Armstrong Whitworth Whitley / A.W.38
Armstrong Whitworth - Whitley / A.W.38 - 1936 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1936

Whitley / A.W.38
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation

Ч/б фото (92)

Whitley / A.W.38

Средний бомбардировщик, двухмоторный цельнометаллический моноплан с двухкилевым оперением и убирающимся шасси с хвостовым колесом. Экипаж 5 человек. Спроектирован в КБ фирмы "Армстронг-Уитворт" под руководством Дж.Ллойда. Опытный образец самолета впервые поднялся в воздух 17 марта 1936 г. Серийное производство на заводе "Армстронг-Уитворт" в Ковентри началось в феврале 1937 г. Всего выпущено 1824 экз., из них 1678 бомбардировщиков. "Уитли" поступил на вооружение ВВС Великобритании в марте 1937 г.
Основные серийные модификации как бомбардировщика:
  - "Уитли" I с моторами "Тайгер" XI, вооружение 2x7,69, бомбы до 680 кг;
  - "Уитли" II с моторами "Тайгер" VIII, вооружение 4x7,69, бомбы до 1590 кг;
  - "Уитли" III с увеличенным бомбоотсеком, бомбы до 2500 кг;
  - "Уитли" IV с моторами "Мерлин" IV, увеличенный запас горючего, бомбы до 3200 кг;
  - "Уитли" IVA с моторами "Мерлин" X;
  - "Уитли" V с вооружением 5x7,69, антиобледенительной системой.
Существовали также противолодочные и транспортные варианты.
С сентября 1939 г. "Уитли" сбрасывали листовки над Германией, с марта 1940 г. осуществляли ночные бомбардировки (в широких масштабах - с мая), в т.ч. в августе - налет на Берлин. В июне 1940 г. провели бомбежку Генуи и Турина. Последний массированный налет с участием "Уитли" состоялся в апреле 1942 г., после чего самолеты передали в учебные подразделения. Однако весной и летом их вновь привлекли к налетам на Кёльн, Эссен, Бремен и другие города Германии. "Уитли" был снят с производства весной 1943 г. Как учебный и транспортный самолет использовался до 1945 г.

"Уитли" V||
Размах:||25,6 м
Длина:||22,1 м
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2x1145 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||15209 кг
Максимальная скорость:||370 км/ч
Практический потолок:||7925 м
Дальность:||2415 км

Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation

Armstrong Whitworth A.W.38 Whitley (UK)
  Most extensively built of all Armstrong Whit­worth aircraft was the Whitley heavy bomber, designed to meet the British Air Ministry specification B.3/34. More than 1,800 were produced. Selected for production off the drawing board in 1935 the prototype flew for the first time on 17 March 1936. The second prototype and 34 Mk I production aircraft which followed were all powered by two 592.5 kW (795 hp) Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX radial engines. Mk IV, V and VII Whitleys, which followed later, had Rolls-Royce Merlin engines - these conferring considerably improved performance.
  Whitleys began to enter RAF service in the early months of 1937 and by the outbreak of war in 1939 were well established in the bomber squadrons. Being slower than the contemporary Handley Page Hampden and Vickers Wellington they were classed as night bombers. They were a vital component of Bomber Command operations until their withdrawal from front-line service in 1941. Achieving some of the major milestones of the war, the Whitley was responsible for the first widespread leaflet raids over Germany, in September 1939; the first bombing raid on Germany, in May 1940; the first bombing raid on Italy, in June 1940; and the first paratroop operation over Southern Italy, in February 1941. After its withdrawal from front-line service with Bomber Command the Whitley was converted for use as a general reconnaissance bomber and put into ser­vice by Coastal Command. In another converted form it was used to train the first British airborne troops and to take them into action for the first time, in a flight from England to Southern Italy. At the end of the war the type was still in service for training and other miscellaneous duties. (A full description of the type appears in the 1945-46 Jane's.)
  Data (Whitley V): Engines two 801.5 kW (1,075 hp) Merlin Xs Wingspan 25.6 m (84ft 0in) Length 22.10 m (72 ft 6 in) Max T-O weight 12,790 kg (28,200 lb) Max level .speed 367 km/h (228 mph) Combat range 2,414 km (1,500 miles) Armament five 0.303 in machine-guns, plus up to 3,175 kg (7,000 lb) of bombs
Whitley I, II, III
The first prototype Whitley I, K4586. It later became a ground instructional aircraft serialled 7070M.
A NEW "HEAVY." The Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley (two Tiger engines).
With two 795 h.p. Tiger IXs the new Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber has a fine performance for a machine of its size.
Первый опытный экземпляр "Уитли". На самолете установлены пулеметные турели раннего образца с педальным приводом. Снимок 1936г.
METAL-CLAD, Stressed skin, V.P. airscrew, flaps and retractable undercarriage are features of the new A. W. Whitley.

A HENDON DEBUTANT: The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber is likely to make its first public appearance at the R.A.F. Display on June 27. Its engines are two 790/880 Tiger IXs.
The leisurely passage of the ancient Farman over the new types park. In the foreground the Merlin in the Hawker F.36/34 is being run up. The Whitley heavy bomber is seen in the centre.
Britain's biggest air liner is equipped with Siddeley engines cowled with fair­ing rings by Northern Aircraft & Engineering Products, Ltd. In the background of the photograph is the “Whitley” bomber, also fitted with our cowlings.
It is obvious that the Whitley is related to the A.W.23 bomber transport.
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley is a very sound and well-defended type in the heavier category
The Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley (two Siddeley Tigers)
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley is a heavy bomber with two Siddeley Tiger engines, which, in later models, have two-speed superchargers
HIGH SPEED, LONG RANGE, HEAVY LOAD: The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, ordered in large quantities for the R.A.F. The engines of this machine, which Flt. Lt. Turner-Hughes recently flew for Flight's photographer, are at present 795 h.p. Siddeley Tiger IXs, and D.H. v.p. airscrews are fitted.
Первыми серийными машинами Whitley были самолеты версии Mk I со звездообразными моторами Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX мощностью 810 л.с.(604 кВт).
Один из первых серийных "Уитли" в период заводских испытаний. На самолет уже нанесен военный камуфляж и опознавательные знаки, но еще нет буквенных идентификационных кодов. Снимок 1938г.
ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH "WHITLEY" Two 790 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley "Tiger" engines
ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH WHITLEY II and III: Bomber (two Tiger VIII engines 760 h.p. each at 12,750ft.); span, 84ft.; gross weight, 21,660 lb.; max. speed, 215 m.p.h. at 15,000ft.
MAN-MADE MIMICRY: The A.W. Whitley, with the new camouflage scheme, melts into the landscape.
The Armstrong Whitworth "Whitley" Heavy Bomber (two Armstrong Siddeley "Tiger" engines).
TAKER - AND TAKEN: This snapshot was taken from an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. In the Avro Commodore, flown by Flt. Lt. Reynell, is Flight's chief photographer, and they are just manoeuvring into position to secure the striking close-up picture.
AT CLOSE RANGE: An Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber photographed from a machine flying close alongside. The pilot of the Whitley was F/O. E. S. Greenwood, the assistant A.W. test pilot.
Another view of the echelon, taken from in front. This formation is less difficult in twin-engined aircraft than in single-engined types, where the pilot seldom has such a good view forward and down.
An echelon of four Whitleys. Note the almost-retracted wheels.
ON HER BEAM ENDS: Flt. Lt. Turner-Hughes demonstrates the manoeuvrability of the Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber. It. can be seen that the camera was aimed almost vertically at the ground.
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, with two Siddeley Tiger engines, is in the heavy bomber class and of modern design.
"Уитли" I из состава 10-й бомбардировочной эскадрильи.

View of the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley which show its general proportions and the gun turrets in the nose.
An impressive line-up of some of the Whitleys of No. 10 B.S. on Dishforth Aerodrome.
The pilots, officers and airmen, of No. 10 (B) Squadron: Wing Comdr. S. Graham, M.C., the CO., has his hands crossed in front. On either side are his two flight commanders, Sqn. Ldr. T. S. Horry, D.F.C., A.F.C., on his right, and Sqn. Ldr. E. B. Steedman on his left.
Some of the airmen of No. 10 B.S. Warrant Officer A. C. Townsend, sitting in the centre of the front row, wears an observer's wing on his tunic
THREE MEN AND A DOG ... The A.W. test team which put the Whitley through its paces for Flight's photographer (left to right): F/O. E. S. Greenwood, Flt. Lt. C. K. Turner-Hughes, and Flt. Lt. R. C. Reynell. To finish the quotation would cast most unjust aspersions on the Whitley's undercarriage.
K7191, the ninth production Whitley I. Note the absence of dihedral on the outer wing panels.
The Armstrong Whitworth "Whitley" Heavy Bomber (two Armstrong Siddeley "Tiger" engines).
The sixth production Whitley 2, K7222, here seen before installation of gun turrets.
Whitley IV
The Armstrong Whitworth "Whitley" Mk.IV Heavy Bomber (two Rolls-Royce "Merlin" engines).
Первый прототип "Уитли" с двигателями "Мерлин".

MERLIN-POWERED: An Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber fitted experimentally with two Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. The installations are graced with all the latest advances, including ejector-type exhaust pipes. It may be that the engines are Merlin Xs, which give 1,040 h.p. at 2,500ft. and 965 h.p. at 13,250ft. “Maximum” figures are somewhat higher.
Fitted with Merlin 4s, K7209 was one of three Whitley Is converted to prototype Mk. 4s.
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley IV fitted with Rolls-Royce engines
The Rolls-Royce-Merlin-powered Armstrong Whitworth Whitley IV on test near the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Martlesham Heath.
A FASTER WHITLEY: An example of the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley heavy bomber, now in service with Siddeley Tiger engines, has been fitted with Rolls-Royce Merlins of higher power. The new machine, as shown, has temporary fairings over nose and stem gun positions.
An example of the nose radiator position. The Whitley IV has Rolls-Royce Merlin IV engines.
An example of a modern ducted cooling installation - one of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in an Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley IV.
A Mk. 4 (K9025) . The Mk. 4A had a slightly larger carburetter air intake - immediately forward of the undercarriage doors - than that on the Mk. 4.
A Whitley Mk. 4A (K9055)
Whitley V
"Уитли" V в варианте ночного бомбардировщика.

Бомбардировщик "Уитли" V
Two production Whitley Mk . Vs (N1372 KN-O of 77 Squadron and Z6S77 EY-F of 78 Squadron) illustrating the different camouflage styling of 1940-41. Later Whitleys were unique among R.A.F. bombers with their soot-black finish overall.
Paratroops under training at Ringway in October 1941. The nearest Whitley is N1422.
Whitleys setting out from RAF Driffield on yet another leaflet raid, on April 27, 1940.
A composite photograph of a 1945 portrait of Leonard Cheshire and leaflet-dropping Whitleys pictured at RAF Driffield in April 1940.
A trio of Whitley IIIs of 102 Sqn up from RAF Driffield in March 1940.
Another view of three 102 Sqn Whitley IIIs on a reconnaissance flight from RAF Driffield in March 1940. The squadron operated Whitley Vs from November 1939 until February 1942, by which time Halifax IIs were already taking over.
A Whitley takes off and heads out on a leaflet raid.
A possible candidate for the lower component of a piggyback bomber may have been the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley, which, despite its somewhat lumbering appearance, had sufficent performance to be able to undertake the carrier role. This Whitley V, N1532, operated with Nos 77 and 78 Sqns until it ditched in April 1940.
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Mk V.
Whitley Mk. 5 (T4149) with the G suffix removed. Note the underwing RATOG containers.
Этот Whitley Mk V из 78-й эскадрильи целиком окрашен в черный цвет, как и другие машины, принимавшие участие в ночных рейдах на Германию в первые месяцы войны. Самолеты из 78-й эскадрильи участвовали в первом налете на Берлин.
Бомбардировщик Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. Нос этого летящего на высокой скорости самолета опущен необычно низко.
Имевший скорость полета всего 320 км/ч, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley становился легкой добычей для пилотов Bf 109 и Bf 110.
Конец 1941 года. Снимок сделан хвостовым аэрофотоаппаратом G.42, установленным на Whitley Mk V Берегового командования. Сброшенная самолетом глубинная бомба взрывается на пути подлодки.
Paratroops risk the “Whitley kiss” as they drop through the hole.
Whitleys in use for intensive paratroop training, 1941. In the picture the pilot ’chute on the left is unfurling the parachute of a supply canister.
Whitleys in use for intensive paratroop training, 1941.
Sticks of paratroops drop from Whitleys during a 1942 demonstration.
В 1943 году бомбардировщикам Whitley поручили буксировку планеров. На снимке Whitley Mk V из 21-й учебной авиагруппы, тянущий планер Horsa над авиабазой Брайз-Нортон. Whitley буксировали планеры только в учебных полетах, а в боевых вылетах для этого применялись бомбардировщики Halifax.
A Whitley towing an Airspeed Horsa. Designed as a long-range night bomber, the Whitley was relegated to glider towing work but was not used operationally. Most were used at No 21 Heavy Glider Conversion Unit at RAF Brize Norton. Brian Field became quite a dab hand at flying the Christchurch-based Whitley used for initial towing of early Horsas.
After initial towing trials behind a 4 1/2-litre Bentley, an Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bomber took over as the tug. A full-size reproduction of the Rotabuggy, made by the Wessex Aviation Society, may be seen in the Museum of Army Flying at Middle Wallop.
The Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Civil Freight-carrier (two Rolls-Royce Merlin X engines).
Whitley (бортовой код G-AGDY) версии Mk V с двигателями Merlin - одна из 13 машин авиакомпании BOAC, летавших на Мальту и в Швецию в 1942-1943 годах.
One of B.O.A.C.'s fifteen Whitley 5 freighters, G-AGDY formerly BD386.
The King inspects machines of the Bomber Group. Above him towers the nose of a Harrow, and behind can be distinguished a Whitley, Wellesley and Blenheim.
The Deerhound-engined Whitley in the test hangar at Badington.
The Deerhound installation in the Whitley.
A hitherto unpublished photograph of the Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound engine.
Production: A corner of the wing shop at Baginton, showing spar boxes being assembled in their jigs.
Some constructional features of the Whitley. On the left is the retractable undercarriage. Note the mounting of the oil tank in the leading edge. Right: the leading edge next to the engine mounting; it carries the petrol tanks, shaped to fit the curvature.
More armament: General Milch and Air Chief Marshal Sir Edgar Ludlow-Hewitt lead the party past the tail turret of an A. W. Whitley.
Whitley стал первым британским бомбардировщиком, оснащенным тяжелым оборонительным вооружением. На нем установили хвостовую стрелковую башню с четырьмя пулеметами, которая поворачивалась с помощью педального привода (машина на снимке оснащена еще и фотопулеметом). Начиная с версии Mk IV, на Whitley ставили башни с моторным приводом.