Bristol Tourer
Варианты:
Bristol - Tourer - 1919 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1919


Двух/трехместный туристический и учебный самолет
Описание:
Bristol Types 27, 28, 29, 47 и 48 Tourer
Flight, December 1919
THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919
Flight, January 1920
The Paris Aero Show 1919
Flight, July 1920
The Olympia Aero Show 1920
Flight, October 1920
THE BRISTOL TOURER SEAPLANE
Фотографии

Bristol Types 27, 28, 29, 47 и 48 Tourer

Окончание Первой мировой войны и последовавшее сокращение военных заказов заставили Фрэнка Барнелла, главного конструктора "Bristol", обратить внимание на гражданский рынок, и он начал работы над двух/трехместным бипланом. Эту машину, известную сначала как Rancher, а позднее Colonial, предполагалось оснастить двигателем Cosmos Lucifer мощностью 100 л.с. (75 кВт). Но проектирование шло медленно, и все больше внимания уделялось созданию гражданского варианта Bristol Fighter. В январе 1919 года три двухместных машины с двигателями Falcon были построены для Управления гражданской авиации. Они имели сдвоенное управление и дополнительные топливные баки, увеличившие продолжительность полета до пяти часов. Четвертый самолет, оснащенный откидывающимся фонарем над местом пассажира, был известен как Bristol Coupe, а в 1923 году получил фирменное обозначение Type 27. Когда на F.2B установили двигатель Puma от Badger X, машину стали использовать для испытаний силовой установки. Позднее, когда она уже использовалась фирмой в качестве транспортного, ее стали называть Bristol Tourer и в дальнейшем дали обозначение Type 29. Второй подобный самолет, оснащенный четырехлопастным винтом и новым радиатором, был построен в сентябре 1919 года.
  В июле 1919 года "Bristol" получила заказ на вариант Tourer, способный перевозить двух пассажиров. Относительно простые доработки позволили разместить в задней кабине бок о бок двух человек. Кабина также могла оснащаться закрытым фонарем. Модификация с открытой кабиной позднее получила обозначение Type 47, а с закрытой - тип Type 28. Было построено два экземпляра трехместного гидросамолета с открытой кабиной, позднее названного Type 48; первый самолет взлетел 15 октября 1920 года. Большая часть Tourer пошла на экспорт, в том числе в Австралию, Ньюфаундленд и Испанию. Шесть Type 28 Tourer были куплены авиакомпанией "Western Australian Airlines" для созданной ею почтовой авиалинии Геральдтаун - Перт, открытой 4 декабря 1921 года. Доработанный собственными силами F.2B с мотором Hispano Suiza мощностью 300 л.с. (224 кВт) использовался авиакомпанией QANTAS, затем Медицинской авиаслужбой на Северных территориях, а закончил он свою службу на золотых приисках Новой Гвинеи в апреле 1928 года.


Варианты

  Type 45 Scandinavian Tourer: вариант Type 29 с альтернативным колесным/лыжным шасси
  Type 28 Tourer с закрытым фонарем над задней кабиной, в которой за счет небольшого расширения могли разместиться два пассажира.
  Type 81 Puma Trainer: в 1922 году Tourer был доработан для использования в качестве учебного самолета; четыре были построены для открывшейся 15 мая 1923 года Авиашколы резерва в Филтоне; шесть доработаны в вариант Type 81А с новым шасси и оперением и в 1925 году проданы Греции, позднее оснащены двигателями Rolls-Royce Falcon III Type 86 Greek Tourer: шесть гражданских F.2B, которые можно было конвертировать в истребители, с двигателями Puma и рядом других доработок, использовавшиеся Грецией; в 1931 году все самолеты оснастили двигателями Falcon и передали греческим ВМС
  Type 88 Bulgarian Tourer: Tourer с двигателями Wolseley Viper мощностью 180 л.с. (134 кВт) для болгарского Департамента почты и телеграфа (по условиям Версальского договора Болгария не могла иметь самолеты с двигателями, мощность которых превышала 200 л.с. (149 кВт)); два поставлены в апреле 1924 года, отличались от Tourer с двигателями Puma отсутствием бака в центроплане; еще три самолета куплены в апреле 1926 года


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Bristol Type 28 Tourer Coupe

  Тип: двух/трехместный туристический и учебный самолет
  Силовая установка: один рядный двигатель Siddeley Puma мощностью 240 л.с. (179 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 193 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; потолок 6095 м; дальность полета 644 км
  Масса: пустого 862 кг; максимальная взлетная 1361 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 12,01 м; длина 7,95 м; высота 3,07 м; площадь крыла 37,81 м1

Flight, December 1919

THE PARIS AERO SHOW 1919

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON BRITISH SECTION

The British and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd.

The Bristol "Tourer"

  The third complete machine to be exhibited on the Bristol stand will be a two-seater of standard type, i.e. the "Tourer." This machine is a development of the famous F2B, and differs from it chiefly in regard to the rear cockpit, which is now minus the gun ring, while the flat fuselage deck aft has given place for a top fairing. The machine has already been described and illustrated in FLIGHT, and no lengthy reference to it will be required here. Its general lines will be clear from the accompanying illustrations, and it will suffice to point out that the machine is one of great dependability, with a cruising radius of about 560 miles. Owing to the fact that the firm, through the cancelling of War contracts, have on their hands considerable quantities of well-seasoned materials which are being employed in the construction of a large number of machines of the "Tourer" type, it has been found possible to place this machine on the market at the extremely moderate price of L1,200. Added to this it should be pointed out that quick delivery can be guaranteed and it would, therefore, appear probable that the demand for this machine should be very considerable. The machine can be supplied either as a two-seater, dual-control touring machine with a radius of 560 miles, or as a cargo and/or mail carrier, when the cargo capacity is 300 lbs., which can be considerably increased if the machine is to be used for shorter flights than the distance of which the standard machine is capable. The "Tourer" can be supplied either with 275 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon or with 230-240 h.p. Siddeley "Puma" engine. With the former engine the maximum speed is about 125 m.p.h., and with the latter 120 m.p.h. The cruising speeds are 90 and 85 m.p.h., respectively. The overall length is 25 ft. 9 ins. and the wing span 39 ft. 3 ins.

Flight, January 1920

The Paris Aero Show 1919

The Bristol Machines.

  The front of the stand is occupied by the Bristol Tourer, a peace-time version of the famous Bristol Fighter. Fitted with a Siddeley Puma engine and a gravity tank in the centre section of the top plane, the machine looks slightly different from the F2B, but the family relationship is unmistakable. The aft cockpit, which was formerly occupied by the gunner, now accommodates an ordinary peaceful passenger, and the flat top of the aft deck is now covered over with a deck fairing, which adds considerably to the appearance of the machine. Capable of a speed of 120 m.p.h. and with a cruising speed of 85 to 90 m.p.h., this machine should make a strong appeal to the aerial tourist, especially as the price is extremely low, judged by present day standards, namely, ?1,200.

Flight, July 1920

The Olympia Aero Show 1920

The machines

Bristol Aeroplane Co., Ltd. (STAND 59) Filton House, Bristol.

  The Tourer coupe machine is intended as a high-speed cross-country tourer. With its high-powered engine, large tank capacity, sturdy construction, excellent stability and manoeuvrability, it provides a machine suitable for safe and comfortable flying in all weather conditions, and capable also of landing in, and arising from, very constricted areas.
  A Siddeley Puma six-cylindered vertical water-cooled engine is installed, developing 246 b.h.p. at its full normal revolutions of 1,400; it may safely be run, for short periods, up to 1,500 revs., at which the power developed is 255 b.h.p. Dual ignition, by two 6-cylinder magnetos, is fitted.
  A nose radiator is fitted between the fore end of the engine and the air-screw, and Venetian blind type shutters are fitted to the front of the honeycomb surface, adjustable from the pilot's seat and capable of entirely covering the honeycomb area, a very desirable feature in long glides.
  The pilot's seat is so placed in the fuselage that his eyes are about 6 ins. below and about 6 ins. behind the trailing edge of the top centre section; this position has been found to be the best for visibility. The passengers are seated side by side in a roomy and comfortable cabin immediately behind the pilot. This cabin top, which is provided with side and top windows, hinges back to afford access, a metal ladder extending from the top longeron to the ground further facilitates matters. As regards the rest of the machine, this follows more or less the already familiar Bristol "Fighter" lines. The setting of the "fixed" tail plane is adjustable by a hand lever on the R.H. side of the pilot's cockpit; by its use the machine may be trimmed so as to fly level "hands off" at any desired speed, and also with varying weights.


Some Bristol Features

  A much, more immediately practical proposition is the Bristol Coupe Tourer, which is listed at L1,400. The Bristol Fighter, from which the Tourer was evolved, was always one of the best liked in the Air Force during the War, for sheer nicety of handling and stability. These features have been retained in the Coupe, and at the low selling price referred to there is little doubt the machine will become as popular for commercial work as the Fighter was for War purposes.
  The manner in which the Fighter has been adapted as a three-seater commercial machine is very ingenious. The front portion of the fuselage, up to a point behind the pilot's seat, is that of the standard body. Aft of this point, however, a new tail portion has been fitted, curving outwards slightly to give more elbow room in the passenger's cabin. It might be expected that the "bulge" thus caused would have an adverse effect on the performance of the machine. In practice, however, this has not been found to be the case, and on the contrary, if there is any difference in the speed it is rather in favour of the Coupe. We would not suggest that this improvement is caused by the "bulge," but rather by the fact that the heads of the passengers are enclosed and streamlined off. In other respects the Coupe Tourer is a standard Fighter which is already so well known, well tried, and well liked, as to need no further reference here.

Flight, October 1920

THE BRISTOL TOURER SEAPLANE

  VERY satisfactory trials have just been carried out with a tractor seaplane constructed by the Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd., which will be known as the "Bristol Tourer Seaplane."
  In most respects this machine has the same characteristics as the well-known Bristol two- and three-seater Tourer types, brief descriptions of which have already appeared in FLIGHT. The only alteration of importance is, of course, the substitution of floats for wheels. These floats, of which there are two, are comparatively long, being 19 ft. 6 ins. overall length, and extending far back as they do, a tail float is rendered unnecessary.
  They are very soundly constructed, being exceptionally strong for their weight, which is only some 200 lbs. for each float. Along the whole length of the top deck of each float is a walking way, which allows one to move along the floats without the fear of damaging them - an advantage of no small import in seaplane work. Attachments for towing lines are also mounted on the deck of each float.
  Each float is divided into six water-tight compartments, and has a stepped "V" bottom. The fuselage is supported on the floats by two pairs of struts, the standard V-chassis of the land type gear being unsuitable. The floats are so mounted that they are readily detachable, so that for stowing, transport or overhaul purposes they can be removed and the machine rested on its chassis. The removal or replacement of the floats may be effected without any interference with the bracing wires.
  In order to facilitate steering when taxi-ing on the water, water rudders, connected up with the control, are mounted on the stern of each float.
  For the purpose of the first trials a standard 3-seater "Bristol" Tourer was used. In addition to the pilot and two heavy passengers some 40 lbs. of ballast were carried. With this load and in calm weather the machine took off from the water within a length of 400 yards, and in the air behaved very creditably, well maintaining the reputation of the "Bristol" Tourer types as flying propositions.
Tourer и Tourer Coupe. После окончания Первой мировой войны Bristol Fighter в качестве гражданского самолета распространения не получил. Однако в 1919 году на переоборудуемый для гражданского рынка самолет поставили двигатель Puma - вначале машину использовали в качестве летающей лаборатории, но затем было решено построить второй экземпляр, который получил обозначение Tourer и был показан на парижском авиасалоне в декабре 1919 года. В ответ на огромный спрос на гражданском рынке США компания "Bristol" создала несколько модифицированный вариант Tourer - с более широкой задней кабиной, позволявшей перевозить двух человек. Вариант самолета с закрытой задней кабиной получил обозначение Tourer Coupe (на фото). Для американского рынка выпускались двух- и трехместные варианты, они также пользовались успехом в Канаде, Никарагуа, Испании и Австралии. Имелись варианты с поплавковым и лыжным (в Канаде) шасси, всего в производстве находились 23 модификации машины.
The Bristol "Puma" Three-seater Tourer: Showing how the roof of the coupe cabin can be opened up
Type 28 Tourer с закрытым фонарем над задней кабиной, в которой за счет небольшого расширения могли разместиться два пассажира.
Двух-трехместные "Туэрэры" являлись коммерческими модернизациями тяжелых истребителей "Бристоль" F.2B "Файтер".
THE BRISTOL COUPE TOURER AT OLYMPIA: This machine carries two passengers in addition to the pilot
Четырехместные Тип 36 "Сили" являлись коммерческими модернизациями тяжелых истребителей "Бристоль" F.2B "Файтер".
COMMERCIAL AVIATION IN AUSTRALIA: One of the Western Australian Airways, Ltd., Bristol Tourers (Siddeley "Puma"), just arrived at Perth with mails from the North-West. These Bristol machines have now totalled over 285,000 miles, and are still in daily service.
THE BRISTOL "SEELY PUMA" BIPLANE: Three-quarter rear view
At the Air Day at Archerfield, Brisbane, Australia on October 13, 1985. Unadulterated Tourer replica G-AUDK, built for the TV series A thousand skies.
THE BRISTOL "SEELY PUMA" BIPLANE: Three-quarter front view
Air Mail in Australia: The Geraldton to Derby air mail service is extended periodically to Perth, W.A. Our photograph is of interest as a souvenir of the first flight made. The machine is a Bristol Tourer with Siddeley "Puma" engine, and the names of the four gentlemen standing in front are, from left to right: J. A. Dimmit, W. Australia Agent for C.C.Wakefield & Co.; Major N. Brearly, D.S.O., M.C., pilot; C. L. Westcott, and Mr. Durack, whose territory in N.W. Australia is of greater extent than the area of Great Britain. Mr. Durack was the first passenger carried.
THE BRISTOL TOURER: This machine is similar to the famous F2B, except that it has a Siddeley engine
CHILE AND AVIATION: Some months ago the Chilian aviator Capt. Armando Cortinez made a very fine flight in a Bristol monoplane, being the first pilot to make the double flight over the Andes from Chile to Argentina and back. Capt. Cortinez is at present in this country studying British aviation and aeroplanes. On a recent occasion he was taken up by Mr. F. Uwins, the Bristol test pilot, in a Bristol "Tourer," and very much enjoyed his flight. His compatriot Senor Claude, one of the leading coal magnates of Chile, also was taken for a flight, and the opinion of both is that Chile must make extensive use of aircraft
The Bristol Tourer
THE AERIAL DERBY. Photographs of the starters. 4. Bristol Tourer
COMMERCIAL AVIATION IN AUSTRALIA: The Western Australian Airways, Ltd., Depot at Perth, and some of the machines - Bristol Tourers and Avro.
The Bristol "family" at Home. Left to right: The Bristol Babe, the Bristol monoplane, the Bristol Badger, the Bristol Fighter, the Bristol Tourer and the Bristol Pullman triplane
AIR CONFERENCE VISIT TO WADDON: Airco 18, Instone Vickers Vimy-Commercial, Westland Limousine, Avro triplane, and Bristol Coupe
THE AERIAL DERBY : A.S.Butler on the Bristol Tourer makes a sharp turn rounding the pylon starting for bis second circuit.
A "Bristol" Tourer, recently supplied to Bulgaria, giving a demonstration of flying during a display by the N.N.A.K'S, a Bulgarian Gymnastic Society at Sofia. It may be noted, with a strong magnifier, that some of the gymnasts were unable to restrain their curiosity and remain "eyes front," as the Bristol passed over
The strangest sight at the Air Day at Archerfield, Brisbane, Australia on October 13, 1985 was the “German fighter”, adapted from Bristol Tourer replica G-AUDJ, built for the TV series A thousand skies.
THE NEW BRISTOL TOURER SEAPLANE: A three-quarter front view
THE NEW BRISTOL TOURER SEAPLANE: A side view of the machine, and, inset, taxi-ing on the water
MODERN CABIN MACHINES: The Bristol Coupe.
SOME BRISTOL FITTINGS: The sketch show the strut attachments on the Coupe Tourer.
THE BRISTOL COUPE: The body is swelled out in the vicinity of the cabin to give more "elbow room"
The Bristol "Tourer," 230 h.p. Siddeley "Puma"