Flight 1938-07
Flight
An example of the nose radiator position. The Whitley IV has Rolls-Royce Merlin IV engines.
COMMERCIAL CURTISS: A new thirty-passenger monoplane is being built by the Curtiss Company, who presumably have had enough of seeing Douglas and Lockheed have everything their own way. This sketch shows the lay-out, particularly the fine shape of the fuselage.
A Douglas DC3 with one of its Twin Wasps stopped and the Hydromatic airscrew fully feathered.
PRODUCTION PURSUIT: The Curtiss P.36 single-seater pursuit machine now in production for the U.S. Army Air Corps. Its Twin Wasp engine has a cowing of elliptical section. The performance is probably rather inferior to that of the Hurricane.
CO-AXIAL: A Curtiss P-35 pursuit monoplane (Twin Wasp) of the U.S. Army Air Corps fitted experimentally with concentric airscrews.
MOST FORMIDABLE IN THE WORLD. Hawker Hurricanes, described as the most formidable fighters in the world. They are fitted with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines.
FASTEST FIGHTERS IN SERVICE - Hawker Hurricanes are the fastest fighters in service and exceptional speeds have been attained during routine flights. These machines are fitted with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines.
Variety: Sqn. Ldr. Gillan’s Hurricane flies over an International Air Freight Condor; on the left is Capt. Percival’s Mew Gull, and in front of the Condor is a Magister.
OFF THE LINE: Potez 63 fighter-bombers of France’s Armie de I'Air. This type, which is now in quantity production, has two 750 h.p. two-row Hispanos. These machines were represented at last Sunday’s meeting at Villacoublay.
The Spitfire has a ventral radiator which is, however, unusual in being considerably offset to starboard.
There was a strong Service support; here are Fairey Battles of No. 218 (B) Squadron from Boscombe Down.
SITTING PRETTY: The pilot presumably having followed the modern theory that a forced landing on doubtful ground is safest with under-carriage retracted, this Fairey Battle suffered very little apparent damage when put down be­side the Warrington-Tarporley road. The reader who sent the photograph says that the field was barely six times the length of the machine.
Short-Mayo Composite (21-22 July 1938).
Tutors and a Hart Trainer of the U.L.A.S. in echelon formation. The University arms are painted on the fins, while the horizontal band on the fuselage of the Tutors is purple, the sporting colour of London University.
Training aircraft of No. 9 F.T.S.: Anson, Hart and Audax.
Formation flying, of course, forms part of the instructional routine. “Echelon to the right stepped up” is not easy.
Trainer Harts bear the brunt of most of the intermediate instruction. A refuelling scene on the tarmac.
IN CAMP. The Oxford University Air Squadron believes in putting in as many individual cross-country flights as possible. In this photograph a member of the squadron is signing for his aircraft before starting off from Ford Aerodrome on a cross-country in a Hart Trainer.
Is what must surely be the lowest-altitude aerial photograph on record. Taken from a machine coming in, it shows the fleet of Tiger Moths and Harts. The deep windows of the instructors’ new room are just visible.
L. H. T. Cliff (Miles Hawk Major), third at 146.25 m.p.h. His passenger is Mrs. Cliff.
Cliff’s Hawk Major comes in after finishing third.
This somewhat surrealistic impression at Ipswich suggests that the Albatross is trying to climb on to the airport roof to escape the militant attentions of the Sunderland and London (flying), Skua and Lysander.
Variety: Sqn. Ldr. Gillan’s Hurricane flies over an International Air Freight Condor; on the left is Capt. Percival’s Mew Gull, and in front of the Condor is a Magister.
The Cambridge University Club’s Cambridge I in tow behind an Air Publicity Avro 504, flown by Mrs. Crossley. This machine, with an Airwork Gipsy-Cadet, made some scores of tows during the week, operating from Mr. Alan Butler’s private aerodrome near-by.
EXPERT IDIOCY (positively no deception): Frank Clarke and Paul Mantz treat the Cleveland crowds to something new in sensations, flying undercarriage to undercarriage and tracing their track with smoke. Mantz’s machine (the lower one) is a converted Boeing “one-place pursuit ship.”
HANDED OVER: The Armstrong-Whitworth Ensign has now been delivered to Imperial Airways. Flight’s chief photographer, who secured the picture here, remarks that coming up alongside the vast length of Ensign is suggestive of overtaking an express train. Nose to tail, she measures 114 ft.
BIPLANE CONTRASTS: Major Alford Williams’ Grumman Gulfhawk and Mr. R. G. J. Nash’s Sopwith Pup, seen together at Gatwick Airport.
Variety: Sqn. Ldr. Gillan’s Hurricane flies over an International Air Freight Condor; on the left is Capt. Percival’s Mew Gull, and in front of the Condor is a Magister.
Maj. Alan Goodfellow, Sir Francis McClean, and Mr. J. R. Ashwell-Cooke - all pioneer sponsors of gliding in this country - with Dr. Dewsbury in the Rhonsperber.
DESERT FORMATION: No. 45 (B.) Squadron, the first in the Middle East to be equipped with Vickers Wellesleys, are stationed at Helwan, Egypt. The specially prepared long-range Wellesleys may soon be in Egypt, and Ismailia has been named as a possible take-off point for Australia.
Ministering to the Pegasus in the experimental Wellesley at Filton. The clean design of the Rotol airscrew is apparent.
The French Liore 45 bomber fitted with Mercier cowlings. The engines are Hispano-Suiza two-row 14 AA radials. The oil cooler seen on the leading edge outside the port engine will be enclosed in the cowling on production machines.
Training aircraft of No. 9 F.T.S.: Anson, Hart and Audax.
This somewhat surrealistic impression at Ipswich suggests that the Albatross is trying to climb on to the airport roof to escape the militant attentions of the Sunderland and London (flying), Skua and Lysander.
A Saro London II with Bristol Pegasus X engines.
Two glimpses from the windows of a London II of No. 201 (G.R.) Squadron which intercepted the Blue battle fleet. In the lower picture the four destroyers have just broken away from the battle formation, and the London was about to determine their new bearing.
A general view of the Londons at their moorings off Tayport; there is also a Singapore III. In the background is the Tay Bridge, and Dundee lies on the opposite shore.
STRENGTH FOR THE EAS: A Short Sunderland long-range flying boat of the type now being supplied to Singapore, with a background of Singapore IIIs.
STRENGTH FOR THE EAS: A Short Sunderland long-range flying boat of the type now being supplied to Singapore, with a background of Singapore IIIs.
This somewhat surrealistic impression at Ipswich suggests that the Albatross is trying to climb on to the airport roof to escape the militant attentions of the Sunderland and London (flying), Skua and Lysander.
PUSHING FORWARD: A formation of Supermarine Walrus amphibian flying boats (Bristol Pegasus VI), carried by the Second Cruiser Squadron.
Training aircraft of No. 9 F.T.S.: Anson, Hart and Audax.
Near enough: The Anson at the end of its forced-landing run. Fog and fuel shortage were the causes of the bother.
Over an inhospitable ocean at 06.30 hours: an Anson navigator uses the hand bearing compass.
This somewhat surrealistic impression at Ipswich suggests that the Albatross is trying to climb on to the airport roof to escape the militant attentions of the Sunderland and London (flying), Skua and Lysander.
COMBINED OPERATIONS: A Fairey Swordfish torpedo spotter reconnaissance biplane observes a singularly non-chalant landing party during the recent combined operations on the South Coast. Manoeuvres on a much larger scale are scheduled for the later part of this month along the eastern seaboard.
An informal group: officers under instruction awaiting their turns to fly. They are mostly Naval officers, but the possession of a moustache in one case indicates a military man.
IN ECUADOR: A Junkers Ju. 34 (540 h.p. B.M.W. Hornet) and (nearest camera) Messerschmitt Taifun, of Sedata, Ecuador’s airline. It is seen on Quito Aerodrome, which is surrounded by mountains, and difficult to approach in bad weather (the company was recently unlucky enough to lose its founder, Herr Fritz Hammer, when the clouds closed down on a machine which he was flying out of Quito). In spite of such difficulties, the line gives valuable service, notably by reducing the time from Quito to Guayaquil to hours as compared with a two-day train journey.
Tutors and a Hart Trainer of the U.L.A.S. in echelon formation. The University arms are painted on the fins, while the horizontal band on the fuselage of the Tutors is purple, the sporting colour of London University.
Pupils, instructors, and Tutors of the U.L.A.S. The C.F.I., Wing Cdr. Hammersley, M.C., is making his spaniel beg. Just behind him, in white, is the adjutant, Flt. Lt. J. Grandy, while on his right, with a long row of medal ribbons, is the Chief Instructor, Wing Cdr. T. F. W. Thompson, D.F.C.
This frontal view of the Chilton explains where some of the speed comes from.
The Chilton, though a miniature, is well proportioned and looks right. Mr. R. L. Porteous posed the machine for this and the other photographs.
Coming in to land with the flaps, of notably extensive area, in the fully down position. Different flap angles can be selected for different circumstances; the operating lever is on the left side of the cockpit.
The pleasant vista from the lounge.
Herr Seimondl, wearing the Eschner parachute, embarks in a Luton Club Tiger Moth (flown by Mr. E. W. Bonar) preparatory to making the low altitude departure.
Is what must surely be the lowest-altitude aerial photograph on record. Taken from a machine coming in, it shows the fleet of Tiger Moths and Harts. The deep windows of the instructors’ new room are just visible.
ENTERTAINING IMPRESSION of a high-spirited batch of D.H. Tiger Moths picking up formation. They are from No 12 Elementary and Reserve Flying and Training School, Prestwick, Ayrshire, operated by Scottish Aviation Ltd
Herr Seimondl, wearing the Eschner parachute, making the low altitude departure. The torn canopy can be seen.
At DEAUVILLE: Air Marshal Joubert de la Ferte prepares to start his Dragonfly - actually the D.H. and London Club training and general communication machine.
The D.H. Gipsy Twelve installation, showing air duct entries set out at two-thirds of the airscrew diameter.
TRANSATLANTIC PREPARATION: One of the Gipsy Twelves being installed in the D.H. Albatross, two of which are to be used eventually for transatlantic experiments.
This somewhat surrealistic impression at Ipswich suggests that the Albatross is trying to climb on to the airport roof to escape the militant attentions of the Sunderland and London (flying), Skua and Lysander.
Sheltering under the Albatross.
LEWIS-LIKE: A new Williamson camera gun is now in service, and is here seen on an Auxiliary Hawker Demon.
The winning Percival Mew Gull;
Capt. Percival’s Mew Gull - which finished sixth - from an unusual viewpoint.
Giles Guthrie, who brought his Mew Gull into second place at 220.5 m.p.h.
Giles Guthrie shows some visitors round the Mew Gull.
Another comparison: Henshaw’s Mew, which differs from Guthrie’s (see opposite), notably as regards spinner, cowling, spats and cockpit enclosure.
Another comparison: Henshaw’s Mew, which differs from Guthrie’s (see opposite), notably as regards spinner, cowling, spats and cockpit enclosure.
Variety: Sqn. Ldr. Gillan’s Hurricane flies over an International Air Freight Condor; on the left is Capt. Percival’s Mew Gull, and in front of the Condor is a Magister.
Mew Gulls’ beaks - in comparison. Reading on the right are Percival's and Guthrie's, and below is Henshaw’s.
Liquid refreshment for De Havilland’s T.K.2.
Geoffrey de Havilland in the T.K.2, which finished fourth. Note the lap counter, operated by poking out one of its eyes on each lap.
Cockpit and controls of the T.K.2, flown by Geoffrey de Havilland.
IN ECUADOR: A Junkers Ju. 34 (540 h.p. B.M.W. Hornet) and (nearest camera) Messerschmitt Taifun, of Sedata, Ecuador’s airline. It is seen on Quito Aerodrome, which is surrounded by mountains, and difficult to approach in bad weather (the company was recently unlucky enough to lose its founder, Herr Fritz Hammer, when the clouds closed down on a machine which he was flying out of Quito). In spite of such difficulties, the line gives valuable service, notably by reducing the time from Quito to Guayaquil to hours as compared with a two-day train journey.
POLISH TRANSPORT: Designed to replace the American machines which are at present used by LOT, the P.Z.L. company's new Wicher transport has a maximum speed of about 235 m.p.h. with two Wright Cyclone G.2 engines. When a crew of 4 with 14 passengers and the usual luggage load are carried the range is given as 1,100 miles. In general appearance the machine is an interesting cross between the D.C. 2 and the Lockheed 14 - both of them types which are in service with LOT.
PZL-44 (Panstwowe Zaklady Lotnicze - State Aircraft Factory). The PZL-44 Wicher was intended as a replacement for the Douglas DC-2 and Lockheed Model 12A and Model 14 Super Electra transports operated by P.L.L. LOT just before World War II. The Polish national airline issued a specification calling for a fourteen-passenger (four-crew, including captain, co-pilot, radio operator and steward) airliner which resulted in the Wicher designed by W. Jakimuk and built at the PZL-WP.NI works at Okecie, near Warsaw. The first flight took place on 20th March 1937, and subsequent flight evaluation was carried out at the I.B.T.L. establishment in Warsaw during the latter half of 1938. Of ail-metal construction, the sole prototype, PZL-44 (latterly registered SP-WHR), was powered by two 850-h.p. Skoda-Wright Cyclones, although for the production models the more powerful 1,000-h.p. Wright GR-1820-G2 radials had been planned. Every modern flying and navigational aid and passenger-comfort device was installed, including such items as efficient de-icing, hydraulically-operated dual controls, Sperry autopilot and "climatised" cabin conditions, thus making the PZL-44 one of the most promising pre-war airliners ever built. When war broke out for Poland on 1st September 1939 the evaluation testing ceased after the prototype had logged some two hundred flying hours, latterly by Polish airline pilots. With a span of 78 ft. 1 3/4 in., length 60ft. 7 in., and height 15 ft. 7 3/4 in., the PZL-44 had an a.u.w. of 23,100 lb,, giving a normal range of 1,140 miles, or five hours' duration at cruising speed (62.5 per cent power) of 211.2 m.p.h. at 13,120 ft. Maximum speed 234 m.p.h. at 6,560 ft. in English "Wicher" means Tempest or Storm.
The Boeing 314 taking off from Puget Sound. Twin rudders and redesigned sponsons are being fitted as the result of initial tests.
BIPLANE CONTRASTS: Major Alford Williams’ Grumman Gulfhawk and Mr. R. G. J. Nash’s Sopwith Pup, seen together at Gatwick Airport.
Flight photograph show­ing characteristics of the Grumman Gulfhawk (G-22) single-seater.
The striking markings on the top plane, to convince spectators that the Gulfhawk really does fly on its back (the re­tractable wheels sometimes make this difficult to verify) show up to advantage.
Features of both Major Williams and his Grumman G-22 are visible here
The Lockheed 14 over New York. (Left) Mr. Howard Hughes.
Three Taylor Cubs, representing the County Club’s fleet, fly in professional formation over the new clubhouse at Rearsby.
Mr. S Davenport (Puss Moth), Mrs. D. Harries, and the president of the Magyar Touring Club.
An Osprey, with engine running, being lowered on to the Leuchars catapult.
The pilot is seen climbing to his cockpit while a Naval instructor waits to give the launching signal.
An early application of the Diesel to commercial aircraft was in the vast Junkers G.38, which had four of the 600/750 h.p. Jumo 204 type units.
The machine originally had petrol engines but has now been fitted with four Junkers diesels. The neat cowling of these large engines is shown in the picture.
GRACE: The Minimoa sailplane in which Mr. Philip Wills has been putting up some fine performances, notably by establishing a British distance record or 206 miles and the British height record of over 10,000ft.
Promising cumulus: Mr. Philip Wills, inveterate long-distance pilot, prepares the beautiful Minimoa
RECORD-BREAKER: Last month the Arado 79 broke, by a wide margin, two records in the light aircraft category which were previously held by Czechoslovakia. These were each for 100 km., the speeds being practically 142.5 m.p.h. in each case. The machine was a perfectly standard one with a Hirth MM 504 A2 of 105 h.p. and, as the air was extremely bumpy during the flights, this record speed can be treated as the normal maximum of the type. This Arado two-seater cabin machine is of mixed construction and, unusually enough in such a small machine, it has a retractable undercarriage. The tail design will be seen as typically Arado and the cabin arrangements have certain slight resemblances to those of the American Ryan S-C monoplane.
Mr. S. R. Crow’s flying scale-model Leopard Moth.
Scruticappers or handineers Capt. Dancy and Mr. Rowarth. They are inspecting the latest version of cowling on Tutt’s Pobjoy-engined Comper Swift.
The man and the machine.
These three photographs show three stages in practice landings on a dummy deck marked out on the aerodrome at Leuchars. Though the conditions are not identical with those of landing on a moving carrier the practice is still very useful to the pilots.
Mr. George Reynolds flagging off the first of the two Parnall Hecks - Warren’s is nearest the camera.
The leading-edge H.P. slots and trailing-edge slotted flaps of the Parnall Heck.
A picture for students of wing design: The Imperial College of Science team’s Kirby Kite
Speed range: Early in the week Capt. Balfour, Under-Secretary of State for Air, flew the leisurely two-seater Fal­con III with Mr. Hugh Bergel (left). A few days before Capt. Balfour had been piloting a Hurricane.
Flt. Lt Murray and Mr. Stanley Sproule, who stayed aloft 22 hr. 13 1/2 min., breaking the world’s two-seater sailplane duration record.
The Cambridge University Club’s Cambridge I in tow behind an Air Publicity Avro 504, flown by Mrs. Crossley. This machine, with an Airwork Gipsy-Cadet, made some scores of tows during the week, operating from Mr. Alan Butler’s private aerodrome near-by.
At the other end of the string: Mr. E. J. Furlong’s Cambridge II zooms skyward the rather emotioning fashion typical of the winch-launching.
Competing at Dunstable - the Tern, built by the Airspeed Company in their York days. Family resemblance is seen in the rudder.
Grace: A fine aerial impression of a typical high-performance sailplane, Mr. Hiscox's Kirby Gull. The photograph was taken from a two-seater glider.
A SUPER, SUPER­CLIPPER: The interior of the 100-passenger transoceanic flying boat planned by the Boeing Aircraft Company for Pan-American Airways. The machine, if ordered, would resemble a scaled-up 314 with six engines built into the wing, a hull of improved aerodynamic form and retract­able wing floats.
THE YEAR AFTER NEXT: Consolidated Aircraft are interesting themselves more in the civil market. Here are drawings of their 100-passenger design for Pan-American Airways. It is intended to have a maximum speed of 276 m.p.h. at 20,000 ft. - the operating height with specially supercharged engines apd pressure cabin.
Morton, in the Double Eagle, approaches for one of his close looks at the Buntingford pylon. He finished fifth.
RECORD HOLDER: Used by Rossi to set up three new international records, this Amiot 370, with liquid-cooled, 900 h.p. Hispano-Suiza 12 Y 21 engines, closely resembles a new production Amiot bomber. The maximum speed of the machine is probably as high as 290 m.p.h. A Gnome-Rhone radial-engined version has also been produced.
A good idea of the general appearance of the Scamp may be obtained from this suitably modified photograph of a model of the single-seater prototype.
The undercarriage of the Scamp is ingeniously economical both in cost and head-resistance. This sketch shows the way in which the movement and springing is arranged. The stub layout as a whole will be seen in the general arrangement drawing on the previous page.
The Comper Scamp