Самолеты Model R и Model S послужили базой для создания четырехместного кабинного моноплана Reliant. Первоначальный вариант SR Reliant, представленный летом 1933 года, имел в целом такую же конфигурацию, но также выпускался дополнительно как двухпоплавковый
гидросамолет. Самолет строился большой серией в различных подвариантах - с различным составом силовой установки.
Самолет SR оснащался двигателем Lycoming R-680 мощностью 215 л.с.; вариант SR-1 имел двигатель R-680-2, a SR-2 - двигатель R-680-7, каждый мощностью 240 л.с.; вариант SR-3 был в целом схож с SR-1, но имел незначительные конструктивные отличия. SR-4 получил звездообразный двигатель Wright R-760-E мощностью 250 л.с., а доработанный вариант SR-5 (1934 год) выпускался в трех модификациях: базовая модель SR-5 с двигателем Lycoming R-680-4 мощностью 225 л.с., а также SR-5B и SR-5C с двигателями R-680-2 мощностью 240 л.с. и R-680-5 мощностью 260 л.с., соответственно.
Однако наиболее массовыми вариантами самолета Reliant стали построенные в количестве 75 экземпляров SR-5A с двигателем R-680-6 мощностью 245 л.с. и SR-5E, строившийся с различными дополнениями и с двигателем R-680-4 мощностью 225 л.с.
Самым же дорогим вариантом Reliant стал SR-5F с двигателями Wright R-760-E мощностью 250 л.с. или R-760-E1 мощностью 285 л.с. В 1935 году компания "Stinson" вывела на рынок усовершенствованный вариант Reliant SR-6. Модификации самолета SR-6 и SR-6B, получившие более мощные двигатели R-680-6 и R-680-5, были пятиместными, a SR-6A с двигателем R-680-4 мощностью 225 л.с. - четырехместным.
Самолет SR-7 Reliant, представленный в 1936 году, имел крыло с переменным сужением и строился в вариантах четырехместного SR-7A с двигателем R-680-4 и пятиместных SR-7B или SR-7C с двигателями R-680-6 и R-680-5, соответственно. Вариант SR-8 Reliant того же года был в целом схож с SR-7, но выпускался в пяти модификациях: SR-8A, SR-8B и SR-8C соответствовали по силовым установкам вариантам SR-7A, SR-7B и SR-7C, но представляли собой четырехместные самолеты, a SR-8D и SR-8E были пятиместными и оснащались двигателями Wright R-760-E1 мощностью 285 л.с. и R-760-E2 мощностью 320 л. с., соответственно. Оба варианта с двигателями Wright предлагались в качестве самолетов общего назначения под обозначениями SR-8DM и SR-8EM.
В 1937 году компания представила самолет SR-9, который имел более существенные отличия в конструкции и выпускался в модификациях SR-9A, SR-9B, SR-9C и SR-9E с такими же силовыми установками, как на соответствующих вариантах SR-8 (по желанию заказчика менялся интерьер - "люкс" или обычный). Дополнением к семейству стал вариант SR-9F с двигателем Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior мощностью 400 л.с., имевший те же опции по интерьеру.
Последним гражданским Reliant стал SR-10 (1938 год), имевший больше усовершенствований и выпускавшийся с двигателями мощностью от 245 до 450 л. с. Наиболее крупной серией выпускались самолеты SR-10B, SR-10C, SR-10D, SR-10E и SR-10F - всего около 90 машин всех модификаций.
Выпуск гражданских модификаций Reliant прекратился, когда США вступили во Вторую мировую войну, причем Армия США реквизировала для своих нужд 46 гражданских самолетов, которым присвоили обозначения от UC-81A до UC-81N (различные варианты SR-8, SR-9 и SR-10), а также один самолет SR-10F, который получил обозначение XC-81D и использовался для отработки техники захвата планера.
Два SR-5A и два SR-7B были также реквизированы военными и получили обозначения соответственно L-12 и L-12A, плюс к тому по одному Reliant были приобретены Береговой охраной и ВМС США для оценочных испытаний под обозначениями RQ1 и XR3Q-1, соответственно.
В годы войны 500 вновь построенных Reliant в рамках ленд-лиза были поставлены британским ВМС под обозначением AT-19. Самолеты были похожи на SR-10G, оснащались двигателем Lycoming R-680-E1, имели удлиненный фюзеляж и специальное оборудование. Они поступили на вооружение 12 эскадрилий. Кроме того, 15 британских гражданских лайнеров Reliant были реквизированы военными.
Stinson Reliant SR-5A
Тип: 4-местный кабинный моноплан
Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Lycoming R-680-6 мощностью 245 л. с. (183 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 217 км/ч; практический потолок 4725 м; максимальная дальность 1038 км
Масса: пустого 1055 кг; максимальная взлетная 1576 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 12,50 м; длина 8,31 м; высота 2,57 м; площадь крыла 21,37 м!
Flight, October 1935
FOR the FASTIDIOUS
In the Air with the Latest Stinson Reliant: A Four-seater Cabin Monoplane with Unusual Refinements
IT has always been maintained by Flight that an aeroplane designed expressly for the private owner should be not only easily handled, but finished, both inside and outside, in a style comparable with that of a good car. Solid fittings and familiar layouts will do more to make the new passenger at home in the air than anything else, and the aircraft manufacturers have not even yet tapped the prospective, but still largely uneducated, "luxury" market.
The new Stinson Reliant, which is being handled in this country by Brian Allen Aviation, Ltd., of Croydon, has just that appearance of solidity and familiar comfort which calms the timid and is, withal, a comparatively simple machine in its handling. The word "comparatively" is deliberately used, inasmuch as no aeroplane is yet, or is likely to be completely foolproof. There are levers and switches to move and distances to be gauged when driving the most modern of easy-to-drive cars. Flaps have been fitted to simplify the handling of an already easily handled machine with an ordinary performance, rather than to make a very clean machine less difficult for the ordinary pilot.
Every piece of mechanism which is not essential for actual operation has been tucked away out of sight; the immediately adjustable front seats and the wide rear seat are more comfortable than those usually found in cars; the windows can be wound down without a draught resulting; and the cabin is quiet and vibrationless even when the engine is being run at full throttle. The exterior finish is so good that the uninitiated would undoubtedly be surprised to learn that the fuselage is, in fact, fabric-covered. One could continue almost indefinitely in the description of small features which are, nevertheless, most important, but three of them might be given. In the case of all cabin machines the rearward view is necessarily poor, but a mirror-cum-ventilator in the roof can be adjusted so that either pilot at the moment of take-off may be sure that no machines are coming in to land; the main fuse is quickly removable in the event of a short in any part of the electrical installation; and the luggage locker has within a small electric light which is automatically switched on when the outside door is opened. Light luggage, incidentally, can be carried beneath or behind the rear seats.
The 1935 model Stinson Reliant may be regarded as a development, by way of the 1933 and 1934 Reliants, of the Stinson "R," which, like the Reliant, has frequently been seen in this country. Welded steel tubular construction with fabric covering is employed for the fuselage, whereas the fabric-covered wings have solid spruce spars and metal ribs. The section is Clark Y. Metal construction is used for the pneumatically operated flaps. An undercarriage of the split divided type is used, each leg of which is hinged to a stub extending from the fuselage, with Aerol shock absorbers, low-pressure tyres and hydraulic brakes.
The 1935 model has a slightly longer nose than its predecessors, its fuselage is rather more rounded, and the wing tips are "washed out." A 225 h.p. Lycoming R-680-4 radial is fitted as standard, and is housed in a full, quickly detachable N.A.C.A. cowling with scalloping for the valve gear. Either a Hamilton Standard or a Lycoming-Smith controllable-pitch airscrew may be used, though the actual machine was fitted with the latter.
The new machine has control columns which protrude through the instrument panel, displacing the older Y-type and allowing more room for the pilot and the passenger or second pilot.
The addition of a c.p. airscrew control to those already in use on a normal aeroplane might be frowned upon by the uninitiated, but, in fact, as a short flying trial proved, the operation of this control is simplicity itself, and any effort is amply repaid by an improved take-off. The Smith airscrew can be adjusted to suit the speed of climb to the best engine revolutions and it is only necessary to remember to "change down" to fine pitch during the approach to an aerodrome in readiness for another take-off.
In both flying and taxying attitude the view from the pilot's seat is extremely good; at cruising speeds the top of the engine cowling is quite a long way below the horizon level and the glide, even with the flaps up, is sufficiently steep to ensure a good view of an aerodrome or field.
Provided that conditions are not too rough the Reliant will fly at cruising revolutions hands-off and feet-off at the same time, and will turn accurately on the rudder alone. Gentle work with the rudder will bring it out of a turn and into one in the other direction without appreciable sideslip, the reversal of turn taking place with almost entire accuracy. Both rudder and aileron controls are light, while the fore-and-aft control is sufficiently heavy to prevent any of that accidental pitching which is so uncomfortable for passengers. It is, perhaps, a little unfair to criticise a feature to which one would undoubtedly become accustomed, but the tail-trimming handle in the roof appeared to be awkwardly placed and is rather too low geared for rapid work in an emergency. Although it would not be impossible to hold the nose tip in a glide without altering the trim the effort is quite considerable and is impossible to exercise with one hand while half-turned in the seat. In a comparatively large machine the tail-trimming gear is an essential and should be both quickly and easily operated.
It would be difficult to imagine that anyone could misjudge his approach with flaps as effective and as quickly applied as those on the new Reliant. After closing the throttle the tail trimmer is wound until the speed is down to 80 m.p.h. or so, at which the glide is quite steep. As the aerodrome boundary is approached a little high the movement of a switch on the dashboard brings down the flaps, which have a strong and personally felt braking effect, and the note automatically drops. At the slightest suggestion of undershooting the flaps can be momentarily switched up again, while a little distance is gained. With the flaps down and the air speed below 60 m.p.hr, the angle of descent is extremely steep, and the flaps can, if a hurried descent is necessary, be put down at speeds as high as 120 m.p.h. without straining the structure. In the event of engine failure the accumulated depression in the vacuum tank is sufficient for three or four movements.
On the ground the Bendix brakes can be applied hard without the slightest suspicion of tail-lifting, and the undercarriage is flexible and well damped. The differential braking effect for taxying is obtained by two heel pedals which are moved independently of the hanging rudder pedals.
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEW
FOREIGN MACHINES on the BRITISH MARKET
A YEAR or two ago certain of the more pecunious private owners in this country became highly enthusiastic over a four-seater Stinson Reliant monoplane imported from America. What appealed particularly to them was the high finish and the determined attempt which had been made to provide the "motor-car comfort" about which so much loose talk was rife at that time. Subsequently other Stinsons appeared over here and are still giving satisfactory service.
The latest model of the Reliant differs in a number of important respects from these familiar machines. It is available in "special" and "standard" forms, incorporates a metal gull-type wing of unusual design, and has slotted vacuum-operated flaps. The Hamilton variable-pitch airscrew is specified both for the 225 h.p. Lycoming engine of the standard model and the 245 h.p. Lycoming of the "special" version.
Certainly, in the form in which it has so far appeared in this country, the finish and general equipment of the Reliant should have given our manufacturers something to think about - though these features are not the be-all and end-all of light aeroplane design. Furthermore, the Reliant is not quite a "light aeroplane" in our sense of the term, and one can do a very great deal with a matter of 250 h.p. to carry four passengers and their luggage.
In the air the 1935 Reliant was the most docile of machines, and it can only be presumed that the new model is even better.
The flaps were efficient enough to allow the pilot almost to point the machine at the aerodrome boundary during the approach without gathering too much speed, and the v.p. airscrew - the only feature of the control system which was strange to British hands - was very easily managed. It goes without saying that the engine was smooth and the cabin quiet.
The abridged specification of the standard Reliant (Model SR7-A) is: Weight empty, 2,260 lb.; disposable load, 1,115 lb.; span, 41ft. 7in.; length, 26ft. 8in.; maximum speed, 148 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 138.5 m.p.h.; landing speed, 48 m.p.h.; cruising range, 400 miles. The agents in this country are: Brian Allen Aviation, Ltd., Airport of London, Croydon, Surrey.
Flight, July 1939
THE NEWEST RELIANT
Detailed Improvements to the 1939 Model
SOME of the more expensive American private-owner types, and, in particular, the Stinson Reliant, have reached such a pitch of luxury refinement that the makers must find it difficult to know what they can do for their next year’s models. That is, short of redesigning the whole machine to provide vertical ascent and descent or some other outstandingly new aerodynamic feature. Within present design limits the Reliant is already as safe as any conventional aeroplane can be, and all that the makers can do is to improve the details.
The most noticeable outside difference between the 1939 and the 1938 Reliant is in the design of the cowling, which is now without the fillet excrescences and has a smaller overall diameter. It is horizontally hinged in sections to permit immediate access to engine incidentals, and the whole lot can be removed fairly simply for top overhauls. What the Americans call "styling" has also been changed and the cowling louvres redesigned. Otherwise, the only other exterior changes to be seen are in a slight increase to the area of the rudder horn balance, and in the fact that the steps on each side are now retractable.
Recently we had a chance of riding in one of the new SR-10C models, with 260 h.p. Lycoming engine and two-position Hamilton airscrew. This machine was about to be delivered to Mr. Marshall, of Cambridge, by Brian Allen Aviation, of Hanworth, and is fairly adequately equipped with extras such as full free gyro blind-flying equipment, Grimes retractable landing lights, D/F radio, outside temperature gauge, and electrically heated pitot head.
In the air the effect of the larger rudder balance area is noticeable. Not only is the rudder control lighter, but the machine has not quite the same degree of rigid directional stability. In other words, it is more practical now to turn on the rudder alone: previous Reliants would, after being yawed off by the rudder, return at once to their original course. Another little point is that the vacuum-operated flap lever, which is in the form of a knob on the dashboard tray, now has a little stop. This prevents the control from being moved completely from the "flaps down" to the "flaps up" position, and means that if the flaps are hurriedly raised their movement is very slow and is not likely, therefore, to alter the machine’s characteristics at a critical moment. In standard form, and ready to be flown away, the SR-10C costs £2,835 at Croydon.
Flight, September 1939
To-day's Light Aeroplanes
FOREIGN MACHINES on the BRITISH MARKET
THE Reliant is now well known over here, and the 1939 model is very similar to previous models, though it has been considerably cleared up in detail. It is a luxurious four-seater powered either with a 260 h p. Lycoming, 450 h.p. Wasp Junior. 450 h.p. Wright, 290 h.p. Lycoming, or 350 h.p. Wright - with varying performance accordingly. All models have c.p. or c.s. airscrews The price of the 260 h.p Lycoming-engined Reliant is £2,835.
Гражданские Stinson Reliant создавались на базе военного варианта и отлично продавались в 1940-е годы, особенно в США. Эта машина выпущена в 1942 году, имеет британскую регистрацию и в 2011 году была в летной годности.
Beautifully-preserved, pre-war Stinson Model SR-5 (c/n. 9221) N13847 seen in front of a Canadian Grumman Mallard, CF-HAV.
MONTREAL-BASED. An ex-U.S.A.A.F. Stinson V-77 Reliant (CF-ILG; AC-41-20009) four-seater at Cartierville Airport.
[Stinson SR.6 Reliant] The Airport of Steene (Ostende).
Stinson SR-9 NC2285 at Springfield Airport. The 1937 version of thus well-tried five-seater came in either De Luxe ("D") series or Multi-Purpose (“M”), the former for the private owner and sportsman pilot and the latter for general transport duties. Variants were powered by the Wright Whirlwind (285-320 h.p.), the 450 h.p. Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior, and the 245 h.p. Lycoming nine-cylinder R-680-D6 engine. Fitted with the Lycoming, the SR-9BD cruised at around 140 m.p.h. and had a range of 400 miles.
STINSON RELIANT 9FD. 450 h.p. Wright Whirlwind or Pratt and Witney Wasp. Cruising speed 178 m.p.h. Climb 1,500 feet per minute. Range 690 miles. Useful load 1,565 lbs.
The magnIficent condItion of Fairey Aviation's Stinson Reliant is evident in this photograph.
The 1939 model no longer has the characteristic Stinson cowling.
BUENOS FAKING. The Brooklands clubhouse after Warner Bros, had adapted it to film requirements as a Spanish Airport Building. The windsock must be an international one!
BEAUTY TREATMENT. The new type of wing and general cleaning-up has vastly improved the appearance of the Stinson Reliant. This view is of the latest 1936 model. With a cruising speed of 140 m.p.h. and four comfortable seats it is an attractive proposition. The engine is a nine-cylinder Lycoming of 225 h.p.
The new Reliant flying near Croydon: This picture was taken by a Flight photographer from Mr. Leslie Irvin's own Stinson.
The Reliant coming in to land at Croydon with the pneumatically operated flaps, which are the most effective of air brakes, in the "down" position.
RELIANT: The latest Stinson Reliant photographed outside Rollason's shops at Croydon soon after it had been assembled for Brian Allen Aviation, who are the sole distributors in this country. This new model has pneumatically operated flaps and a Smith v.p. airscrew as well as improved internal fittings
THE STINSON "RELIANT": This is the 1934 model, which, powered with the Lycoming 225 h.p. engine, carries four passengers in an unusually comfortable cabin. The basic design is similar to that of previous Stinson machines, examples of which have been seen in this country. The cruising speed is 115 m.p.h.
The Stinson "Reliant" Model SR-10ED Five-seat Cabin Monoplane (320 h.p. Wright "Whirlwind" engine).
A beautifully maintained Stinson SR-9F Reliant four/five-seater (c/n. 5707, ex-NC17194) - one of four impressed by U.S.A.A.F. in 1942 as UC-BIE. Power: 450-h.p. P. & W. R-9B5-AN-1. Built, summer 1937.
Cleaner lines for the new Reliant; notice the smooth engine cowling. Stinsons now produce a lightweight, known as the 105.
The commercial Stinson SR-10 Reliant Four/five-seat Cabin Monoplane.
Связной самолет Stinson Reliant, которым пользовался министр обороны Словакии
Royal Navy Stinson Reliant FK878, similar to the Reliant flown by the author, at the ATA Pageant at White Waltham in September, 1945.
The Stinson AT-19 Reliant Navigational Training Monoplane (290 h.p. Lycoming R-680-13 engine).
Stinson Reliant поставлялись британским ВМС по ленд-лизу с 1943 года. Они использовались для подготовки штурманов и в качестве связных в составе 26-ти эскадрилий и подразделений авиации ВМС.
The one and only diesel-powered Stinson.
An All American Aviation Stinson SR-10C, painted all red and believed to be NC22085, demonstrates Dr. Adams' mail collection system
A standard Stinson Reliant of All-American Aviation, Inc., picking up a mail container at a small town which has no aerodrome
MIDLANDS CENTRE: The terminal building and hangar at the new Wolverhampton aerodrome - with a small portion of Mr. J. R. Bryan’s Reliant in the right foreground. The Midland Aero Club are providing the club flying facilities there, while Boulton Paul already give a manufacturing atmosphere. The latter’s works, incidentally, make an excellent landmark when the aerodrome is being approached in poor visibility.
"... which, in view of age, type and original cost, was in the best condition."
THE ILL WIND: A corner of Rollason's hangar at Croydon. In the foreground is a Stinson Reliant, with the little Latvian V.E.F. J.12 behind it and the South African Junkers Junior on the right. One of I.A.F.'s Curtiss Condor freighters can be seen in the far distance.
The scene in Duxford’s Superhangar just before the Brooks auction on April 15, 1991. In the foreground are Grumman Avenger N6827C and Stinson Reliant N9570H.
The Stinson Reliant (Lycoming engine) as an air ambulance;
The Stinson Reliant, handled by Brian Allen Aviation
Edo floats can be specified for the new Stinson which is available in a number of different forms for specialised purposes.
SEAPLANE CONVERSION: A Stinson SR-9D Reliant seaplane used in Canada by the Imperial Oil Company. The extra fin below the fuselage - to balance the effect of the floats which provide excessive side area ahead of the c.g. - is a noteworthy modification to the standard version of the machine. The actual and necessary size of the floats explains some of the difficulties involved in any conversion.
The Stinson "Reliant" Five-seat Cabin Seaplane (245 h.p. Lycoming engine).
The American private-owner type equipped with Edo floats: the latest Stinson Reliant
Stinson SR-10K floatplane NC21147, with the NYPD from July 1939 to March 1945.
The latest Lycoming-Smith electrically controlled airscrew is now a standard feature of all Reliants; its method of control is both interesting and Ingenious. This Flight photograph also shows the new type of engine cowling.
Comfort and convenience have been carefully studied in the planning of the Reliant's cabin. The instrument panel mounting is shockproof.
THIS IS EQUIPMENT: By way of showing what can be done in the way of instrument layout with a very fully equipped machine, this photograph of the dashboard of Mr. Leslie Irvin's new Stinson Reliant is interesting. The placings of the instruments and controls are shown in the key below, those applying to the engine operation being indicated by letters and the others by figures.
The mail bin on the right-hand side of the cockpit has a capacity of 250 lb. The aeroplanes are provided with two-way radio.
Some idea of the car-like appearance of the interior of the Reliant can be gathered from this "peep" through the door of the specially equipped Wright-engined model purchased by Mr. Bryans.
Inside the latest Stinson Reliant: The neatness of the instrument and control layout is noteworthy; presumably the large panel can take other instruments, such as those of the free gyro type, when these are ordered. The cowling of the latest Reliant has, incidentally, been changed both to improve the lines and to increase the accessibility.
"Saloon car" interior appearance is the aim in the latest Stinson, another American type with British concessionaire.
A master fuse is placed so that it can be immediately reached while in flight and its removal cuts out the very full electrical equipment of the Reliant.
The Stinson AT-19 Reliant Navigational Trainer.