricane.
HURRICANES FOR YUGO-SLAVIA. It may be remembered that Yugo-Slavia purchased a batch of Hawker Furies some time ago. The excellent service which these have given has, no doubt, induced that country to purchase (and ultimately to build under licence) the Hurricane. This Flight photograph shows one of the machines “posed” at a striking angle by Flt. Lt. R. C. Reynell, one of the Hawker test pilots.
Engine heating is one of the major problems during the Scandinavian winter. An A.B.A. Junkers Ju.52 is shown here having its three Pratt and Whitney Hornets attended to at Bromma Airport, Stockholm, with special mobile equipment.
FAST FORMATION: The first picture released for publication of Vickers Supermarine Spitfires in formation. This formidable fighter, with Rolls-Royce Merlin II engine, is capable of 362 m.p.h. Take-off, climb and cruising speed will be improved upon when three-bladed v.p. airscrews are fitted.
An Early Torpedo 'Plane: The famous Short "225 " being launched at Rochester in 1916.
The foundation of a seaplane reputation: One of the first torpedo-carrying seaplanes of the “Two-two-five” type being launched at Rochester in 1915.
THE ROYAL TOUR: Two photographs indicative of the interest and enthusiasm shown by the personnel of the Fairey Aviation Company’s Heaton Chapel Works when the King made a visit of inspection last week. On the left Mr. C. R. Fairey is seen presenting a member of the works staff to His Majesty.
Composition: Mercury being loaded on to Maia.
With the S.41 (100 h.p. Gnome) Shorts, in 1912, laid the foundation for their famous seaplanes. The machine in the picture was piloted by Commander Samson, and the passenger was Mr. Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty.
HIGH FLYER: The excellent lines of the Short 14/38 landplanes ordered by the Air Ministry may be studied in these views of a model. Fitted with Bristol Hercules engines giving 1,100 h.p. at 22,000 feet, one version (Type B), will cruise at 275 m.p.h. at 25,000 feet.
The commercial version of the Consolidated Model 28 long-range flying boat is exemplified by Richard Archbold’s Guba.
CONSOLIDATED EXPERIENCE: Much that is sound in the layout of equipment of modern multi-engined long-range aircraft may be studied in these three interior views of the Consolidated Model 28 twin-engined flying boat, which is generally similar to the PBY series supplied to the U.S. Navy. In the view (pilots’ instrument panel; the duplicated blind flying panels are seen to the left and right and the Sperry automatic pilot panel is in the centre. The finger-hole dial on the left is apparently a remote control spot-wave selector for the radio. Upper centre is a small warning light indicating the motion of the retractable wing-tip floats.
In the view (the same compartment from another angle) are the radio receiver and, high up on the bulkhead, the main electrical switch panel.
The view shows the radio-navigator’s compartment, looking forward, with the transmitter on the right.
An artist’s impression of an amphibian version of this type which is under development. It will have twin nose wheels.
HISTORICAL: This 6-ft. span model of the famous Blackburn Kangaroo has been presented to Hull Municipal Museums by Blackburn Aircraft Ltd The Kangaroo (with two Sunbeam engines and later with Rolls-Royce Falcons) was designed in 1916 as a bomber and submarine spotter and a number were constructed as landplanes. After the war some were modified for passenger transport, as seen in the model. They were also used for the training of R.A.F. Reserve officers at Brough until as late as 1929.
COMING IN: The machine shown about to land with flaps and wheels lowered is Heinkel He 111
TWO CROYDON NEWCOMERS: In the foreground is the new 1,000-gallon Intava service tanker. The tanker unit is refuelling the Focke-Wulf Condor Jutlandia, belonging to Det Danske Luftfartselskab, at the end of a service run from Copenhagen.
FOUR-ENGINED FASHIONS: the Focke-Wulf Condor
FOUR-ENGINED FASHIONS: the Armstrong-Whitworth Ensign.
The Ensign cabin in standard medium-range form.
This picture of a model of the Fairey F.C-1. gives a good idea of how the machine will look. It is possible that the triple-rudder arrangement will give way to a twin-rudder type of tail. The engines will be Bristol Taurus of about 1,000 h.p. each; it is expected to cruise at 220 m.p.h.
HIGH FLYER: The excellent lines of the Short 14/38 landplanes ordered by the Air Ministry may be studied in these views of a model. Fitted with Bristol Hercules engines giving 1,100 h.p. at 22,000 feet, one version (Type B), will cruise at 275 m.p.h. at 25,000 feet.
NOT-SO-MYTHICAL. According to the encyclopaedia, the roc was a fabulous bird of the East, so huge that it bore off elephants to feed its young. The Blackburn Roc, of which details are now released, is neither fabulous nor gigantic, but it is obviously a very efficient two-seater fighter for the Fleet Air Arm. It closely follows the lines of the Skua, and the engine is a Bristol Perseus. Either a retractable wheel undercarriage or a float undercarriage may be fitted.
The Fokker G-I (two Bristol Mercury or Perseus) diving with air-brakes applied.
Shorts To-day: The Sunderland, with four Bristol Pegasus XXII engines of 850 h.p. each, a span of 112ft. 9in. and a normal weight of 44,460 lb.
Pre-war photograph of Short Sunderland I L5806, one of a batch of ten Sunderlands delivered to the RAF in late 1938. After service with Nos 228, 210, 228 and 230 Sqns L5806 went missing on July 7, 1942.
FOR PATROL AND BOMBING: A new Short Sunderland flying boat, several of which type have already been delivered to the R.A.F., taking off for a test flight from the Medway.
The Short Sunderland military flying boat, which is capable of 210 m.p.h., has been developed from the commercial Empire type. The engines are four Pegasus XXIIs.
The Short Sunderland (four Bristol Pegasus XXII) offers - on two floors - plenty of home comforts for its crew. These interior views were taken by Flight's chief photographer during the escort flight for the French President’s visit. This one shows a member of the crew handling a drogue from the galley hatch (note the homely kettle and teapot)
The Short Sunderland (four Bristol Pegasus XXII) offers - on two floors - plenty of home comforts for its crew. These interior views were taken by Flight's chief photographer during the escort flight for the French President’s visit. This one shows a control cabin view (the cylinders in the rack are Very cartridges)
The Short Sunderland (four Bristol Pegasus XXII) offers - on two floors - plenty of home comforts for its crew. These interior views were taken by Flight's chief photographer during the escort flight for the French President’s visit. This one shows the navigator at work
The Short Sunderland (four Bristol Pegasus XXII) offers - on two floors - plenty of home comforts for its crew. These interior views were taken by Flight's chief photographer during the escort flight for the French President’s visit. This one shows a glimpse through a window
A view including the Dornier Do.26 four-engined long-range flying boat (on the water) and the earlier Do.18.
A dramatic stage in a take-off by the prototype Consolidated XPB2Y-1 flying boat of the U.S. Navy. The engines are Pratt and Whitney Twin Wasps.
THE MEN AND THE JOB: A group snapped at the Belfast Works of Short and Harland Ltd., after a test flight of the first production Bombay bomber transport. Fifth from the right is Mr. J. H. Lower (manager) and the fourth from the right is Mr. H. L. Piper, of Short Brothers, who has been carrying out the test flying.
Unloading a R.A.N.A. Rapide at Beira, where the company's service links up with that of Imperial Airways; the golf clubs remove any false ideas about "darkest Africa."
One of Western Airways D.H. Rapides over Weston-super-Mare; the company’s base aerodrome is half-covered by chud on the right of the picture.
Two of the four standard seating arrangements for the D.H. Rapide. That above is for short-distance work.
A Canadian Airways Junkers W.34 at Fort Chipewyan, with local inhabitants and a dog team to take the mail and freight from the machine to the settlement. Note the tarpaulin cover on the engine and the two canoes lashed to the underside of the wings.
The smaller twin-engined commercial types are represented by the German Siebel Fh 104 with two Hirth or Argus engines.
The layout of the Savoia Marchetti S.M. 75 three-engined machine may be studied here. This model has been adopted by a number of airlines.
The Travelling Flying School ready for action with the instructor’s car, the tent and the Tiger Moth. The place is Gatooma, Rhodesia
Operating the world's fastest scheduled service - the D.H. Albatross, which cruises at 210 m.p.h., at Croydon.
FOUR-ENGINED FASHIONS: the De Havilland Albatross
The seating layout of the D.H. Albatross as arranged for Imperial Airways' European services.
Britain’s most recent commercial machine is the De Havilland Flamingo, which has an excellent performance with two Bristol Perseus sleeve-valve engines.
This country’s first all-metal medium-capacity transport - the D.H. Flamingo which, like the Albatross, cruises at 210 m.p.h.
PRESSURE CABIN EXPERIMENTS: For some time General Aircraft have been working on pressure cabin problems, and here is the special pressurised section of a fuselage for an S.T.25 which is nearing completion. An auxiliary petrol engine, actually an Aero Engine Sprite, with a blower, is to be used to maintain sea-level pressure up to 15,000ft., with a progressive rate of production above this height. The experiment should be particularly useful in settling structural design problems, especially those relating to windscreens and doors.
General Aircraft are building a special S.T.25 for pressure-cabin experiments: in this photograph the fuselage is shown nearing completion.
This view of the Hennes Transreceiver two-way aircraft radio equipment gives a good idea of its compact size. (General Aircraft Ltd.).
In its latest retractable-uncarriage form - the Percival Q.6, which has a maximum speed of more than 200 m.p.h. on the Gipsy Six engines.
TUCKED UP: The Percival Q6 in its latest form, with undercarriage retracted. This machine is one of two for Australia.
The Percival Q.6 cabin as laid out for airline work. A toilet compartment may be arranged in place of the seventh seat.
Hardly in the transport class, but nevertheless a useful type for charter and feeder-line work - the Percival Vega Gull.
The Qantas Empire Airways base at Rose Bay, Sydney, with one of the Qantas Empire boats - actually Coolangatta - being warmed up in the customary manner.
SOLITUDE: This photograph was taken by Capt. A. S. Wilcockson, of Imperial Airways, at 11,000ft. over the Atlantic during one of Caledonia's experimental flights along the Foynes - Botwood route in 1937.
The first of the strengthened C-class Short boats on an early test outing. Cabot, which will be used for refuelled Atlantic experimental flights.
G-AFCU Cabot сфотографирована в начале отрыва от водной поверхности. Это одна из улучшенных S.30, выполнившая первый полет в декабре 1938 года. В декабре 1939 года лодку передали британским ВВС, а в мае 1940 года она была уничтожена в норвежском Бодё.
First of the strengthened Empire class, fitted with Perseus sleeve-valve engines and designed to carry a greater pay load, is Cabot, seen taking off from the Medway.
A new era in commercial flying was opened up with the introduction of the Short Empire flying boat.
Cleanly conventional in the modern manner, the Bibi has no unnecessary protuberances - hence the performance.
Inside the two-seater cabin. Notice the door entry width and height, and the quaint but practical control column arrangement. The throttles work downwards to open and a built-in fire extinguisher (right) is fitted as standard.
The lines of the 550 are shown in these general arrangement drawings.
FOUR-ENGINED FASHIONS: the Potez 662 which, fitted with four small-diameter Gnome Rhone engines, is probably the fastest transport machine in the world.
One of Air France’s latest types - the Liore 246 - 26-passenger flying-boat. Six of these machines have been ordered for the company’s Mediterranean services.
The prototype LeO H 246 F-AOUJ. It made its first flight from Etang de Berre on September 30, 1937.
The Blohm and Voss Ha 139 long-distance float-plane, with four Junkers Jumo 205 heavy oil engines.
A view including the Dornier Do.26 four-engined long-range flying boat (on the water) and the earlier Do.18.
An example of duplicated instrument-flying panels - interesting because it is the control cabin of the Dornier Do.26 four-engined transatlantic flying boat. Notice the two distant-reading compass dials at the top of the panels.
With a separate engineer’s control panel, it has been possible to simplify the layout of the new Dornier’s instrument board. Note the twist-grips on the spectacle controls and the accessibility of the D/F loop gear.
FOUR-ENGINED FASHIONS: the Heinkel He 116, which can be used as a passenger machine or long range mail carrier;
FOUR-ENGINED FASHIONS: the Junkers Ju 90
The Cant seaplane which recently obtained eight world's records and has been built for Atlantic mail-carrying.
One of the Faucett specials used by C. de A. "Faucett" outside the terminal building at Santa Cruz aerodrome, Lima, Peru.
The Bellanca "Junior" 14-9 Three-seat Cabin Monoplane (90 h.p. Le Blond engine).
The new Bellanca Junior in its retractable undercarriage form. It has the familiar Bellanca wing shape and section.
The side elevation lines of the Yankee Clipper are shown well in this photograph taken while the machine was making one of its pre-landing circuits over the Southampton area.
READY FOR THE CROSSING: The Boeing 314 Yankee Clipper cutting things fine while making an approach at Baltimore after flying over from San Francisco. The machine at the landing stage is the Sikorsky S.42B Bermuda Clipper, which is now being assisted on the Bermuda service by the second of the 314s, Allanite Clipper. At the time of going to press Yankee Clipper was at Biscarosse.
The most advanced commercial flying-boat in the air to-day is the Boeing 314, the layout which is apparent on the photo. The engines are four Wright two-row Cyclones of about 1,500 h.p. each.
Some idea of the size of the machine and the area of the sponsons may be gained from this photograph of the crew being taken aboard one of the Imperial Airways’ Power tenders.
The Boeing at Southampton. The outlines on the wings, fuselage and sponsons evidently indicate the areas on which the crew may walk.
The engineer’s controls and instruments are shown in detail - complete with pencil-sharpener; among other things the engineer looks after the engine cooling flaps, manifold pressures and the automatic mixture controls.
All that the pilots need to look after; one of the control boxes in the pilots’ compartment, with the throttle levers on the left and the trimming controls and indicators on the right, with master controls for the mixture and manifold pressures. On the extreme right is a remote-control panel for intercommunication and radio homing purposes.
The photograph shows the size of the engine maintenance walkways in the wing.
The picture gives an idea of the freedom and space which is available for the navigator - notice the telescopic drift-sight and the essential flying instruments on the left of the chart table.
The speed-reducing flaps on this Brewster dive bomber are of the “double-split” perforated variety.
OVER SAN FRANCISCO BAY: One of the 1939 four-seater Cessnas actually the company’s photographic machine - with a typically Californian crystal-clear background. The new Cessna carries a useful load of 1,000 lb. with a gross weight of only 2,350 lb., and has a top speed of 162 m.p.h.; it is fitted with a Warner Scarab engine of 145 h.p. The agents in this country are Aviation Corporates.
"Double-split" flaps on the trailing edges of the lower wings retard the diving speed of the Curtiss SBC-3 dive bomber.
Half an exhaust collector ring, with Ryan universal joints, as fitted to one of the Cyclone 14s of the Douglas DC-4.
The Douglas D.C.4 is the largest landplane now flying and incorporates a number of features making for high commercial efficiency.
COMING IN: The machine shown about to land with flaps and wheels lowered is a Lockheed Electra
K.L.M. run a number of useful services in the West Indies: This photograph shows one of their Lockheed 14s being refuelled at Barranquilla, in Colombia. S.C.A.D.T.A. is that country’s own operating company and the name will be seen on the terminal building behind the tail of the 14.
At the Trans-Canada Air Lines’ operational base at Winnipeg, with two of the company’s Lockheed 14s on the tarmac.
BUDAPEST-BOUND: A Lockheed Fourteen taxying out to take off for the first Frankfurt-Budapest run. Notice the fixed “letter-box” slots near the wing tip and Heston’s major obstruction - the Southall gasholder.
READY FOR THE CROSSING: The Boeing 314 Yankee Clipper cutting things fine while making an approach at Baltimore after flying over from San Francisco. The machine at the landing stage is the Sikorsky S.42B Bermuda Clipper, which is now being assisted on the Bermuda service by the second of the 314s, Allanite Clipper. At the time of going to press Yankee Clipper was at Biscarosse.
Inside the latest Stinson Reliant: The neatness of the instrument and control layout is noteworthy; presumably the large panel can take other instruments, such as those of the free gyro type, when these are ordered. The cowling of the latest Reliant has, incidentally, been changed both to improve the lines and to increase the accessibility.
The Timm transport (two Wright Whirlwinds), which, like the larger Douglases, has a tricycle undercarriage.
SHORT BROTHERS' LATEST: The Scion Senior carries up to ten passengers at a maximum speed of 134 m.p.h. although its four Pobjoy Niagara engines develop a total of only 360 b.h.p. The next machine to be built will have a wheel undercarriage.
Four Pobjoy engines powered the Scion Senior which, like the Scion, was fitted with wheels or floats.
The new Short Scion Senior with four Pobjoy Niagara engines appeared at Hatfield for the first time as a landplane.
The new Stinson “105” and a close-up of the exceptionally neat pressure-type engine cowling for the 75 h.p. Continental. In general appearance the "105" may be described as a cross between the well-known Reliant and the typical American lightweight of to-day. The machine has a cruising speed of 105 m.p.h.
One of the very latest attack-bombers which can be used either for normal bombing or for "strafing" ground targets: the Stearman (Boeing) X-100;
Developments of Singapore I - the Singapore II, with four Rolls-Royce Kestrels.
The Short Singapore used by Sir Alan Cobham when he made an initial survey of the Cairo-Cape route in 1928 - a picture taken on his return to Rochester.
The Singapore I of 1927 was originally fitted with Rolls-Royce Condors, though Buzzards were eventually substituted.
An historic event: In 1912 Commander Samson flew a Short S.38 (modified) off a platform on the deck of H.M.S. Hibernia while the vessel was travelling at 15 knots.
The Cromarty, with two Rolls-Royce Condors.
Londoners were treated to a close-up view of Britain’s then latest commercial flying boat when, in 1928, Mr. Lankester Parker, with Mr. Oswald Short on board, put a Calcutta down on the Thames at Westminster for M.P.s to inspect.
The Douglas D.C.5 is a new type in competition with the De Havilland Flamingo.
Interchangeable wheel and float undercarriages gave the popular little Scion a wide field of application.
Built to a military specification, the Springbok was a development of the Silver Streak.
Shorts in the beginning: Their first machine, a biplane, had a front elevator and wing-tip rudders. It never actually left the ground.
The view shows the machine, “Short No. 1,” being built under railway arches at Battersea in 1908.
Another interesting machine, one of which was owned by Moore-Brabazon, was the British-built Short biplane shown in the illustration. As will be seen, this machine was very similar to the Wright biplane - and also used the starting rail - the main differences being in the "chassis" and control surfaces.
"Short No. 2" resembled No. 1, but the rudder was carried on outriggers and not on the wing tips. Note the unusual lateral controllers. On this machine Lt. Col. Moore-Brabazon flew a mile in a closed circuit
The Short “Double Twin” of 1911 had two rotary engines, with the pilot placed between them.
One of the most influential and yet least-known of British aviation pioneers, Frank McClean acquired the land at Eastchurch in November 1909 and gave use of it to the RAeC for a fixed annual rent of a shilling. Seen here is his modified Short S.27, known as the “Tandem Twin” or “Double Dirty”.
The “Triple Twin” had two rotary engines and three airscrews.
A development of the first tractor biplane had a single central float and two outboard air bags for stabilising.
Search for better efficiency led to the first Short tractor biplane (70 h.p. Gnome rotary).
A much modified ex-Grace S.27 in its final tractor form . It had been Grace's idea to convert it in this way, but work slowed down after his death and Frank McClean had it finished later.
One of the S38s with the c/n. 559 on the heel of the rudder.
The Short S.38 showed Farman influence, but differed in having a nacelle and a front elevator. The engine was a Gnome rotary. In this picture Oswald Short is in the pilot’s seat and Eustace is the passenger.
The Short Triple Tractor showing the 16-ft. long cowling in which the two Gnome engines were located.
Highland Airways - now part of the Scottish Airways system - pioneered the Orkney service. Here is the old Monospar S.T.4 as it was delivered for the Inverness-Kirkwall run in April, 1933; Capt. E. E. Fresson is on the left.
The Major might be described as a miniature Puss Moth and this flying view shows the similarities as well as the differences - notably a thick wing section.
This picture - from the “entry” side - gives an idea of the range of view provided for the occupants.
Wing-folding was incorporated in the Short bomber of 1916. This machine had a span of 85ft. and carried a machine gun and four 250 lb. bombs. The engine was a Rolls-Royce Falcon.
Mr. J. H. Stephenson is seen above in the Kirby Kite which he previously owned.
GOLDEN HIND: A Flight drawing anticipating the appearance of the Golden Hind, one of the three Short “G” Class flying boats for Imperial Airways. She will be considerably longer than her Elizabethan namesake and will weigh rather more than 32 tons. Drake's vessel was probably of about 100 tons. Note that the rear step follows Sunderland practice rather than Empire boat design. The engines are four Bristol Hercules.
The Shirl was designed to carry an 18in. torpedo. In the picture the container under the machine was intended for carrying mails, or a long-range tank could be carried instead.
Short’s first all-metal flying boat was the little Cockle, with two Blackburne motor cycle engines.
The Valetta makes an interesting comparison with the Calcutta flying boat, which had similar power plants. A Valetta was flown to South Africa by Sir Alan Cobham in 1931, though this trip is not to be confused with his circuit of the same continent in a Singapore.
The R.6/28 was second in size only to the German Do.X. Its Service name was Sarafand, and it had six Rolls-Royce Buzzard engines.
The Shrimp, produced just after the war, and carrying a pilot and three passengers
The Short Satellite with Bristol Cherub engine was the first all-metal light aeroplane. It appeared in 1924.
The Short amphibian undercarriage was applied to a Gurnard, a Mussel and a D. H. Moth. The Moth installation is seen here.
A Kirby Gull - built by Slingsby Sailplanes - of the type in which Mr. J. H. Stephenson reached France from a winch-launch at Dunstable.
This projected Consolidated machine has four liquid-cooled engines of over 2,000 h.p. each, buried in the wing. They drive airscrews through extension shafts and may be attended in flight.
Seen here on its first test outing, the Cunliffe-Owen is now flying again on a second series of tests.
Roominess is the main feature of the Cunliffe-Owen cabin.
Shorts made the first all-metal hull for a flying boat. The wooden superstructure of the F-5 was retained. The hull had a fluted planing bottom.