C.30A / Rota
Ближний разведчик, корректировщик, аппарат связи. Бескрылый автожир смешанной конструкции. Имел неубирающееся шасси с хвостовым колесом. Был спроектирован в КБ фирмы "Сиерва аутоджиро" под руководством X. Де ля Сиервы.
Опытный образец автожира С.30 испытывался
в 1932 г.
Усовершенствованный С.30А со складывающимся ротором запустили в серийное производство на заводе "Авро" в Манчестере в 1934 г. Автожир выпускался также в Германии (заводом "Фокке-Вульф", только как гражданский), во Франции (заводом фирмы "Лиор э Оливье") и в Дании (в мастерских ВВС).
Всего выпущено 183 экз., в т. ч. 78 военных.
С.30А в разных модификациях состоял на вооружении в Великобритании (с июня 1934 г.), в Бельгии (с мая 1935 г.), во Франции (с 1937 г.), в Дании (с 1936 г., как IM), в Швеции (с конца 1939 г.). Экипаж - 2 чел. Двигатель в зависимости от модификации. Вооружения нет.
Известны следующие военные варианты:
- Авро "Рота" I, выпускался для британских ВВС в 1934-36 гг., мотор "Дженет Мэйджор" I;
- LeO С.30, французский вариант с мотором "Дженет Мэйджор";
- LeO C.301, французский вариант с мотором Сальмсон 9Ne.
Английские автожиры с конца 1938 г. были законсервированы, но в сентябре 1939 г. вновь поставлены в строй. В 1941-42 гг. мастерские ВВС в Даксфорде собрали из запчастей дополнительно пять аппаратов. Кроме того, в 1939-41 гг. реквизировали восемь С.30А гражданского варианта. Все они использовались для связи и калибровки РЛС.
Французские машины в мае 1940 г. служили в пяти разведывательных эскадрильях ВВС и одной эскадрилье морской авиации. В ходе боевых действий они ограниченно применялись для связи и корректировки огня артиллерии. Впоследствии несколько автожиров эксплуатировались авиацией правительства Виши.
Датские IM в боевых операциях не участвовали. В апреле 1940 г. их захватили немцы, но не эксплуатировали. Единственный бельгийский автожир списали в 1938 г.
В Швеции морская авиация реквизировала в 1939 г. несколько гражданских автожиров. Они патрулировали побережье, искали плавающие мины, осуществляли снабжение отдаленных наблюдательных пунктов.
Выпуск военных автожиров фирма "Авро" прекратила в ноябре 1936 г. Во Франции производство велось до конца 1939 г.
Диаметр несущего винта:||11,25 м
Моторы, количество х мощность:||1x140 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||862 кг
Максимальная скорость:||177 км/ч
Практический потолок:||2440 м
Cierva (автожиры X. Сиервы)
Следующий (по порядку) аппарат C.30 стал самым известным автожиром, так как серийно производился в нескольких странах. После испытаний модифицированного C.19 MkV со звездообразным мотором Genet Major мощностью 100 л. с. (75 кВт) и с использованием втулки винта, которая могла наклоняться путем наклона ручки управления, фирма "Avro" поручила фирме "National Flying Service" построить двухместную версию с обозначением C.30. В апреле 1933 года ее облетали, и фирма "Avro" получила лицензию на ее производство, присвоив ей обозначение Type 671. Прототип улучшенной модели C.30P с мотором Major мощностью 140л.с.(104кВт) был собран в 1933 году и получил несущий винт со складывающимися лопастями. "Avro" построила три предсерийных экземпляра C.30P и получила лицензию на постройку машин по образцу версии C.30A. 12 машин поставили ВВС Британии с августа 1934 по май 1935 года. 10 из них первоначально служили в Школе содействия армии в Олд-Саруме под строевым обозначением Rota Mk I. Из двух остальных одна прошла испытания на поплавках, а на другой в центре RAE в Фарнборо экспериментально установили мотор Civet Major. Фирма "Avro" построила серию в 66 гражданских C.30A, из них несколько ушло на экспорт, но большинство разошлось в Великобритании. С началом Второй мировой войны 13 из этих машин были мобилизованы на службу в ВВС, в том числе в 529-ю эскадрилью для работы по калибровке РЛС. Несколько машин пережили войну и вернулись к своим гражданским хозяевам, по крайней мере, шесть из них сохранились.
Аппараты C.30A выпускали и другие европейские страны, включая Францию, где фирма "Liore-et-Olivier" построила 25 машин с обозначением LeO С.301, и Германию, где фирма "Focke-Wulf" собрала около 40 экземпляров.
Затем появились еще два проекта Сиервы: автожир С.31 1934 года с убирающимся шасси должен был получить двухместную закрытую кабину типа "купе", а подобный ему С.32 создавался в расчете на более высокие летные характеристики. В проекте фирмы "Avro" Type 665 четырехместный фюзеляж биплана Commodore оснащался трехлопастным несущим винтом; его обозначили C.33, но это преобразование так и не закончили.
Аппарат С.34 1937 года строила по лицензии фирма "Societe Nationale de Constructions Aeronautiques du Sud-Est" со звездообразным мотором Gnome-Rhone 7K мощностью 350 л. с. (261 кВт).
С.35, С.36 и С.38 остались неизвестными нереализованными проектами. С.37, предложенный фирмой "Avro" под кодом Type 668, был двухмоторным автожиром с кабиной, но его так и не построили. С.39 являлся проектом двух/трехместного морского корректировщика для британской морской авиации. Он должен был иметь трехлопастный несущий винт и V-образный мотор Rolls-Royce Kestrel мощностью 600 л.с. (447 кВт).
Тип: двухместный многоцелевой автожир
Силовая установка: звездообразный поршневой мотор Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major IA мощностью 140 л. с. (104 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 177 км/ч на уровне моря; крейсерская скорость 153 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; начальная скороподъемность 213 м/мин; практический потолок 2440 м; дальность полета 459 км
Масса: пустого автожира 553 кг; максимальная взлетная 816 кг
Размеры: диаметр несущего винта 11,28 м; длина 6,01 м; высота 3,38 м; площадь, ометаемая винтом 99,89 м1
Flight, November 1933
A NEW AUTOGIRO
WE recently had the opportunity of being present at a demonstration of the latest product of the Cierva Autogiro Co., Ltd. This machine is the C.30P., which, in its essentials, is the production version of the C.30, that is, the wingless direct-controlled type, but now has the seven-cylinder 140-h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Genet Major" engine instead of the 105-h.p. five-cylinder "Genet Major." It was naturally expected that the increased power would put up the performance considerably, but we were not prepared for such a large increase as is apparent to those who have followed the "Autogiro" through the various stages of its development. It is not yet possible to publish the performance figures of this new type, and will not be so until an exhaustive series of tests have been carried out with it. As far as can be ascertained, the top speed is in excess of that obtained on the majority of light aeroplanes, powered with this engine; the cruising speed, therefore, should be very comfortably over 100 m.p.h. Senor de la Cierva tells us that the minimum flying speed in still air is between 12 and 15 miles an hour, and his statement was borne out the day we saw the machine flying at Hanworth, as in a wind of about 8 to 10 m.p.h. the pilot was flying across the aerodrome, only a few feet above the ground, at what was very little more than a comfortable trotting speed. Under these conditions his landings were to all intents and purposes vertical, while his take-off was equally astounding. We understand that when there is even only a light breeze it is possible to get clear of the ground in about 5 yards. An outstanding feature of this new model is its stability. In conversation with Mr. J. Ray, the test pilot for the Autogiro interests in America, who is over here with Mr. H. S. Pitcairn, we learned that he had, on his first flight a few days ago, been able to trim the machine so exactly that, although the weather was very bumpy, he flew for over 10 miles without touching the control column at all. This, the first model P, was, as we have already announced, built by Airwork, Ltd., at Heston, and three more of the type are under construction in the shops of A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd., at Manchester.
Flight, June 1934
Cierva Autogiro C. 30 P
At the Display the latest type of direct-control Autogiro will be demonstrated. This is the type C.30A, fitted with Siddeley "Civet" engine, civilly known as the 140-h.p. 7-cyl. "Genet Major." Most readers of FLIGHT will be aware by now that the Autogiro depends for its lift upon the rotation of its "windmill" blades. These blades are not driven by the engine (except for the initial starting before a flight), but are kept rotating by the air forces upon them. The rotor blades have a diameter of 37 ft.
The machine to be shown at Hendon has no fixed wing and no tail control surfaces. All manoeuvres, such as rising, descending, and turning, are carried out by tilting the head of the rotor, which has universal joints. The speed range in level flight is from 15 to 115 m.p.h.
The Autogiro: Its Construction and Manufacture
NOW that the C.30 type Autogiro has reached the production stage we are able to publish the first authoritative description of its construction. For many years the name of Senor de la Cierva and his "Autogiro" have been associated in people's minds with a form of flight which was not only radically different from accepted principles, but was also generally understood to be safer because the Autogiro was able to descend almost vertically.
Until recently, however, the flying machines produced by the Cierva Autogiro Company were rather in the nature of experimental developments of the principle and not, therefore, suitable for quantity production. With the advent of the C.30 type this policy is changed, and A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd., have laid down nearly a hundred machines in their Manchester, workshops.
As was to be expected, features in conformity with their standard practice have been incorporated by A.V. Roe & Co. so that production could begin with a minimum of delay.
Like all Avro machines the fuselage is built up of welded steel tubes. The front and rear halves are made up separately, the division being at the bulkhead behind the rear, or pilot's cockpit. In both cases the sides of the fuselage are welded up on flat, table-like jigs, and subsequently the two sides are placed in their correct relation to one another in a vertical jig and the cross struts welded in. In the rear half the diagonal bracing between the two longerons in a horizontal plane is by the Avro method of forming a continuous loop of piano wire by passing it through small curved pieces of steel tube welded into each corner, and joining the ends with a wire strainer. The diagonal bracing in the vertical plane is rigidly built up with tubes. The front half is entirely tube braced. Wherever possible, jigs are used both in order to ensure accuracy and to cheapen production. Consequently there are not only jigs for welding, but also for drilling, as, for example, at the four attachment points where the legs of the rotor pylon join the top longerons.
After the main part of the fuselage has been erected, the stern post and fins are welded on and the whole is stove-enamelled. The fins, although in reality continuous, may be considered as three in number. The fin on top of the fuselage; the tail fin, which, like the others, is fixed and occupies the same position as the rudder in a normal aeroplane; and the fin underneath the fuselage. All are built up of small-diameter steel tubes welded together.
The fuselage, from the front of the front cockpit to the tail, is encircled with plywood formers carrying numerous thin spruce stringers running fore and aft and forming a framework over which a doped fabric covering is secured. This fabric is only carried up to the top longerons in the front half of the fuselage, as the decking over the two cockpits is a separate structure of plywood. The engine bay, and the sides and top of the fuselage in the bay behind the fireproof bulkhead, are covered with detachable aluminium panels secured with Avro cowling clips.
The engine mounting consists of steel tubes bolted to fittings at the ends of the four longerons, carrying at the front a ring which registers with the back plate of the engine. The seven-cylinder Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet Major" engine of 140 h.p. is thereby mounted outside the line of the cowling in a very accessible position, but the drag is kept low by the smooth curve of the cowling behind it. A collector ring with a single downward-facing outlet carries away the exhaust. Fuel is carried in a 23 gall, welded aluminium tank, strapped in position above the top longerons in the bay directly behind the fireproof bulkhead, which is of the normal sheet aluminium and asbestos construction. Mounted on the front of this bulkhead is the oil tank, of 3 gall, capacity, and also of welded aluminium. The throttle controls are the push-and-pull type with duralumin rods.
Wooden construction is used in the tail plane, which has spindled spruce spars, plywood ribs and spruce strut drag bracing, the whole being covered with doped fabric. This unit is interesting as the camber on the port side is reversed to counteract the engine torque reaction. At each end of the tailplane there are upturned tips of fairly large dimensions which serve to keep the Autogiro on a straight course and also to give it the necessary stability in turns. The trailing edges of these tips and those of the tailplane are in the form of flaps which may be adjusted by means of a small screw for the purpose of trimming the machine.
A tail wheel is carried in a compression strut and fork designed by Mr. Dowty, of Aircraft Components, and has a 270 by 100 Palmer tyre. It is very neat and yet at the same time amply sprung for the heavy loads imposed upon it during typical Autogiro landings. It is steerable by cables from a cross foot-bar in the pilot's cockpit.
The two cockpits are well fitted with the usual instruments, map cases and so on, and the sheet aluminium seats are dished to take Service type parachutes. A plywood floor extends the length of both cockpits and is bolted to small corner pieces of steel plate welded on to the fuselage between the cross bracing and the longerons. The front cockpit has a sliding door on the port side.
Wide outriggers of pyramid form, which carry the top ends of the Avro oil-and-spring undercarriage compression legs, appear rather massive, but it must be remembered that Autogiro landings impose greater stresses on this particular part of the structure than do the less vertical landings of the normal aeroplane. The upper pyramids are built of streamline-section, steel tube, and the axle radius rods, as well as the compression legs, are faired to streamline shape with Balsa wood fairings; consequently, the drag should not be unduly high.
Now we come to what may be termed the ''autogiratory" part of this flying machine. The rotor system consists of a three-bladed rotor revolving about a massive head mounted on a form of universal joint, so that it can be tilted in any direction by a control column. This control column is "hanging" as opposed to that in a normal aeroplane, where it is mounted on the floor of the cabin, but the effect is just the same, that is to say, pushing the column forward has the effect of pushing the machine down, and vice versa. A fore-and-aft bias is fitted which trims the Autogiro, much in the same way as the shock absorber cord loading device trims some light aircraft, but it does not have the disadvantage of giving an entirely false feel to the controls. A lateral bias is also arranged to overcome any tendency for the machine to wander from the straight path laterally and directionally.
At this stage it is probably as well to explain that the rotor is not driven by the engine, but once the machine is in the air it rotates of its own accord, hence its name Auto-giro. Before the machine can fly; however, it is necessary to start up the rotor, and for this purpose there is a shaft drive, operating through a clutch and gearing, from an extension on the back of the engine. Immediately the throttle is opened wide for taking off the rotor clutch is withdrawn, and from then on the rotor operates entirely automatically. The blades have free movement through several degrees in the vertical plane, and a very much smaller movement in the plane of rotation. This latter movement is controlled by friction dampers. Motion in the vertical plane is necessary for aerodynamical reasons and allows the forward-travelling blade to rise and the rearward travelling blade to fall. This movement is also immediately apparent when an Autogiro at rest is compared with one in the air. When stationary it will be seen that the blades droop considerably, whereas in movement they assume a very definite coning angle." Two of the blade hinges are arranged so that the corresponding blades may be folded back when a release pin is pulled out, and thus the Autogiro can, when necessary, be housed in a very narrow space. The blades themselves have a long steel tube spar, ply-faced spruce ribs and a i mm. plywood covering, the extreme tip being shaped from solid Balsa wood. The rotor head itself is a straightforward engineering job, running on ball bearings and incorporating a Bendix brake which allows the blades to be locked when not in use.
The reasons why the rotor autogyrates cannot be explained in a short article. Briefly, the blades are arranged aerodynamically so that the resultant of the lift and drag forces acts upon them in a slightly forward direction. The effect is to pull the blades round, and the centrifugal force keeps them extended. One of the great advantages of this system is that the speed of the blades through the air is, within limits, not dependent upon the speed of the whole machine through the air. There can, therefore, never be any sudden loss of lift due to the flying speed dropping too low, as whatever the rate of progress of the machine, the blades still rotate at their correct speed. Thus, the air flow over them is unchanged and the lift remains the same. The reader will appreciate from this explanation why a vertical descent is possible with the Autogiro and not with the normal aircraft, as the latter is dependent upon its speed through the air for air speed over its lifting surfaces.
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEWED
WITHIN the next few months, it would seem, some very important developments will appear in the autogiratory world. The Cierva Company has always looked upon each new type largely as another step towards an ultimate goal, and we are now waiting for the direct-start type which has been in the course of development for the past year or so. By the simple expedient of altering the axes of the rotor blade hinges and increasing the speed of the initial rotation, a temporary vertical ascent is obtained, and before the machine has time to sink back to the ground it is being pulled forward by the airscrew.
In the meantime, the present C.30 type continues to do good work, and its performance is, in many important respects, considerably superior to that of the normal fixed-wing aeroplane. Height can be maintained at a forward speed of 15 m.p.h., and the actual contact with the ground is made at 5 m.p.h. or less, while the cruising speed is high enough for all normal purposes.
A special technique is, of course, necessary when flying the Autogiro, but to anyone who is not a dyed-in-the-wool aeroplane pilot this presents few difficulties. A certain sequence of actions must be made while running up the rotor to 180 r.p.m., releasing the brakes and opening the throttle for the take-off, which is made with the tail wheel in contact with the ground to the very last. The final approach is usually carried in a normal manner at an air speed of 35 to 40 m.p.h. - though it is useful, of course, to toe able to sink vertically, if necessary, during the earlier phases of the approach - and the hold-off and landing are made in the ordinary way, but at a greater height and with considerably greater deliberation. After touching, the stick is pushed forward so as to lose all lift, and if there is anything of a strong wind blowing, the rotor should be stopped after turning to the left out of wind.
Licences for the manufacture of various types have been granted to A. V. Roe and Company, to Westland Aircraft, and to G. and J. Weir, while the master patents are held by the Cierva Autogiro Co., Ltd., of Bush House, Aldwych, London, W.C.2.
Этот аппарат Avro Rota Mk I состоял в 1943-1944 годах в британской 529-й эскадрилье. Он использовался, главным образом, для калибровки береговых РЛС. В боевых действиях не участвовал, хотя и был практически неуязвим для вражеских истребителей благодаря своей исключительно высокой маневренности.
Автожир Авро "Рота" I в Имперском военном музее, Даксфорд (Англия)
Newly-built Cierva C.30A reproduction 'XVU.1-0' at the Spanish Air Force Museum at Cuatro Vientos.
The RAF Museum's example, K4232, before its trip to Spain.
Зал вертолетов и автожиров
'Jump start' by C.30A G-ACWF on Hounslow Heath, July 1936 with H A Marsh piloting.
Half a dozen Cierva C.30s were used by the CAG and those that survived were impressed into RAF service. Twelve were to survive the war but none are flying today.
NATIONAL RECOGNITION: An air display, organised by the Aero Club of Spain, was given in Madrid recently in honour of Juan de la Cierva, and to celebrate the award to the latter of the F.A.I. 1933 Gold Medal. Here we see Senor de la Cierva giving a display, at the Barajas Military Aerodrome, in the C.30 type Autogiro.
This photograph show the essential features of the Autogiro C.30 P. The front view shows how the Townend ring, round the 7-cylinder "Genet Major" engine, cleans up the design and accounts, no doubt, very largely for the increased performance of this type.
ALLEZ OOP! The new C.30 P Autogiro leaps off the ground almost like a circus horse, and no doubt the extra power of the 7-cylinder "Genet Major" engine has a lot to do with this. Mr. H. A. Marsh, test pilot to the Autogiro Co., is an adept at demonstration, and in this case showed conclusively that this latest Autogiro has a far better take-off than the majority of other aircraft. Access to the passengers' cockpit is much better in this model, the side of the fuselage by the front cockpit having been made like a roll-top desk so that it can readily be lowered.
The Cierva "jump-start" Autogiro has a Siddeley Genet Major engine and incorporates the "autodynamic" rotor head by which the rotor blades automatically go into fine pitch for speeding-up and into coarse pitch for the jump start. A new version is appearing.
The C.30 Autogiro with two-bladed rotor and autodynamic rotor head. The view on the left, showing the take-off, gives the impression that the machine is almost without visible means of support. Mr. H. A. Marsh was the pilot.
MORE JUMPS: A vertical take-off by the latest C.30 Autogiro. Various components of this experimental machine are heavier than they need be, with the result that the gross weight is the same as that of the ordinary C.30 fully loaded. In spite of this, jumps of forty feet in height have been made.
"LOOK PLEASANT, PLEASE": Mr. Juan de la Cierva and the C.30 P pose for the cameramen at Hanworth.
A "DEAD STICK" APPROACH: Mr. Brie gliding the Autogiro in with the Siddeley "Genet Major" engine stopped.
NOT A NASTY ACCIDENT: But a new use for the Autogiro in trailing Kellett Sky Signs. The signs consist of large letters (seen end-on in our picture) joined together and attached to a drogue towed some 400 ft. behind the Autogiro.
A NEW STYLE OF DECK FLYING: As previously reported in "Flight," Mr. de la Cierva recently alighted on, and afterwards took off from, the small Spanish seaplane transport, Dedalo, on his C.30P Autogiro. Here we see both phases of this demonstration.
LANDING EXTRAORDINARY: The latest type of experimental Autogiro has no fixed wing, no ailerons, and no elevator. Control is by tilting the rotor direct. The machine can be landed with its tail wheel touching first, the rest of the aircraft then sinking quite slowly to earth. When this picture was taken Mr. de la Cierva was landing the machine in this fashion.
An unusual view of a C.30 Autogiro obtained at the moment when it was sinking vertically on to the ground at Hanworth.
"SITTING DOWN": The latest type of Autogiro (7-cyl. Siddeley "Genet Major") touches down with its tail wheel first when coming down steeply.
Mr. Brie, with the help of a fair wind, shows exactly what the C.30 can do.
Going On and Coming Off: Mrs. Crossley taxies out in her chequered Tiger Moth, and Mr. Ashley sets down the Autogiro before the crowd.
Several Rotas (C.30 autogiros) have been issued to army co-operation squadrons.
Mr. Brie initiates the uninitiated with the C.30 Autogiro. A number of people made flights in this machine later in the afternoon. Three of the many visiting machines may be seen below.
Although representing only another stage in the gradual development of the Autogiro, the C.30 direct-control model has now been in successful use for several years
UNSTALLABLE: The Cierva "Autogiro" built by A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd., will be exhibited at Copenhagen, and another machine will be available at the aerodrome. The engine is a 7-cyl. Siddeley "Genet Major."
Avro-built C.30A G-ACWO showing of its potential for traffic patrol and surveillance at Hampton Court.
SHEFFIELD WEDNESDAY AT WEMBLEY ON SATURDAY: The C.30 Autogiro used by the London police for supervising traffic flies low over Wembley Stadium during the football Cup Tie between West Bromwich Albion and Sheffield Wednesday.
Cierva C.30A K4232 of 16 (AC)Sqn in 1934.
The "Rota" (140 h.p. "Civet I") has a number of qualities suiting it to army co-operation requirements.
OLD AND NEW: A "Rota" flying over the ruins of Old Sarum. The outlines of the old Cathedral appear in the left bottom corner.
Some idea of the number of visitors and machines can be gathered from these photographs, though only about a third of the visiting machines can be seen. In the left-hand picture the Monospar Ambulance can be seen in the foreground, while Mr. Brie is demonstrating the Autogiro.
Brie and Von Bahr demonstrate their Autogiros.
REVOLUTIONARY. An impressive view of a flight of Autogiros or, as the R.A.F. prefers to call them, "Rotas," from Old Sarum, where they are being adopted for Army Co-operation work.
Externally similar to the RAF’s Rota Is, this Avro-built C.30A, DR623, flew as G-ACWH until impressed in June 1941. It is here in the markings of No 529 Sqn, at Hethel, Norfolk, in 1943. Surviving the war, it reverted to civil use as G-AHLE until 1947.
Автожир Авро "Рота" I в ангаре
Cierva "Autogiro" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Civet" engine).
FOR "STAFF" TRANSPORT. The first of the Avro C.30a Autogiros ready for delivery to the Royal Air Force for Array co-operation work. Note the upper identification mark painted on the top of the fuselage.
"Рота" I, проходивший испытания на авианосце "Корейджес", 1935 г.
TO TAKE LANDING SHOCKS. Autogiros can land vertically, hence this wide undercarriage with compression legs having a long travel to take up the shock. The engine is a 140 h.p. 7-cyl. Siddeley "Genet Major."
Avro-built Cierva C.30 D-EKOM, plus another, ready for export. Previously G-ACWK, it and D-EKOP (ex- G-ACWL) were supplied to Focke-Wulf in late 1934.
COALS TO NEWCASTLE: One of the two Autogiros which are being delivered to Barcelona, Spain, for use in the Spanish Navy by pilots G. Guardia and A Guilian.
CHINA SAW ITS FIRST AUTOGIRO when Fit. Lt. A. D. Bennett, R.A.F.O., of Aircraft (China) Ltd., recently gave demonstrations of a direct-control model in Shanghai and other large towns. The machine was eventually taken over by the Chinese Central Government Air Force for trial. In the photograph above are (left to right) Marshal Chiang Hsu Liang, his chief of staff, and Fit. Lt. Bennett.
Delegates from Turkey watching a demonstration of a Rota in January 1943. To the right is C.30A G-ACYE, impressed for service as AP510.
C.30A at the Newton Heath plant.
The sensational arrival at Croydon of the Cierva C.30A, G-AHTZ, recalls that although a civil machine pre-war, its previous identity has been lost through the passage of time. Impressed as HM581, it has been made serviceable by cannibalising C.30A, G-ACUU, which by coincidence was impressed as HM580. G-AHTZ has a current certificate of airworthiness valid till next June.
Cierva C.30As G-ACWO, 'N and 'R
Seldom before can so many aircraft of an unorthodox type have been seen gathered together at one time. This Flight photograph, taken at Hanworth, shows a batch of Autogiros destined for various places in Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain.
A CHINESE PUZZLE: Not a swarm of insects, but an aerial view of the International (British, French, German and Spanish) Autogiros at Hanworth.
Подразделение французских автожиров LeO С.30 и LeO С.301, входившее в состав морской авиации, начало 1940 г.
AVROS AT THE S.B.A.C. DISPLAY: From front to back, the "Cadet," the Autogiro, the "Commodore," the 626, and the 642.
A glimpse of the Miles Whitney Straight under the rotor blades of the C.30 Autogiro.
Британская калибровка времен Второй мировой войны. По мере того, как в ходе Второй мировой войны усложнялись и начинали все шире применяться наземные РЛС, появилась необходимость правильно калибровать их. Особенно важно это было для того, чтобы радары могли обнаружить приближающиеся самолеты противника и передать истребителям ПВО точную информацию о них. В Англии для калибровки радаров использовались вертолеты Hurricane-Rota С. Mk I (фото) и Hoverfly Mk I.
Detailed view of an Avro Rota being man-handled. It was in this type that Fg Off Norman Hill encountered FW 190s.
NATIONS AT THE FOUNTAIN: A Yugoslav Autogiro (Genet Major), a Portuguese 626 comprehensive trainer Cheetah) and an Irish Anson reconnaissance machine (two Cheetahs) in a "feeding time" scene at Woodford, Avro's Manchester aerodrome. The Anson is fitted with flaps.
This combined Armstrong-Whitworth and A. V. Roe stand is one of the most attractive in the Show. All the three machines are painted white, with their exposed metal surfaces plated.
ON THE S.B.A.C. STAND: Bristol and Rolls-Royce engines in the foreground, with the de Havllland "Moth Major" behind them. Farther back can be seen the Armstrong-Whitworth "Scimitar," and on the right the Avro built Autogiro.
LULL IN THE STORM: Varied fauna at the Bristol club's garden party last Saturday, which suffered severely from the weather. Seen here are one of the Club Swallows, the Bristol 143, an Autogiro, a Drone, and three Harts of No. 501 (City of Bristol) Squadron. The human element is mainly seeking solace in the clubhouse, which, with the Airwork hangar, can be seen in the background.
Most of the cars and a few of the aeroplanes present at the opening display. The big machine is the British Continental D.H. 86 and the Autogiro has its full parking equipment in place. The future control building will probably be built on the boundary at the top of the Picture.
Water wings: the Autogiro with its flotation gear.
When this autogiro was delivered to the Fleet Air Arm for experimental carrier operation, an unusual type of flotation gear was fitted. Normally the spherical air bags are stowed in containers on the sides of the fuselage.
"WITH BOOTS ON." Senor de la Cierva testing a C.30 Autogiro seaplane over the Medway at Rochester, where it has been fitted with floats by Short Brothers. The first Autogiro seaplane had an Avro "Avian" fuselage and was persuaded off the water off Hamble in Southampton Water. This happened many years ago, when the present system of rotor-starting had not been evolved.
Both the front and rear (illustrated) cockpits have been carefully recreated.
IN THE COCKPIT: The flying controls are confined to a single "hanging" stick, the foot bar being used for operating the tail wheel when the machine is taxying.
An interested crowd round Mr. Bishop's fine petrol-driven Autogiro model at the N.H.M.F.C. meeting.
FOR A SMALL HANGAR. Two of the blades may be folded on their hinges to enable the machine to be housed in a small space.
DIRECT CONTROL: The way in which the rotor head is tilted should be clear from these diagrammatic views.
WELDED CONSTRUCTION. The rear of the fuselage with the tail-wheel mounting.
FUSELAGE DETAILS. The letters show the position of the enlarged details on the fuselage.
C.30 Autogiro 140 hp. Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major Engine