Farman F.120 / F.3X / F.4X Jabiru
Варианты:
Farman - F.120 / F.3X / F.4X Jabiru - 1923 - Франция
Страна: Франция
Год: 1923


Пассажирский самолет
Описание:
Farman F.121 Jabiru
Flight, October 1923
WINNERS OF THE FRENCH "GRAND PRIX"
Flight, December 1924
The Paris Aero Show 1924
Фотографии

Farman F.121 Jabiru

Необычный самолет с огромным крылом с широкой хордой и толстым профилем, выполненным по схеме подкосного высокоплана, был выбран "Farman" для участия в официальном конкурсе "Grand Prix des Avions Transports" 1923 года. Прототип Farman F.3X Jabiru был построен вовремя, чтобы победить во всех этапах конкурса. Силовая установка F.3X состояла из четырех двигателей Hispano-Suiza 8Ac, тандемно установленных на коротких пилонах - "крылышках" в нижней части фюзеляжа. Первоначально охлаждение двигателей осуществлялось с помощью установленных на подкосах радиаторов, оказавшихся неэффективными, что привело к задержке производства, и был опробован вариант с двигателями Lorraine.
Четыре экземпляра варианта F.4X были построены в 1925 году. Они отличались от F.3X силовой установкой из трех незакапотированных радиальных двигателей Salmson AZ.9 по 300 л. с. (224 кВт), один из которых размещался сверху носовой части фюзеляжа, а боковые были выдвинуты вперед и сдвинуты как можно ближе друг к другу. Трехдвигательная компоновка отрицательно сказалась на пассажировместимости самолета. Если на F.3X два пассажира сидели в остекленной носовой части фюзеляжа, один - справа от пилота, еще семь - в пассажирской кабине, то F.4X мог перевозить только семь человек.
Эксплуатация четырех F.4X началась в первые месяцы 1925 года, они открыли линию компании "Lignes Farman" из Парижа в Цюрих. Летные характеристики самолетов оказались невысокими - на протяжении 1925 года были потеряны две машины, после чего оставшиеся машины сняли с регулярных маршрутов. F.4X с укороченной носовой частью и поднятой кабиной пилота был продемонстрирован на Парижском авиасалоне в 1924 году, но больше о его судьбе ничего неизвестно.
Серия из семи пассажирских самолетов F.3X, получивших к тому времени обозначение F.121, была построена в 1924-1926 годах. Окончательный вариант доработанной системы охлаждения был опробован на прототипе F.3X, после чего его обозначение изменили на F.121a. Один F.121 был передан "Farman" для испытаний в государственный центр S.T.Ае. и впоследствии продан за рубеж. В 1926 году четыре самолета начали полеты на линии "Farman", связывающей Париж с Брюсселем и Амстердамом, а две оставшиеся машины были проданы датской компании D.D.L. Позднее для D.D.L. в Дании по лицензии построили еще два самолета. Эти четыре машины обслуживали линии между Копенгагеном, Гамбургом и Кёльном, последняя из них была списана в 1931 году.
Единственный F.123 был прототипом бомбардировщика, сохранившим общую концепцию Jabiru. Он имел внутренний бомбоотсек, носовую и верхнюю стрелковые точки и был оснащен двумя двигателями Hispano-Suiza по 450 л. с. (336 кВт). Очень похожий на него самолет F.124, но уже с двигателями Gnome-Rhone Jupiter по 420 л.с (313 кВт), тоже не вышел из стадии отработки.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

Тип: пассажирский самолет
Силовая установка: четыре V-образных 8-цилиндровых поршневых двигателя Hispano-Suiza 8Ac мощностью по 180 л. с. (134 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 225 км/ч; крейсерская скорость 175 км/ч; потолок 4000 м; дальность 650 км
Масса: пустого снаряженного 3000 кг; максимальная взлетная 5000 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 19,00 м; длина 13,68 м; высота 4,48 м; площадь крыла 81,00 м2

Flight, October 1923

WINNERS OF THE FRENCH "GRAND PRIX"
Two New Types of Farman Four-Engined Aeroplanes

  As recorded in our issue of September 27, 1923, the French "Grand Prix" for commercial aeroplanes, which finished on September 24 last, resulted in first and second places being secured by Farman machines, the Bleriot four-engined biplane obtaining third place.
  The Farman four-engined monoplane is the first machine of its type to be designed and built in France. In a measure the design may be said to be influenced by the German designers of multi-engined aircraft, although the resemblance is by no means strong enough to justify the use of the word "copying." In fact, but for certain features which are reminiscent of Dornier practice, the Farman monoplane is of entirely original conception, both as regards its general lay-out and in the matter of detail design.
  Broadly, the Farman "Grand Prix" winner is a thick-wing, braced monoplane with the four 180 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engines placed in pairs on short wing roots projecting from the bottom of the fuselage. The main plane rests on top of the fuselage, and is braced on each side by two pairs of struts, one of which runs from the engines to the root of the wing on the top longerons, while the other pair slopes outward from the engine bearers to the wing spars. The monoplane wing is of very large chord, and has a pronounced taper both in thickness and chord. Ailerons of high aspect ratio are fitted, and it will be noticed that they are not balanced in spite of the large size.
  The fuselage is of rectangular section, and does not project very far ahead of the leading edge of the wing. The pilots are placed in the nose, in slightly staggered seats, and as there is nothing ahead of them to obstruct the view they probably are able to see in all directions that matter.
  The four Hispano-Suiza engines are neatly cowled-in, the absence of nacelle radiators enabling the cowling to be carried right around the front of the engines. Lamblin radiators of the latest type are fitted on the struts that run from the engines to the top longeron of the fuselage. This type of radiator may now be said to have passed the experimental stage, and is beginning to be fitted on a number of French machines.
  The undercarriage of the Farman monoplane is of very simple type, consisting of a plain Vee under each engine, braced laterally by a bent axle pivoted to the centre of the fuselage.
  The Farman F.3X has an overall length of 14 metres (45 ft. 11 ins.), and a span of 19 metres (62 ft. 4 ins.). The wing area is 81 sq. m. (872 sq. ft.), and the weight empty is 3,000 kgs. (6,600 lbs.).
  In the "Grand Prix" the F.3X was piloted by Coupet, who had with him as second pilot Landry, one of the Farman pilots from the establishment at Toussus-le-Noble.
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Flight, December 1924

The Paris Aero Show 1924

SOCIETE DES AVIONS HENRY AND MAURICE FARMAN

  Two complete machines and the fuselage of a third are exhibited on the Farman stand. Of the two it is difficult to say which is the more interesting, and besides, in spite of the fact that one is a twin-engined and the other a single-engined machine, there are many similarities between them. The one has the advantage of being proved, and of having to its credit the first prize in the last two Grand Prix for commercial aeroplanes, as well as more recently the Coupe Lamblin, while the other is an entirely new type. The former is the famous "Jabiru," photographs and a brief description of which have appeared in FLIGHT, and the latter is a two-seater reconnaissance biplane, or rather "sesquiplan," as the lower wing is of quite diminutive dimensions.
  The "Jabiru" is, as is, of course, well known, a development of the F.3X with 180 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engines, which won the 1923 Grand Prix for commercial aeroplanes, but has been somewhat altered in various details, as well as having two 400 h.p. Lorraine engines substituted for the 180 Hispanos.
  As exhibited at the Salon, the "Jabiru" is a high-performance passenger carrier, being provided with a comfortable saloon with seating accommodation for nine passengers. The leg-room provided appears to be ample, an important consideration for long journeys, but the machine scarcely impresses one as being a commercial proposition with a power expenditure of close upon 90 h.p. for each paying passenger. The Grand Prix, it may be recollected, was flown to a formula, in which speed played an important part, and if high performance is required certainly the "Jabiru" seems to score, as the maximum speed is given as 208 km./h. (130 m.p.h.). The commercial cruising speed is stated to be 180 km./h. (113 m.p.h.), which, if correct, is also a very good figure, but the price paid for this high speed does appear somewhat high.
  The cabin of the "Jabiru," as already stated, has room for nine passengers, a sofa along the front wall seating three, and the remaining six being single chairs. A small table is also provided on the starboard side.
  The original "Jabiru” was fitted with three engines, two on the lower plane and one in the nose of the fuselage. The third engine has been removed in the show machine, and its place is taken by the pilot's cockpit, which forms a "bulge" in the leading edge. The view from the cockpit must be exceptionally good, and the pilot has the further advantage that he can see both engines. In plan view the "Jabiru" is not exactly a pretty machine, resembling as it does a sort of sting-ray with its monoplane wing of tremendous chord and fairly low aspect ratio. However there is no denying the efficiency of the machine, and appearances are, after all, a secondary consideration.
  The two Lorraine engines are mounted on, but well ahead of, the short wing roots that give the machine its title of "Sesquiplan," and in this position they are fairly accessible for inspection or overhauls of a minor character. The wing bracing and undercarriage bracing struts all meet near the tips of the lower wings stumps, the whole being so arranged as to provide triangulation, as indicated in a sketch. Apart from these struts there is no external bracing, and in consequence the machine is of clean outline.
  The main characteristics are as follows: Length o.a. 13-68 m. (44 ft. 9 ins.); wing span, 19 m. (62 ft. 2 ins.); wing area, 90 sq. m. (970 sq. ft.); weight empty, 3,200 kgs. (7,000 lbs.); useful load, 2,000 kgs. (4,400 lbs.). Total loaded weight, 5,200 kgs. (11,400 lbs.); wing loading, 11.8 lbs./sq.ft. Power loading (on 800 h.p.), 14.3 lbs./h.p. Maximum speed, 208 km./h. (130 m.p.h.); cruising speed, 180 km./h. (112.5 m.p.h.). Ceiling 4,250 m. (14,000 ft.).
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THE FARMAN F.3X: This four-engined monoplane secured first place in the French "Grand Prix."
The Farman "Jabiru," four Hispano-Suiza engines, which won this year's Grand Prix for commercial aeroplanes.
Необычно выглядевший Farman F.3X оказался не слишком удачным пассажирским самолетом. Короткое крыло малого удлинения было характерно для разработок "Farman", а использование радиаторов Ламблена являлось в то время общепринятой французской практикой.
THE AMSTERDAM AIR TERMINUS: The lower photograph shows the hangars, offices, etc. at the Schiphol aerodrome. The international character of this Dutch airport may be gathered from the machines in front of the buildings, which include a Farman "Jabiru," a three-engined Junkers monoplane, a Fokker monoplane, and a Dornier monoplane. The upper photograph shows the aerodrome restaurant where excellent meals are served, and from which a good view of the aerodrome, machines, etc. is obtained.
FARMANS AT THE PARIS AERO SHOW: The large twin-engined (400 h.p. Lorraine) "Jabiru" commercial "semi-sesquiplan." Note the pilot's elevated position. It was this type of machine which won the last two Grand Prix competitions for commercial aeroplanes.
Справедливо претендующий на достойное место в списке самых уродливых самолетов в мире, Farman F.4X был трехмоторным вариантом F.3X. Пилот размещался в открытой кабине позади центрального двигателя.
The French have a name for such offspring - 'les monstres'. Perhaps the less said about this 'flying barndoor" the better. Let it suffice that this is the Farman F.3X Jabiru (that's not in my French primer) trimoteur - Salmson experimental commercial transport of the summer of 1924. The wooden, four-blade propellers are described as "acoustique", but I'm not getting involved in that one either. The standard F.3X had only two engines while the Danish version, the F.4X or F.104, had four engines. These were the days when everyone liked to put the horses way up front and not a la Caravelle and D.H.121 et al. There was a place for the pilot - he rode the monster from a seat in the gallery, in the wing leading edge immediately behind the middle Salmson.
SOME FARMAN DETAILS: 2. Diagrammatic perspective sketch of the system of bracing employed in the two Farman sesquiplans. 3. Wing strut attachments and undercarriage hinge on the Farman "Jabiru." 4. One side of the "Jabiru "undercarriage. Note the radiator position and the locking rod of the engine cowling.