Flight 1937-05
HIGH SPEED, LONG RANGE, HEAVY LOAD: The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, ordered in large quantities for the R.A.F. The engines of this machine, which Flt. Lt. Turner-Hughes recently flew for Flight's photographer, are at present 795 h.p. Siddeley Tiger IXs, and D.H. v.p. airscrews are fitted.
MAN-MADE MIMICRY: The A.W. Whitley, with the new camouflage scheme, melts into the landscape.
ON HER BEAM ENDS: Flt. Lt. Turner-Hughes demonstrates the manoeuvrability of the Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber. It. can be seen that the camera was aimed almost vertically at the ground.
The Bristol Blenheim bomber indicates the progress made.
VISIBLE PITCH: Careful study of this Flight photograph of a Handley Page Hampden will reveal spirals of vapour trailing from the airscrew tips. The photograph is untouched.
Four German types in regular service fitted with Junkers Jumo compression-ignition engines.
The Fairey Battle medium bomber is a two-seater with the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, and has been ordered in large numbers for the R.A.F.
Not the D.H.1: Capt. G. de Havilland was responsible for the design of the B.E.2 shown here, but this was not his first machine.
The Vickers Vimy with Rolls-Royce Eagle engines was the first aeroplane type to cross the Atlantic, to fly from England to S. Africa, and from England to Australia. All these flights were made in 1919.
The latest Westland is the Lysander army co-operation monoplane.
Mr. C. S. Rushbrooke's Fokker D. VIII.
His Majesty as a Squadron Leader, seen near two famous war-time types, the Bristol Fighter and the Avro 504.
Vimy Commercial G-EASI in Instone's dark blue livery.
An early British passenger-carrier was the Vimy Commercial. In addition to those used in this country a large number was sold abroad, including 40 to China.
Armstrong Whitworth aircraft: The picture shows two A.W. "Quads," which were single-seater fighters. The wing arrangement was intended to give a good view for the pilot. The wings were heavily staggered.
Bristol beginnings are shown here, which shows Graham Gilmour flying a Bristol "Box-kite" from the Haslar sea wall in 1911.
Makers of light plane history. The first D.H. 60 Moth, G-EBKT, with 60 h.p. Cirrus engine. This machine was De Havilland's interpretation of what a light aeroplane should be like. The machine was produced in 1925.
Not a case of cause and effect, but just a successful landing to get a close-up view of somebody else's unsuccessful one. The incident happened at Campo dos Afonsos, near Rio.
In the photograph of the Boulton & Paul "Bourges" (two A.B.C. Dragonflies) one may without stretching one's imagination too greatly see the forerunner of the modern "Sidestrand." Its first claim to publicity was the stunt flying at Hendon in the hands of Frank Courtney.
The twin-engined Boulton and Paul bombers have been almost unrivalled in their class on the score of manoeuvrability. This photograph was secured from a spinning Bourges soon after the war.
The aerobatic Fury flight from No. 1 (F.) Squadron in action over the Gladiators of No. 3 (F.) Squadron.
This view of a Junkers Ju.86 shows the clean installation of its Jumo 205 Diesels.
More commercial Junkers with their economical heavy-oil Jumos.
BLACKBURN "RIPON": Torpedo Carrier, with Napier "Lion" Engine.
Formation aerobatics by a trio of the tractable Gloster Gauntlets now in service.
The air raid alarm is sounding as pilots run to their Gloster Gauntlets, already being started by the ground crew.
A WHIFF OF CORDITE: An Audax pilot at front-gun practice on the range at Hell's Mouth, an inlet on the Carnarvonshire coast. The drogue target is towed on a 1,000-ft. wire.
A Hawker Audax at the Northolt Empire Air Day rehearsal picks up a message strung between rifles.
N.C.O's from the Dominions get acquainted with features of the Dagger-engined Hawker Hector.
Westland Wapiti general-purpose biplanes.
GOING HOLLYWOOD: Northrop attack machines of the U.S. Army Air Corps (Pratt and Whitney Twin Wasp Junior engine with gilled cowling) over Californian orange groves. These machines are intended primarily for ground strafing and apart from one free and four fixed Brownings are equipped for the dispensation of chemicals.
(Top) Two Blackburn Sharks of the T.S.R. squadrons. Coming up astern is an impressive formation of fleet fighters - Hawker Ospreys and Nimrods. (Lower picture) "Long lines of British and foreign warships appeared out of the haze." The aircraft carriers are distinguishable.
FOR ROYAL REVIEW: H.M.S. Courageous, which, together with Glorious and Furious, will be among the 277 vessels assembled at Spithead for the Royal Review to-day, Thursday. The aircraft is a Blackburn Shark T.S.R. with Siddeley Tiger engine.
The Saro London has two 690 h.p. Pegasus IIIs and is now going into service.
The latest Supermarine flying boat, the Stranraer, is shown here. Note the simple bracing.
Heterogeneity at Heathrow: Some of the aircraft on view; in the foreground is the Fairey Swordfish.
GRACE, MIGHT AND VICTORIAN DIGNITY: A fine Royal Review impression of Fairey Swordfish of the Fleet Air Arm passing the austere bulk of H.M.S. Nelson and the contrasting lines of the Royal Yacht, Victoria and Albert.
The Fairey P.4/34 K5099 in which Clouston carried out flights into barrage balloon cables for the RAE.
One recent Merlin installation: the Fairey to the P.4/34 specification. Radiator have a flap to suit cooling to varying flight conditions.
CHIAROSCURISTS WITH COLOUR: “Shadow shading” a Harrow before delivery to a squadron, following an Air Ministry decision in early 1937 to camouflage all medium and heavy bombers.
Left, centre section in its jig. On the right, the three main portions of a wing being assembled.
The bomb cage (right) is built as a complete unit in a swivelling jig. On the left, outer wing portion units. Note that the skin covering already has its proper camber.
The fuselage, although of girder construction, is also built in several units. The upper picture shows two, with their front gun turrets carried on metal-covered structures. On the lower picture is the mounting and cowling of one of the Bristol Pegasus engines on the wing leading edge.
The completed Harrow. The engines are Bristol Pegasus. Note the pronounced taper of the wings.
Details of the construction of the wing centre section. The lower diagram shows the constructional ''scheme.''
Details of outer wing portion, showing how sheet-metal nose covering is built as two complete units, afterwards attached to single girder spar. Note the ingenious leading edge joint.
The ingenious tail construction. Top and bottom coverings are first attached to the tailplane ribs; then the "box" is completed by riveting-on the front and rear channels, and finally the leading edge unit is attached.
One and two: The latest single-seater Tipsy (nearest camera) alongside the new two-seater.
Expanded for two, the Tipsy has lost none of its good looks.
The two-seater Tipsy in action
Thanks very largely to the Avro concern the R.A.F. has always had first-class trainers. Tutors are seen here rehearsing inverted flying for an R.A.F. display.
The Bristol 138 reached 50,000 ft. in 1936.
BETWEEN CLOUD AND CROWD: Tiger Moths from the Reid and Sigrist School at Desford manoeuvre at the Leicester Coronation Air Display.
Flying to Brussels with Her Majesty the Queen (then the Duchess of York) in the imperial Airways' liner Draco in 1935.
Mr. Lindsay Everard, M.P. (facing camera), snapped with friends during the Austrian Tour. He participated in his D.H. Dragonfly, flown by Flt. Lt. A. Hole.
The D.R Albatross is Capt. G. de Havilland's latest design.
The prototype ready for its first flight on May 20, 1937.
Watched by the majority of the D.H. employees, the Albatross is taxied in by Mr. Waight after its third test flight. Some idea of its exceptionally clean lines may be gathered from the flying picture above.
7.15 a.m.: Discussions after the very first flight. In the main group, from left to right, are Mr. R. G. Waight (pilot), Mr. A. E. Hagg (designer), Mr. F. E. N. St. Barbe (business manager), Major F. B. Halford (engines) - the last two almost out of sight behind Mr. G. de Havilland, Junr. - and Capt. Geoffrey de Havilland. Standing modestly to the left is Mr. G. D. Tucker, who assisted Mr. Waight during the preliminary trials.
MORE HANWORTH HOSPITALITY: General Aircraft Ltd., last week entertained 160 Canadian public schoolboys who are visiting Britain under the auspices of the National Council of Education of Canada. Following the fraternal Hanworth custom the party was also taken to call on Autogiro's, Kronfeld's, B.A., London Air Park Flying Club and Flying Training Ltd. Joy-rides provided the ultimate rapture.
"DIVINE WIND'S" crew see something of British aviation: Messrs. Iinuma and Tsukagoshi, famed for their 100-hour flight from Tokio, recently enjoyed the hospitality of that section of the Industry which centres on Hanworth. They are seen off for a trip with Mr. R. Somerset in a Monospar. They were also introduced - by Mr. R. A. C. Brie - to rotating wings.
From a standing start : F/O. Clouston takes off the Hafner Gyroplane. He left the spot where the patch of grass is of lighter colour.
BUSINESS BACKING: At the official opening party of the Midland Bank Flying Club. A general view of the proceedings - with one of the Club's two B.A. Swallows in the air, and, on the ground, one of the three Demons of No. 600 (F) Sqd. A.A.F. which put up a display during the afternoon.
Though quite conventional in appearance, the Moss monoplane certainly has very clean lines, and the tandem seating arrangement has a great deal to recommend it.
Mr. H. L. Brook came from the Cape in 4 days by Percival Gull
How the two doors of the Taifun open to leave the entire cabin clear for entry and egress.
The lines of the Me.108 are well shown in this Flight photograph, taken at Reading - with P. and P. employees "seeing how."
PAUSE FOR REPAIRS: A reader's snapshot of Mrs. Bonney at Alor Star, Malaya, during her recent Brisbane-Cape flight. She was awaiting the repair of a burst tyre on her elderly Klemm monoplane.
POWER FROM BROUGH. The V.E.F. J.-11, a light Latvian private-owner type built round one of the new Cirrus Minor engines. The speed figures quoted are 124 m.p.h. cruising and 149 m.p.h. maximum, which, for 90 h.p. and two up is good going in any language. The mounting of the tail plane is one outlandish feature to note. It appears that the occupant of the front seat has quite an extraordinarily good prospect.
CIRRUS-MINOR-ENGINED, this Latvian V.E.F. J-11 monoplane recently made a circuit of its native country in 5 hrs. 20 mins. for the 655 miles, including several demonstration stops; the average flying speed was 125 m.p.h. The machine is shortly coming to England, and those interested in demonstrations should write to Mr. Janis Vitols, 24, Queensborough Terrace, London, W.2.
On all threes: The pusher on the ground, showing the 40 h.p. Praga flat-twin engine.
Mr. T. E. Slot, the designer, in the cockpit of the Scheldemusch. On the left is Mr. R. G. Doig, managing director of Aircraft Constructions, Ltd., who are to build the machine in this country. On the right is his business partner, Miss I. Robins.
Mr. Van Hattum's flying scale model of the Koolhoven Junior.
ATLANTIC CLIPPER: Powered with four unnamed engines, undoubtedly the new 1,500 h.p. two-row Wright Cyclones, this Boeing flying boat, intended for Pan-American's transatlantic trials, should be flying this autumn. Seventy-two passengers will be accommodated over shorter distances.
BREAKING NEW GROUND. The Douglas D.C.4 is to have ''tricycle" landing gear arranged as shown above. An undercarriage of this type is already under test by the U.S. Army on a Douglas amphibian. The tail unit, aerodynamically, seems a retrograde step.
TWO-WAY SPIRIT: Merrill's Electra being refuelled on Southport Sands in readiness for its return Atlantic flight.
CLEAN AND SMART: A British Airways' Lockheed Electra being filled up with engine oil from one of the Vacuum Company's new portable 50-gallon dispensing units. A rotary pump delivers oil, via a Victory meter calibrated in pints, at 2-3 galls./min. There are several ingenious features.
The latest Lycoming-Smith electrically controlled airscrew is now a standard feature of all Reliants; its method of control is both interesting and Ingenious. This Flight photograph also shows the new type of engine cowling.
Some idea of the car-like appearance of the interior of the Reliant can be gathered from this "peep" through the door of the specially equipped Wright-engined model purchased by Mr. Bryans.
The scene at Croydon when "the first 12.30 for Cape Town" left in 1932.
The Piaggio two-row radial of the Caproni 161 drives this enormous four-bladed airscrew.
The Fairey monoplane flew non-stop from Cranwell to Walvis Bay in 1933.
A Curtiss electrically controlled fully feathering airscrew on a geared Wright Cyclone in a Navy Consolidated Patrol flying boat. These airscrews were used on the record mass formation flight from San Diego to Hawaii.
The beginning of real flying may be said to have started with this Avro biplane of 1911. The engine was a 35 h.p. Green. Note the open aft portion of the fuselage.
Mr. H. F. Broadbent came from Australia in 6 1/2 Days by D.H. Leopard Moth
An early monoplane (a 1912 model 50 h.p. Gnome rotary) designed by Mr. Robert Blackburn is shown in the picture. The Isaacson radial was also fitted. Note the position of the pilot's control wheel.
BUSINESS BACKING: At the official opening party of the Midland Bank Flying Club. Here is a nice piece of line-abreast flying, in Blackburn B.2s, by the bank pupils of the R.A.F. V.R. at Hanworth.
NAUTICAL WEIGHT-LIFTER: The Italian Cant. Z.508 flying boat with three Isotta-Fraschini engines which has lately distinguished itself by securing various height records with heavy loads.
Prince Cantacuzene at the controls, with the faired-in homing loop above.
Interiors of the Typhon cockpit are reminiscent of a watchmaker's display.
Mr. Ben Turner departs from a Curtiss Robin at Buenos Aires.
The new engine has been very neatly installed in the Kitten as this Flight photograph of its nose shows
THE FIRST IMPERIAL AIR ROUTE: This photograph was taken at Croydon just before the start; standing beside the D.H. "Hercules" (from left to right) are Capt. F. L. Barnard (pilot), Lady Maud Hoare, Sir Samuel Hoare, Sir Eric Geddes, Sir Samuel Instone, Mr. Bullock, and Air Vice-Marshal Sir Vyell Vyvyan.
A plan view of the International Aircraft monoplane, showing location of the Marendaz flap and aileron.
Three flap positions are shown in the diagram, corresponding to cruising, take-off and landing conditions. As the hinge is ahead of the flap, a slot is left between flap and wing when the former is deflected. On the left is shown how, structurally, the Marendaz flap is an advantage, as it can be hinged to the rear main spar.
The first machine designed and built by the Fairey company was the F.2. It was a twin-engined bomber and is shown with wings folded.
As early as 1911 Short Brothers realised the advantages of more than one engine. The pictures show a Short biplane with two Gnome rotary engines, of which the rear drove a pusher airscrew while the front drove two tractors via chain gearing.
Makers of light plane history. The first attempt to revive interest in the "ultra light" was the Lowe-Wylde (now Kronfeld) Drone, seen here.
"DIVINE WIND'S" crew see something of British aviation: Messrs. Iinuma and Tsukagoshi, famed for their 100-hour flight from Tokio, recently enjoyed the hospitality of that section of the Industry which centres on Hanworth. They are seen greatly intrigued by Mr. Kronfeld's exposition of his ground trainer.
These pictures were taken during the Gordon Bennett trials of July, 1911 and show the little Nieuport single-seater, which, with an engine of only 28 h.p., managed to average about 60 m.p.h. for 50 kilometres before things started to disintegrate and the 28 h.p. was reduced to the - 10 h.p. provided by dead-stick drag. Probably its maximum was in the region of 70 m.p.h. The gentleman who is seen standing so proudly in front of the somewhat naive little flat twin engine is M. Chevalier, the pilot.
S. E. Saunders, of Cowes, built the hull for the first Sopwith "Bat boat." The Perry-Beadle boat shown here was built by him in 1914. The firm is now known as Saunders-Roe.
The latest Parnall General Purpose aeroplane.
The R.E.P. monoplane was one of the first to be built in this country by Vickers, Ltd. It had an R.E.P. semi-radial or "fan" shaped air-cooled engine. Steel construction was employed.
The general lines of the C. W. Cygnet are well shown in this Flight photograph, which also shows how the screen is arranged with quite a pronounced sweep-forward. The cleanness of the cantilever undercarriage noteworthy.
Side-by-side seating, with a centrally disposed control column, is a feature of the Cygnet. This Flight photograph gives an idea of the "entry area"; there is a similar door on the starboard side. In the machine are the two directors of the company, Messrs. S. I. Waddington (nearest camera) and C. R. Chronander.
From a three-quarter front view the Cygnet has somewhat squat, though not unattractive lines. The prototype machine is fitted with a Cirrus Minor engine.