General Aircraft Monospar ST-25 Jubilee и Universal
В 1935 году в воздух поднялся прототип самолета, получившего обозначение Monospar ST-25 и собственное наименование Jubilee в честь 25-летнего юбилея правления короля Георга V. Фактически ST-25 представлял собой улучшенный вариант ST-10. В задней части салона,
в отличие от ST-10, установили откидное сиденье для пятого пассажира, остекление продлили в сторону хвостовой части, а силовая установка состояла из двух звездообразных моторов Pobjoy Niagara II.
Популярный Monospar ST-25 серийно выпускался до 1939 года. По ходу производства в конструкцию вносились изменения, а в конце 1936 года для лучшей путевой устойчивости в полете на одном работающем моторе однокилевое оперение заменили двухкилевым. Двухкилевые самолеты сохранили старое обозначение, но получили новое наименование Universal, на них стояли более мощные моторы Niagara III. Всего построили 59 самолетов: 30 Jubilee и 29 Universal. Был разработан санитарный вариант Monospar ST-25 - с большой дверью в правом борту фюзеляжа, позволявшей выполнять погрузку и разгрузку носилок с больным. В салоне имелось сиденье для санитара. Первый экземпляр данного варианта использовался в Великобритании как демонстратор. Несколько Ambulance поставили на экспорт. На пяти грузовых Freighter сохранили большую дверь в правом борту фюзеляжа, но размеры ее увеличили - данные пять машин закупил заказчик из Канады.
Monospar ST-25 De Luxe: один самолет Jubilee с триммерами, килем увеличенной площади и моторами Niagara III с электростартерами; переоборудован до уровня Universal
G.A.L.26: один экспериментальный Monospar ST-25 Jubilee с двумя моторами Blackburn Cirrus Minor мощностью по 90 л.с.
G.A.L.41: один Monospar ST-25 с экспериментальной гермокабиной, с наддувом от мотоциклетного мотора Douglas Sprite мощностью 27 л.с.
T42: один Monospar ST-25, построенный в 1937 году, испытывался с экспериментальным трехопорным шасси
General Aircraft Monospar ST-25 Universal
Тип: четырех/пятиместный легкий пассажирский самолет
Силовая установка: два звездообразных ПД Pobjoy Niagara III мощностью по 95 л. с. (71 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 211 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 185 км/ч; начальная скороподъемность 216 м/мин; практический потолок 4665 м; дальность 676 км
Масса: пустого 825 кг; максимальная взлетная 1304 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 12,24 м; длина 7,72 м; высота 2,39 м; площадь крыла 20,16 м2
Flight, June 1935
New Monospar S.T.25 - the Jubilee Model - to be Sold Only with Standard Accessories
WHAT may be described as an attempt by a British aircraft manufacturer to deal in aeroplanes on motor car lines was inaugurated by General Aircraft, Ltd., at Hanworth Air Park, on Wednesday of last week.
There really seems little reason for treating the purchasers of what are commonly called private aeroplanes any differently from the purchasers of cars. Both want the price cut as low as possible, and this can only be done by standardising the article and its equipment, the degree to which the price can be lowered thereafter resting on the numbers which are produced.
Cars are turned out in hundreds of thousands, but aeroplanes - that is, a production batch of one type - are still only laid down at the most in a few hundreds. Hitherto, purchasers of aeroplanes have usually been sold a stripped article for which they have had to buy, as extras, many of the essential instruments and fittings, and, naturally, there has been a great deal of grumbling, because they felt that they ought to be given these extras as standard fittings. It was, however, impossible to do this while the purchaser was allowed to have all his own fads and foibles incorporated.
The new plan of General Aircraft looks like putting this phase of the business on a sounder and more rational footing.
The S.T.25, or "Jubilee Model," is being built as a standard article, with standard equipment, and the price has been fixed so low that the machine offers excellent value. Presumably, purchasers will be able to have the equipment varied, but in that case they will have to pay what those alterations cost - a far greater sum than any of them will believe possible, but which is undoubtedly justified when one considers the disorganisation of production which such special work involves.
This standardisation of equipment does not mean that anything has been skimped; in fact, the equipment is in some respects more complete than that normally provided. For example, among the features listed are: cabin engine-starting gear (which we know from personal test to be thoroughly satisfactory); swing-over control wheel with two-level adjustment on each side and full dual controls; navigation, instrument and cabin lighting; Vickers' landing headlamp; Radio Transmission Equipment radio receiving set, with visible homing device; choice of two colour schemes; fire extinguisher; sunblinds; Palmer hydraulic wheel brakes on Palmer wheels with medium-pressure tyres; Smith's turn indicator, and pitch indicator; Husun compass; time-of-trip clock; Air Log; and the usual very full range of instruments.
On the top of all this, the new Pobjoy "Niagara II" engines are supplied with the makers' full guarantee, which specifies the cost of overhaul and maintenance for a period of 860 hours or two years, whichever is the shorter, in the case of a private owner, or 2,000 hours or two years in the case of a commercial user.
So much for the equipment, which really speaks for itself. The machine does not differ radically from the S.T.10, except that the cabin has been arranged to accommodate five persons. The fifth seat has been built in behind the divided rear seat in such a manner that the back of it can be folded down, when not in use, to form additional luggage space. This seat is comfortable - even for the writer, who is probably somewhat more bulky than the average; it does not perhaps provide a superabundance of leg room, but it should be adequate for anything except very long journeys. The upholstery, the work of Rumbold's, is pleasing, and the results of the soundproofing are entirely satisfactory. The undercarriage is the fixed Monospar type with a Dowty compression leg. The two alternative colour schemes of black and primrose or red and grey are pleasingly carried out, and the finish is good.
A short trial in the air showed that the S.T.as handles even better than previous machines. She is beautifully light and the controls are admirably balanced, and, what is equally important, the surfaces are well proportioned, so that side-slipping or turns with ailerons alone are straightforward and can be well controlled. The leading edge of the wings now has sheet metal under the fabric, back to the spar; the smoothness of entry secured by this means has naturally resulted in a cleaner machine aerodynamically and a flatter glide. The angle is, however, steep enough for comfortable approaches without necessitating undue use of the excellent side-slipping qualities. As can be seen from the table of performance figures, the take-off is very good - surprisingly so when one flies the machine for the first time - and the air speed indicator, at any rate, fully substantiated the cruising speed.
The new Radio Transmission Equipment (or R.T.E., as it is more commonly called) receiver and homing device is most interesting. At the present time the production model is not quite ready, but a short trial of the preliminary installation clearly proved - we have been convinced for a long time that some form of homing device would sooner or later have to be used for all serious flying, even by private owners - that a simple apparatus like this can be of the greatest value navigationally. It really has three functions: the reception of weather broadcasts, assistance directionally, and entertainment; and we imagine that now the ice has been broken, so to speak, it will soon become standard on most machines.
Using the Homing Device
There would seem to be little doubt that inexperienced pilots will only get the best out of the apparatus directionally after they have had a reasonable amount of instruction in its use and a fair amount of experience, but this could be arranged as part of the service provided, just as some agents are giving flying instruction to those who purchase aeroplanes, but with the difference that even the inexperienced man will get fair results out of the homing device, and very short instruction will enable him to get the best out of it.
On the occasion of the first presentation to the public of the S.T.25 at the company's works at Han worth, Mrs. Shelmerdine (Lt.-Col. Shelmerdine, the Director-General of Civil Aviation, was unfortunately unable to be present as well) performed what may be termed the unveiling ceremony, and Sir Maurice Bonham-Carter, chairman of the company, made her a presentation in commemoration of the occasion.
Flight, April 1936
Specialised Standard Equipment on the Latest Versions of the S.T.25: Trimming Tabs for New Models: The De Luxe Monospar in the Air
ON more than one occasion it has been said that when aeroplanes are sold complete in every necessary detail then flying can be considered to have become a properly recognised means of transport. Last year the General Aircraft Company introduced a five-seater, twin-engined Monospar, which, in its standard form, carried full night-flying equipment, including a landing head light in the nose, blind-flying instruments, and a radio homing and receiving set, in addition to a number of other refinements which have been part of the equipment of cars for a decade.
This year the scheme has been carried a stage farther. The Jubilee model, as it was known, has become, so to speak, a foundation on which five new types have been erected. Based on the very same standard equipment, the new models have additional equipment specially suited to the needs of operators as well as of private owners. The corner-stone is the Standard, with the De Luxe model for the more particular private owner, and the Transport for the small air line or taxi operator, while the Freighter and Ambulance are similar, respectively, to the De Luxe and Transport models, save that the internal fittings have been designed specifically for the duties which the names indicate.
Needless to say, the private owner who holds a radio licence, or who has his own professional pilot, may prefer the Transport model if he is to use his machine for very serious touring. This machine has, in place of the normal homing equipment, an R.T.E. receiver and transmitter as well as a Sperry artificial horizon and directional gyro panel, special instrument lighting, and, of course, slightly modified cabin equipment.
Generally speaking, however, the De Luxe model may be taken as representing the 1936 type of S.T.25. To the casual observer three new features are immediately noticeable. A tab on the elevators is used for longitudinal trim in place of the adjustable tail plane; directional trimming is now possible since an adjustable tab is fitted also to the rudder; and directional stability has been attended to by the use of increased fin area. The engines are Pobjoy Niagara IIIs, with Rotax electric starters. However simple the "pull" cabin starter gear of the previous model may have appeared to the normally brawny owner, button starting will certainly be an improvement thereon.
Inside the cabin, too, the changes are marked. A completely redesigned dashboard carries the latest version of the R.T.E. homing receiver, and there is a special switchbox immediately in front of the pilot for the electrical controls, including the starter buttons, and for the rudder bias lever. With the elevator tab now fitted, the trimming control consists of a very small and conveniently placed lever, on the port side of the cabin, moving through 180 degrees. The landing headlamp switch and its angle adjustment control are mounted beside this trimming lever and in their usual place. Apart from the normal flight instruments, which include a Smith turn and bank indicator and the homing indicator, the equipment, as before, includes Ki-gas engine priming installation, an Essex fire extinguisher and a dial-type fuel gauge which is mounted between the front seats. The screen is now in three pieces with a safety-glass centre panel, and special attention has been paid by Rumbolds to the upholstery and to the soundproofing arrangements.
The dashboard position for the R.T.E. homing receiver brings it within easier reach of the pilot, who is now a to read the tuning dial with accuracy and, consequently, to make greater use of the equipment when flying alone or with passengers who do not understand its operation.
Although the majority of broadcasting stations in this country are situated at distances of ten to thirty miles from the nearest aerodrome, the examination of a ten-mile aviation map suggests that quite good use could be made of them on the majority of long flights, and during the summer months the weather broadcasts from Borough Hill, Daventry (on 1,181 m.), will be virtually continuous throughout the day and part of the night. The importance of up-to-date knowledge of developing weather conditions cannot be overestimated.
On the Continent there are, according to a list worked out by the Automobile Association, no fewer than forty stations which are less than ten miles from an aerodrome, and, of these, seventeen are three miles or less from the appropriate landing ground. For Continental work, therefore, the homing equipment can form much more than a mere check on the direction of one's peregrinations.
In practice it is probably easier to use the indicator, the earphones and the compass together during a long period of homing. A short test between Hanworth and the Brookmans Park transmitter showed that no difficulty was experienced either in holding a course both towards and away from the station or in stopping a steepish turn accurately on the correct course. The air was a trifle bumpy even at 2,500 ft., and it was impossible to keep the needle absolutely steady, yet the machine returned to Hanworth on "back bearings" quite accurately when allowance was made for the natural drift on a course which was slightly off-wind.
So far as the flying qualities of the new model are concerned there is little change, though the effect of the increased fin area would probably be noticeable in really bad weather. When flying light, at least, the De Luxe S.T.25 can be trimmed to fly both hands and feet off so far as the directional and fore and aft axes are concerned. With the tab balances on the ailerons these are so light that lateral corrections are made quite effortlessly and the lack of inherent stability in this axis is no hardship.
The new tab trimmers, however, are a considerable boon, from the pilot's point of view. Never a very arduous business with the standard trimming wheel, fore and aft adjustments are now carried out with the little lever which moves only through a half-circle with a radius of perhaps three inches. Another small lever, also within easy reach, operates the rudder tab, and this can be set to take all the load off a rudder control which, in any case, is very light. This directional bias will not take all the effects of a dead engine, but it reduces the amount of necessary rudder pressure to a minimum. Turns, incidentally, can be made against a throttled motor quite easily.
As a flying machine the S.T.25 is decidedly interesting, since all the controls are light and very effective. The human animal's pedal extremities being the least controllable, it is as well, perhaps, that the rudder is the softest. This, however, is powerful enough to hold the nose properly up in a sideslip. The controls, in fact, are sufficiently exciting to tempt the enterprising owner to fly in a manner which might not please his less youthful passengers. Tight turns, for instance, are so effortless and natural in their development that they tend to become a stock-in-trade manoeuvre.
The majority of machines have to be known to be understood - the Monospar, perhaps, more than some, though the characteristics of the low-wing monoplane are becoming sufficiently well known to require no comment. With little previous experience of the machine, only two of some half-dozen approaches made into Hanworth required more than a shade of engine or slipping adjustment, yet this aerodrome is by no means large, and the buildings on the perimeter are always liable to cause one to misjudge an approach even with a familiar aeroplane.
The S.T.25 is gliding under full control at 60 m.p.h., and at this speed height can be lost quite usefully so long as the nose is put down a little in order to have a reserve of momentum for the hold-off. A normal approach is best made at 70 m.p.h., since at higher speeds the actual approach angle is much flatter. Deceleration is fairly rapid at lower speeds, so that, if care is exercised during the last phase of the approach, the amount of aerodrome used is disproportionately smaller than one would expect.
Of six landings by one who had never previously made any on this machine, the first had to be washed out, the second was bad, the third was good but shaky, and the final three were firm and clean. Obviously, therefore, there is nothing really difficult about the S.T.25 from that point of view. The newcomer might be misled by the efficiency of the elevator control at low air speeds and be surprised into making a series of paraboloid motions. Once the machine is held off, in fact, no progressive backward movement of the control is necessary as the speed drops.
While on the subject of landings it is worth remembering that, once the S.T.25 is firmly down, it is safe to apply the Palmer brakes with full force. This was done more than once during the trial, and the pull-up on dry turf is extraordinarily smooth and rapid. A pressure gauge on the dash gives the pilot an indication of the braking power in use and is particularly valuable while taxying.
With the throttles back the machine stalls at a little more than 50 m.p.h (indicated), and one wing usually drops quite gently at the final moment of full stall. Control remains until the last and is recovered quickly enough to prevent the wing from falling too far, since the nose drops and the speed rises again immediately. On full throttle it is possible to hold the machine up at speeds as low as 45 m.p h. without loss of height, and in this case, of course, the rudder becomes the dominant controlling factor.
MONOSPAR S.T.25 DE LUXE.
Two Pobjoy Niagara III 90/95 h.p. Engines.
Tare weight with all equipment 1,758 lb.
Disposable load 1,117 lb.
Span (folded) 14ft. 10in.
Length 26ft. 4in.
Height 7ft. 10in.
Cruising speed at 3,200 r.p.m. (77% power) 123 m.p.h.
Duration at this speed 3.81 hr.
Rate of climb at sea level 700 ft./min.
Service ceiling 12,000 ft.
Take-off in still air 195 yds.
Landing run with partial braking 120 yds.
Landing speed 54 m.p.h.
Prices (with full equipment)
Standard model ?1,750
De Luxe ?1 985
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEWED
LAST year's S.T.25 was produced in its standard form with full day- and night-flying equipment well as a radio homing and receiving set. This year the same principle has been expanded to provide five separate types for different purposes, in each of which the equipment has been standardised to suit these five purposes.
The new De Luxe model may be taken as typical of the range, since it incorporates most of the features which are found on the 1936 machines, such as trimming tabs, electric engine starters and a redesigned dashboard layout in which the R.T.E. homing receiver is within easy reach of the pilot, and all the electrical switchgear is mounted on a single panel or box. Structurally, the S.T. 25 remains unaltered, and it will be remembered that this is all metal and involves the well-known Monospar system of construction, by which the structure weight can be kept down to a minimum.
The trimming tabs on the elevator and rudder are operated by small and convenient levers which require no effort, and the whole business of flying the new Monospar is reduced to one of mere flying judgment. Its characteristics are interesting and soon mastered, and the pilot, in particular, has a very excellent, and consequently safe, field of view. In common with most low-wing machines, it is possible to adjust the approach by increasing or decreasing the gliding speed, and really short approaches can be made by a pilot who is thoroughly accustomed to the machine. Once it is firmly on the ground the Palmer brakes can be applied to their fullest extent without risk of nosing over, and full control is retained right down to the stall, which is harmless enough if the rudder is not maltreated.
In Europe, paricularly, the radio homing equipment would be very useful and, even if this cannot be used in this country on every flight, there is always the regular and valuable Air Ministry meteorological broadcast from Borough Hill to be received. The electrical equipment of the Monospar, incidentally, includes landing and navigation lights, instrument and cabin lighting, as well as electric starters on certain models, as already mentioned.
The General Aircraft Company have specialised in the production of carefully worked-out running-cost schedules for the benefit of air-line operators and others who are interested in the Monospar as a dividend-earning machine. A series of these have been published in booklet form. Incidentally, the company has evolved an economical hire scheme which includes the services of a "B" licence pilot.
The specification of the De Luxe Monospar is as follows: Weight empty, 1,758 lb.; disposable load, 1,117 lb.; span folded, 14ft. 10in.; length, 26ft. 4in.; cruising speed at 3,200 r.p.m., 123 m.p.h.; duration at cruising speed, 3.81 hr.; initial rate of climb, 700 ft./min.; price, ?1,085. Makers: General Aircraft, Ltd., London Air Park, Feltham, Mddx.
Flight, June 1936
Twin Rudders and Increased Dihedral for All ST.25 Machines: Improved Stability in All Axes
FOR some time it has been known that General Aircraft were experimenting with a new form of tail for the S.T.25, and the machine in its latest form made its first public appearance at the R.Ae.S. Garden Party a little less than a month ago. To the ordinary ground spectator it was obvious only that the appearance had been considerably improved by a "strengthening” of the rear of the machine and that turns against a throttled engine could be carried out with greater ease.
In addition to the use of twin fins and rudders and of an elevator which is a complete unit, S.T.25S will, in future, have an increased dihedral. Lightly loaded, the Monospar has always been easy to fly even in very bad weather, and the modifications have been carried out largely with the idea of improving the stability in all axes when the machine is flying with an absolutely full load in the "blind" and bumpy conditions which are so often experienced in modern all-weather flying.
The improvement is noticeable immediately the engines are opened out for the take-off. Full rudder control is available as soon as the tail has lifted, and any tendency to swing can be checked at once and without the necessity of big movements - which always tend to be persisted in after they are necessary. On the day of our trial there was a fairly high wind blowing, and the air was so very rough at lower levels that it was impossible for the newcomer to obtain any real idea of the improvements, though violent directional movements were effortlessly checked.
Once out of the very disturbed layer, however, it was possible to fly the machine quite accurately on the rudder alone, and, when correctly trimmed by means of the easily operated elevator tab, there was no further need for attention, and all minor movements were self-corrected. For some good reason that is not immediately apparent, accurate steep turns required less conscious attention, and the machine was even more noticeably stable in the glide, both when flying straight and in turns. However, unless one, so to speak, has a chance of flying the new type immediately after the old, it is impossible to speak of anything more concrete than impressions.
It is a fact, however, that turns can now be made against a throttled engine with the greatest of ease, and both the amount of rudder movement and the pressure required are surprisingly small. When flying straight on one engine, no conscious aileron correction is necessary. In production models the elevator will be heavier, so that the landing movement will require less delicate attention, and the trimming lever will be a trifle less sensitive in action.
The use of twin rudders in a bi-motor machine has a number of useful aerodynamic effects, apart from the more obvious ones resulting from the fact that the rudders are directly in the slipstreams. It may be remembered that the original Lockheed Electra had a single rudder, and experiments with twin rudders produced some interesting results.
Structurally, the changes in the new Monospar are comparatively small. Additional steadying struts have been introduced between the leading edge and the primary structure. The original finpost has been cut short above, and the ends of the tailplane are now stayed back to the tailplane spar.
A small fast monoplane. The Monospar Jubilee.
Florence Nightingale - первый экземпляр ST-25 Ambulance. Больного на носилках загружали в кабину через большую дверь в правом борту фюзеляжа. Все построенные Ambulance были экспортированы.
The De Luxe model is shown in the air.
The plan form of the S.T.25 wing is admirably shown in the flying picture. The position of the adjustable landing light in the nose can be seen in the view.
The Monospar is being demonstrated by Mr. Seth-Smith while the interested spectators engulf Mr. Lowe's Swift
The Jubilee Monospar crosses the finishing line after averaging 122.5 m.p.h. in the hands of K. G. Seth-Smith
The Monospar Standard S.T.25 (Pobjoy);
The picture gives a good impression of the wide field of view available for both pilot and passengers.
The Monospar Ambulance (two Pobjoys) should find many applications in Scandinavia.
BACK FROM THE CONTINENT: In this Monospar Jubilee model, recently purchased by the Vacuum Oil Company, Mr. W. Faust (director) and Mr. H. J. White (aviation sales manager and pilot have been touring their agencies in many countries on the Continent Mr. E. C. Gordon England, joint managing director of General Aircraft Ltd., the makers of the Monospar, was also on board.
Mrs. Mollison christens the Monospar ambulance for the British Red Cross Society.
A group of participants: Miss de Paula, Mr. D. R. Pobjoy, Miss Cleyton, Mrs. Pobjoy, Mr. Whitton and Mr. Jackson. In the background is the Monospar S.T.25 (two Pobjoys) flown by Mr. C. E. Gardner. Incidentally, this machine returned in one day, leaving Budapest at 7.45 a.m. and reaching Lympne at 5.45 p.m.
A general view of the scene at the Eastbourne Club's "At Home" immediately prior to the prize-giving, with some of the club members and guests in the tea enclosure and the Monospar Ambulance on the left.
Some idea of the number of visitors and machines can be gathered from these photographs, though only about a third of the visiting machines can be seen. In the left-hand picture the Monospar Ambulance can be seen in the foreground, while Mr. Brie is demonstrating the Autogiro.
Press photo of the successful Monospar actually taken during the competition. The MONOSPAR AMBULANCE.
YR-SAN, a fully equipped Monospar Ambulance, has recently been despatched by air to Industria Aeronautica Romana, the Roumanian State Aircraft Factory. This machine, besides its main purpose of carrying sick persons to Hospitals from remote districts, is capable of bringing a doctor and full equipment in cases of sudden illness. Interior and fittings have been designed under the auspices of the British Red Cross Society and include every essential for the care and transporting of the sick or injured. This Monospar is not merely for first aid; it is a small but veritable flying hospital whose speed and smoothness in the air will be or immense benefit in a task where these points mean so much.
The Monospar Universal is, as its name implies, intended as a convertible type for a number of uses. The cabin may be seen in ambulance and freighter form in the pictures; normally there are four chairs, and the machine can be considered either as a luxury private-owner type or as a feeder-line proposition.
General Aircraft was represented by the standard type 25 and the Monospar Ambulance, Florence Nightingale, both with Pobjoy Niagara engines.
General Aircraft Monospar ZK-AFF (ex G-AEJW, c/n. 84) at Hastings, New Zealand. Last airworthy example of its type, it is used for aerial survey work by New Zealand Aerial Mapping and is expected to take part in the Royal New Zealand Aero Club Pageant at Palmerston this month, on 13th March 1976
First cost and maintenance ... economy here is vital in twin-engine flying training. The Military Trainer version of the Monospar provides really economical training in twin-engine flying, photography, bombing, aerial gunnery, radio and navigation. Moreover, it easily carries all necessary military equipment.
The latest Monospar De Luxe, which, in standard form, is fully equipped for day, night and blind flying with four occupants and their luggage.
The G.A. Monospar "Universal" Four-seat Cabin Monoplane (two 90 h.p. Pobjoy "Niagara" engines).
The S.T.25 in its latest form. The increase in dihedral will be noticed by those who are familiar with the machine.
The smaller Pobjoy-engined Monospar S.T.25.
Modern insistence on Safety and Comfort demands that the large transport aeroplane of to-day be given two or more engines. Every reason exists for giving the smaller machine the same advantages. Pioneering, the Monospar was the first practical, small twin-engined aeroplane and it is to-day the liveliest and least expensive 4-seater in its class.
Some idea of the conditions prevailing at Douglas on Saturday can be gathered from this photograph of the first machine home - Mr. J. A. M. Henderson's Monospar - crossing the line at zero altitude.
The moderate climate of England is very different from the extremes of heat and cold met with in many parts of the world where aircraft operate. Both moisture and excessive dryness are enemies of wood. Monospars are therefore entirely of metal, which is carefully proofed against corrosion, and needs practically no maintenance under any climatic conditions.
One of two complete aircraft at Castle Bromwich - the De Luxe Monospar shown by General Aircraft Ltd. Behind the machine is an uncovered wing. The other make exhibited is an Aeronca.
Here is the "City of Halifax" - one of the five Monospars in the first British air fleet ever ordered by Canada, the once-impregnable stronghold of transatlantic manufacturers. Eastern Canada Airlines operate under particularly difficult conditions, with bitter cold, much snow and dangerous flying country. After long deliberation, they have chosen the Monospar as being the most reliable and best-equipped machine for their freight and passenger services. Another example of the suitability of Monospar in World Service!
HANWORTH HOSPITALITY: During the visit last week of Ademola II, Alake of Abeokuta, Nigeria, to the London Air Park Lord Sempill explained various points of the latest Monospar and flew the Alake round for about half an hour.
MORE HANWORTH HOSPITALITY: General Aircraft Ltd., last week entertained 160 Canadian public schoolboys who are visiting Britain under the auspices of the National Council of Education of Canada. Following the fraternal Hanworth custom the party was also taken to call on Autogiro's, Kronfeld's, B.A., London Air Park Flying Club and Flying Training Ltd. Joy-rides provided the ultimate rapture.
The General Aircraft GAL-25 Monospar OY-DAZ displayed at Egeskov Castle was in use as an ambulance until 1963.
General Aircraft Monospar Universal.
STAR AND CRESCENT: Messrs. R. H. Somerset and L. Castlemaine, the General Aircraft pilots who left Hanworth on Sunday with two Monospars for delivery to the Turkish Air League, which will use them for instruction in parachute jumping. The doors of the machines have been slightly modified for the purpose.
FOR BLIND APPROACHES: One of two Monospar S.T.25s which have been equipped for the wireless flight at Farnborough. This machine has full dual control, with a hood for one pilot, Lear direction-finding equipment, Sperry Horizon and directional gyro, a Reid and Sigrist turn indicator, a Kollsman sensitive altimeter and Smith rate of climb indicator.
Tricycle Experiments: The two views show a new Monospar machine adapted for tests.
The Monospar with tricycle undercarriage was undergoing tests.
One of our own experiments in this tricycle business - the Monospar. It is, on conventional unconventional lines, for application to pushers and multi-engined types.
YR-NIC are the appropriate registration letters of an S.T.25 Monospar specially built for the personal use of Prince Nicholas of Roumania. The Prince's pilot, Capt. Nicolai Opris (centre) is see bidding farewell to Mr. L. R. E. H. Castlemaine, of General Aircraft, Ltd., before flying the machine home; the lady is Capt. Opris' wife.
THE FLYING SQUAD: Mr. Tapper, of the A.A., used a Monospar S.T.25 to convey his "air scouts" from point to point during the Week-end Aerien, during which event they performed their usual efficient parking and other ground duties.
"DIVINE WIND'S" crew see something of British aviation: Messrs. Iinuma and Tsukagoshi, famed for their 100-hour flight from Tokio, recently enjoyed the hospitality of that section of the Industry which centres on Hanworth. They are seen off for a trip with Mr. R. Somerset in a Monospar. They were also introduced - by Mr. R. A. C. Brie - to rotating wings.
"HOMING" TO THE BALTIC: Last Saturday Messrs. H. C. Macphail and R. Ker (right) took off from Hanworth with a Jubilee Monospar fitted with R.T.E. visual homing equipment for a European tour. They will visit Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Lithuania, Latvia, Esthonia and Finland in the course of their tour.
The cabin door arrangement; the new curved screen is also visible.
A demonstrating pilot's view of the airport buildings - and the crowd. The photograph was taken from the Monospar while Mr. Seth-Smith was making his "fly-past.''
Cockpit of a General Aircraft Monospar Universal.
The control and instrument layout of the new De Luxe model. In its production form the "pull" starters seen below the control wheel will not appear, since the Niagara III engines are fitted with Rotax electric starters
The DeLuxe Monospar has a spectacle-type swing-over control column, and an excellent instrument layout.
There is plenty of light in the Monospar cabin and the machine can be flown from either of the two front seats. When used as a four-seater that in the foreground folds away, leaving a wide shelf for luggage which can be reached, if desired, through a separate door.
Monospar Ambulance. Interior, showing nurses seat and general equipment
Monospar Ambulance. The most completely equipped aerial ambulance in the country
The two sketches on the left show one of the aileron tab balances and the jacking pad beneath the axle, while the new tab trimmers on rudder and elevator can be seen above.