Vickers F.B.27 Vimy, Vimy Commercial и Vernon
В январе 1919 года компания "Vickers" приступила к разработке гражданского варианта Vimy - Vimy Commercial, спроектировав фюзеляж увеличенного диаметра с кабиной на 10 пассажиров и установив два двигателя Eagle VIII. За прототипом, совершившим
первый полет 13 апреля 1919 года, последовали 43 серийных самолета - для Китая (40) и компаний "Instone Airline" и "Grands Express Aeriens" и СССР (по одному). Еще пять аналогичных самолетов, отличавшихся лишь погрузочным люком в носовой части, были построены для британских ВВС под обозначением Vimy Ambulance (санитарный). Они были рассчитаны на перевозку четырех больных на носилках и восьми сидячих пациентов и двух санитаров.
Последним в семействе Vimy/Vimy Commercial был бомбардировщик/транспортный самолет Vernon, использовавшийся ВВС для полицейских операций в Ираке с 1921 года. Служившие в 45-й и 70-й эскадрильях в Хинаиди под Багдадом, эти самолеты использовались не только по прямому назначению, но и в качестве санитарных, а также сыграли важную роль при создании воздушной почтовой линии Каир - Багдад.
Вариант Vernon Mk I (построено 20) мало отличался от Vimy Commercial, но Vernon Mk II (25) оснастили 450-сильными (336 кВт) ПД Napier Lion II, a Vernon Mk III (10) получил двигатели Lion III, увеличенный запас топлива и масляно-пневматические амортизаторы шасси. С 1927 года на смену Vernon пришел Vickers Victoria.
Flight, July 1920
The Olympia Aero Show 1920
Vickers, Ltd. (STAND 50) Vickers House, Broadway, Westminster, London.
THE exhibits of this famous armament firm will be very numerous, including as they do a large variety of accessories and models in addition to the two full-size machines shown. One of these will be the famous "Vickers-Vimy-Commercial," of which a large number have been ordered by the Chinese Government. This machine is not a new type, inasmuch as it was already in existence last year, but it has the advantage of being well tried out. It was a machine of this type, it may be remembered, which was flown from London to South Africa, and the type is in regular use on the "Instone" Continental air service. Since its first inception the Vimy-Commercial has been altered and improved in several respects. The large cabin, with seating accommodation for 9-10 passengers, is built upon the famous Saunders "Consuta" principle, with the layers of plywood sewn together, a form of construction which has proved very strong and durable. This construction also has the advantage that there is no internal cross bracing in the cabin, which is, therefore, particularly roomy and comfortable. There are eight wicker seats arranged along the sides of the cabin, and a ninth wooden seat is placed on the starboard side, opposite the entrance door.
The pilot's cockpit is entered through two doors in the forward bulkhead of the cabin, and below this is a space for cargo, mail, or luggage. A separate door in the port side enables the cargo to be loaded or unloaded without inconveniencing the passengers in the slightest. For long nonstop flights two pilots may be carried, and dual control is fitted as standard.
Should it be desired to use the machine as a cargo carrier, this can easily be done by removing the seats, when the cabin affords a roomy space for goods and merchandise. The capacity of the Vimy-Commercial when thus fitted is 1 1/2 ton. It will therefore be seen that quite a considerable cargo can be transported by air at the - comparatively - high speed of 100 m.p.h. The machine has an endurance of five hours, and the petrol consumption is 35 gallons per hour.
The Vimy-Commercial, with its commodious cabin and unusual appearance, attracts great attention. No doubt this is also due to the historical nights made by Vickers-Vimys during the last 18 months or so. The machine is well known to FLIGHT readers, reference having been made to it from time to time in our columns. The fuselage is built up of two, or rather three, distinct units. The first of these is formed by the cabin, which is a monocoque structure built on the well-known Saunders "Consuta" system of double diagonal plankings joined by glue and parallel stitchings of copper wire. This construction allows of a clear cabin space without internal bracing. The seats are arranged along the two sides, leaving a passage in the centre. The front cockpit is entered through doors in the front of the cabin, and dual control is provided. The entrance door of the cabin carries on the inside steps by which entering the car is easy and comfortable. Another larger door in the side farther forward can be used for goods when the machine is stripped of its seats, or for luggage when used as a passenger machine. The space under the floor of the pilots' cockpit affords reasonable luggage space.
The petrol tanks are slung underneath the fuselage by flat steel straps, and specially large filters have been fitted, so that there is little danger of choking, especially as the filters are easily removed for cleaning.
The rear portion of the fuselage is a girder structure, with hollow circular section longerons. The manner of bolting this part of the fuselage on to the cabin part is the subject of one of our sketches. The third section to which reference has been made is a tubular structure at the extreme rear of the fuselage. This carries the biplane tail, and terminates in a horizontal transverse tube at the stern, which facilitates handling the machine on the ground. The machine is in other respects so well known as to need no further description here.
Flight, March 1921
THE VICKERS VIMY-COMMERCIAL AMBULANCE MACHINE
Two 450 H.P. Napier "Lion" Engines
FROM time to time attempts have been made at using the aeroplane as an express ambulance, a function for which its high speed and smooth running eminently fit it. So far, however, such attempts have not been very serious, and have mostly been confined to fairly small machines which would only take one patient on a stretcher. Of a very different character is the new Vickers Vimy-Commercial Ambulance aeroplane which has just been finished at Messrs. Vickers' Weybridge Works. This machine, which is an adaptation of the standard Vimy-Commercial, has been designed to carry, in addition to pilot and engineer, a doctor, a nurse, four "stretcher cases" or eight "sitting-up cases."
The exceptionally roomy hull of the Vimy-Commercial affords ample space for the patients and plenty of room for moving about as regards the doctor and nurse. The arrangement of the racks for the stretchers is shown in the accompanying illustrations. When not in use the racks fold up out of the way. In order to facilitate getting "stretcher cases" into and out of the machine, a tunnel has been provided through the front wall of the cabin, under the pilot's cockpit, communicating, vid a door in the nose of the machine, with the open. Thus it is possible to slide the stretchers in and out without having to turn around corners, guide rails being provided for sliding the stretchers easily. The stretchers, incidentally, are of the standard "General Service" type as used by the R.A.M.C.
Provision has been made for maintaining an even temperature in the cabin under widely varying atmospheric conditions. On the front wall of the cabin is mounted a fan which forces air through a screen down which a constant trickle of water can be maintained. Thus in tropical climates the air in the cabin can be kept delightfully cool. The rate of flow of the water can be regulated from inside the cabin and the fan is provided with a drive which operates when the machine is standing on the ground.
The cabin is provided with lavatory accommodation and wash-basin, a 15-gallon water tank being provided for use with the lavatory pan and smaller separate tanks for wash-basin, cooling apparatus and for drinking.
In addition to the "medical" side of the equipment, the machine is provided with a wireless set so that the machine may at all times be in direct communication with the ground, both for transmitting and receiving instructions, etc., and for navigational purposes in misty weather.
As regards the machine itself little need be said, as it follows closely the arrangement of the standard Vimy-Commercial. There is one exception, however, which makes the machine interesting, apart from its function as an aerial ambulance. The two engines are Napier "Lions," of 450 h.p. each, and fitted with these the performance is considerably increased. Thus for cases of emergency the maximum speed can be increased to over 120 m.p.h., when urgent "cases" can be got to a base hospital in a very short time indeed.
The general specification of the Vickers Vimy-Commercial Ambulance is as follows :-
Span, 68 ft.;
overall length, 42 ft. 8 in.;
height, 15 ft. 3 in.;
chord 10 ft. 6 in.;
gap, 10 ft.;
area of main planes, 1,330 sq. ft.
The load carried is as follows:
Crew (pilot and engineer), 360 lbs.;
four patients and stretchers, 760 lbs.;
doctor and attendant, 360 lbs.;
wireless equipment, 100 lbs.;
water and tank (medical), 165 lbs.;
medical equipment, 105 lbs.;
stores, 200 lbs.;
total, 2,050 lbs.;
petrol, 167 gallons (5 hours) 1,200 lbs.;
oil, 14 gallons 140 lbs.;
reserve water, 4 gallons 40 lbs.;
total load 3,430 lbs.
If 8 "sitting-up" cases are carried the load is increased to 4,070 lbs.
With full load as above the performance is as follows:
Speed at 6,500 ft., 109 m.p.h.;
climb to 6,500 ft. (with full load of 4,047 lbs.) 10 minutes;
duration at 109 m.p.h., 5 hours.
Three-quarter front view of the Vickers-Vimy Commercial
THE VICKERS "VIMY COMMERCIAL": A commercial version of the "Vimy" bomber, with two Napier "Lions," originally operated by Instone Air Line Ltd., since 1920.
The Vimy-Commercial prototype (K-107) which differed from production aircraft in having circular portholes and no rear door.
The prototype Vimy-Commercial (K-107) made its first flight at Brooklands in February 1919.
AT OLYMPIA: The Vickers Vimy-Commercial, two 375 h.p. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engines
LONDON CAIRO CAPE BY AIR: The Vickers-Vimy-Rolls commercial machine, chartered by The Times, which is now en route by air for Cape Town via Cairo.
The Vimy-Commercial, G-EAAV, which was used in 1920 for The Times flight from London to Tabora in Central Africa. This was probably the first production Vimy-Commercial.
LONDON-CAIRO-CAPE BY AIR: Start of the Vickers-Vimy-Rolls aeroplane at 11-30 a.m. from Brooklands on January 24 1920. Below (left) the machine is just leaving the ground, and on the right she is “well away”
LONDON-CAIRO-CAPE BY AIR: Group of the pilots and others directly concerned with this historical flight. Left to right : Mr. Corbett (The Times), Mr. Corby (rigger), Sergt-Maj. Wyatt (mechanic), Mr A Knight (works manager), Capt. Broome, D.F.C (navigator and second pilot), Mr R.K.Dowson (Vickers, South Africa), Capt. Cockerell, Croix de Guerre, Belgium (pilot), Mr. R. K. Pierson (designer of the “Vimy"), Mr. P. Muller (works superintendent)
Легендарный "Вими Комершл" "Сити оф Лондон" (рег. G-EASI) был поставлен "Инстоун Эйр Лайн" в 1921г. после выполнения китайского заказа на 40 подобных машин, которые вообще не оставили следа в истории коммерческой авиации. В отличие от них, сорок первый серийный "Вими Комершл", перейдя в 1924г. во владение "Империал Эйруэйз", с успехом применялся на европейских авиалиниях до 1934г. - дольше любого другого британского переходного пассажирского самолета.
LONDON PARIS SERVICE RESUMED: AT WADDON AERODROME: The re-starting from this aerodrome on March 21 of the cross-Channel service. (1) Lord Londonderry, after inspecting Messrs. Instone's Vickers-Vimy-Rolls machine; (2) Passengers embarking with luggage. On left Mrs. Alec Rae, wearing medals for nursing in France, and, right, Mrs. Barnard. (3) The pilot, Mr. Barnard, whose 352nd cross-Channel trip it was, fixes a new flag on his 'bus. (4) In centre, Lord Londonderry, Under-Secretary of State for Air, who attended the restarting of the service; on left, Mr. S. Instone, and on right, Mr. T. Instone, whose firm are responsible for this particular service. (5) The 'bus taking off for Paris.
Sir Samuel Instone beside one of the Vickers Vimy Commercial biplanes used by Instone Air Lines.
AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: Airco 18, Instone Vickers Vimy-Commercial, Westland Limousine, Avro triplane, and Bristol Coupe
FROM THE AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: The photograph gives a good idea of the different types of machines on view. Vickers "Vimys," "D.H." monoplane, and several types of "D.H." biplanes, Bristol Ten-seater, Farman Goliaths, etc.
An early British passenger-carrier was the Vimy Commercial. In addition to those used in this country a large number was sold abroad, including 40 to China.
Vimy Commercial operated by Instone Air Lines (15 May 1922).
Instone Air Lines' famous Vickers Vimy Commercial G-EASI "City of London". This photo, which appears in the book "The First Croydon Airport 1915-1928", has been faked to show the Plough Lane-site terminal buildings in the background. Note the Vimy's integral passenger steps protruding just below the lower wing trailing edge
The Vickers "Vimy-Commercial," with two Napier "Lion" engines. The "Vernon" troop carrier is very similar in general appearance.
THE VICKERS-VIMY-COMMERCIAL, TWO NAPIER "LION" ENGINES: The identification letters on this machine are "F-ADER."
THE VICKERS VIMY-COMMERCIAL AMBULANCE MACHINE: Three-quarter rear view.
The Vickers "Vimy" transport (two Napier "Lions").
THE VICKERS VIMY-COMMERCIAL AMBULANCE MACHINE: The door through which "stretcher cases" are placed in and taken out of the machine.
The Vernon I prototype (J6864) which was probably originally the Vimy-Commercial which took part in the Civil Aircraft Competitions at Martlesham Heath in August 1920.
Another photograph of the Vernon I prototype (J6864) for the R.A.F.
Vickers "Vernon" (Two Napier "Lions"). The Vickers "Vernon" is a development of the famous "Vimy" and its commercial version, which latter has been in service on the London-Continental air routes of Imperial Airways. It is a twin-engined biplane with a large circular section fuselage forming, in the forward half, a roomy cabin with «de windows. The pilot's cockpit is located high up in the nose of the fuselage. It is employed mainly as a troop transport, or as an aerial ambulance, in the Middle East, No. 45 Squadron being thus equipped.
В 1920-х годах Vernon широко использовались британскими ВВС для полицейских операций на Ближнем Востоке. Этот 12-местный бомбардировщик/транспортный самолет Vernon с двигателями Napier Lion, принадлежавший 45-й бомбардировочной эскадрилье, сфотографирован над рекой Тигр в 1923-1924 годах.
Санитарный Vernon Mk II, J7143, позже переоборудованный до стандарта Mk III.
A bustling scene at Hinaidi, south of Baghdad, with mail being loaded aboard the Vickers Vernons of No 70 Sqn for the flight westwards along the Furrow.
VICKERS "VERNONS" AT BAGHDAD: Our photograph shows a squadron of twin-engined Vickers-Napier "Vernons" at Hinaidi Aerodrome, Baghdad. These machines are used as bombers and troop-carriers, and are also employed for transporting mails on the Royal Air Force Mail Route between Cairo and Baghdad.
Английские двухмоторные транспортники Виккерс "Вернон" (они же "Вими Коммершиал"), закупленные китайцами в 1920 году, использовались не только как почтово-пассажирские самолеты, но и как бомбардировщики в междоусобных войнах.
"Vickers-Vimys" for China: A batch of Vickers-Vimy-Commercial machines in various stages of erecting at the Weybridge works of Messrs. Vickers, Ltd.
"Vickers-Vimys" for China: Erecting the cabins: A large batch of Vickers-Vimy-Commercials are now being completed at Weybridge for the Chinese Government. Our photograph gives a good idea of the absence of cross bracing inside the cabins of these machines
Interior view of the cabin of the Vickers-Vimy-Rolls aeroplane bound for Cape Town
THE VICKERS VIMY-COMMERCIAL AMBULANCE MACHINE: An interior view, looking aft, showing racks, stretchers, seats, etc.
A short break from removing a Napier Lion engine from a crashed Vickers Vernon transport. Vernons served with Nos 45 and 70 Sqns in Iraq from 1922 until 1927, when the type was superseded by the Victoria.
The silver model, to scale, of the Vickers-Vimy-Rolls aeroplane presented to Dr. Chalmers Mitchell by The Times to commemorate the first attempt to fly from Cairo to the Cape. Four smaller models of the machine were presented to the pilots and mechanics, Capt. S. Cockerell, Capt. F. C. Broome, D.F.C., Sergt.-Major James Wyatt, and Mr. Claude Corby. All these beautiful models are the work of the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company of Regent Street
CUMULUS CLOUD FORMING IN HOT WEATHER: A Vickers-Vimy commercial type aeroplane flying above the clouds.
MODERN CABIN MACHINES: The Vickers-Vimy-Commercial.
THE VICKERS VIMY-COMMERCIAL AMBULANCE MACHINE: Pictorial sectional views showing arrangement of racks for stretchers, etc.
ON THE VICKERS-VIMY-COMMERCIAL: The cabin, showing door to pilots' cockpit
View inside the Vickers-Vimy-Commercial exhibited on the stand of Ateliers des Mureaux. The machine, which has been purchased for use by the Grands Express Aeriens, is richly finished in leather repousse work
ON THE VICKERS-VIMY-COMMERCIAL: The hinged door which also forms the steps
ON THE VICKERS-VIMY-COMMERCIAL: 1, the extreme aft portion of the fuselage. The terminal cross-tube is used for handling the machine on the ground. 2, the attachment of the tubular tail portion to the fuselage. 3, attachment of girder part of fuselage to aft bulkhead of cabin. 4, detail of longeron lug of 3
Header tank, mounted on the strut.