Fokker F.IX и F.39
Высокоплан F.IX внешне напоминал увеличенный F.VIII-3m и был оснащен тремя моторами Jupiter. Самолет предназначался для перевозки 18 пассажиров на европейских авиалиниях; от четырех до шести пассажиров размещались в салоне повышенного комфорта, а на линиях
между Голландией и Голландской Ост-Индией в самолетах оборудовались спальные места. Первый F.IX поднялся в воздух 26 августа 1929 года, его эксплуатация в авиакомпании KLM началась 8 мая 1930 года; самолет назвали "Adelaar" (орел). Второй F.IX доработали, удлинив носовую часть фюзеляжа для размещения 20 пассажиров, машина была показана на авиасалоне в Париже в 1930 году, а в январе 1931 года ее передали KLM.
Хотя первый F.IX и выполнил несколько полетов на Дальний Восток, обычно он эксплуатировался в варианте на 17 пассажиров между Амстердамом и Лондоном. После установки новых моторов самолет в октябре 1936 года продали французской компании "Air Tropic", а потом - Испанской республике. После окончания гражданской войны в Испании самолет достался франкистам.
Два F.IX построила по лицензии в Чехословакии фирма "Avia", эти самолеты эксплуатировала авиакомпания СБА под обозначением F.39 с двигателями Walter Pegasus мощностью 635 л. с. "Avia" спроектировала также военный вариант - 12 бомбардировщиков F.IXM поступили на вооружение ВВС Чехословакии, а два под обозначением F.39 поступили в ВВС Югославии.
Fokker F.IX (исходный вариант)
Тип: транспортный самолет с экипажем из двух/трех человек
Силовая установка: три звездообразных мотора Gnome-Rhone (Bristol) Jupiter VI мощностью по 500 л. с.
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 212 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 175 км/ч; практический потолок 3600 м; продолжительность полета 6 ч 30 мин
Масса: пустого 5350 кг; максимальная взлетная 9000 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 18,50 м; длина 27,14 м; высота 4,85 м; площадь крыла 103,00 мг
Полезная нагрузка: до 18 пассажиров в закрытом салоне
Еще одной разработкой на основе F.VII-3m стал F.XII, выполнивший первый полет в начале 1930 года. По размерам он был меньше F.IX. Эксплуатация F.XII в компании KLM на линии в Батавию (тогда голландская Ост-Индия) началась в марте 1931 года. "Fokker" построила еще десять самолетов, почти все машины были переданы KLM и ее дальневосточному филиалу KNILM. Лишь десятый серийный самолет был продан в Швецию компании "AB Aerotransport".
KLM использовала F.XII на дальневосточных линиях в течение двух лет, а потом перевела самолеты на европейские линии, связывавшие Амстердам с Лондоном, Парижем, Берлином и другими крупными городами.
Голландская "Orlogsvaerftet" собрала по лицензии два F.XII для авиакомпании DDL, которая эксплуатировала их на линии Копенгаген - Берлин. Второй из этих аппаратов построили как F.XIIM с улучшенной аэродинамикой и более высокими летными данными.
Шесть голландских F.XII со временем продали британским компаниям, четыре из них англичане затем перепродали правительству Испании. Эти четыре самолета приняли участие в гражданской войне и были сбиты. Последними летающими F.XII являлись шведский самолет и голландский F.XIIM. Шведскую машину утилизировали в 1946 году, а голландскую - в 1947 году.
Тип: транспортный самолет с экипажем из двух человек
Силовая установка: три звездообразных мотора Pratt & Whitney Wasp C мощностью по 425 л. с.
Летные характеристики: макс. скорость на оптимальной высоте 230 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 205 км/ч; практич. потолок 3400 м; дальность 1300 км
Масса: пустого 4350 кг; максимальная взлетная 7250 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 17,80 м; длина 17,80 м; высота 4,72 м; площадь крыла 83,00 м2
Полезная нагрузка: до 16 пассажиров в закрытом салоне
F.XVIII проектировался как увеличенный вариант F.XII, сохранив компоновку и основные конструкционные решения предшественника, в том числе металлический каркас фюзеляжа и высокорасположенное крыло с силовым набором из древесины. Аэродинамика самолета была существенно облагорожена в сравнении с более ранними трехмоторными авиалайнерами "Fokker". Пять F.XVIII построили в 1932 году, они эксплуатировались на линии Амстердам - Батавия (Голландская Ост-Индия) и перевозили только четырех пассажиров. Сиденья были выполнены раскладными, чтобы можно было на них спать. В кабине экипажа были места для радиста и штурмана.
Самолеты F.XVIII выполнили и несколько выдающихся полетов. PH-AIP "Pelikaan" в декабре 1933 года перевез рождественскую почту из Амстердама в Батавию всего за 73 часа 34 минуты. С 15 по 22 декабря 1934 года PH-AIS "Snip", переоснащенный моторами Pratt & Whitney Wasp T1D1 с винтами изменяемого шага, выполнил перелет из Амстердама в Чикаго, покрыв расстояние в 10 300 км за полетное время 55 часов 58 минут с грузом почты массой 100 кг. F.XVIII сняли с протяженных линий в 1935 году. Один самолет остался на Карибах, к нему вскоре присоединился второй - эти машины эксплуатировались в данном регионе до 1946 года; во время войны один из двух доработали в военный вариант и установили оборонительный пулемет.
Два F.XVIII продали чехословацкой компании CSA, самолеты эксплуатировались на линиях Прага - Берлин и Прага - Вена; обычно самолет брал на борт 13 пассажиров. Один F.XVIII продали в Палестину, а знаменитый "Pelikaan" в октябре 1936 года купила "AirTropic" - французская компания, работавшая в интересах правительства Испании. Вероятно, самолет использовался в гражданской войне как транспортный и связной, позднее он был сбит.
Обозначение F.XIX в 1931-1932 годах получил авиалайнер меньшего размера с силовой установкой из четырех звездообразных моторов Gnome-Rhone Titan мощностью по 250 л. с.
Тип: транспортный самолет с экипажем из двух/четырех человек
Силовая установка: три звездообразных мотора Pratt & Whitney Wasp C мощностью по 420 л. с.
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 240 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 210 км/ч; практический потолок 4800 м; дальность 1820 км
Масса: пустого 4623 кг; максимальная взлетная 7850 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 24,50 м; длина 18,50 м; площадь крыла 84,00 м2
Полезная нагрузка: до 13 пассажиров в закрытой кабине
Flight, November 1929
MR. ANTHONY FOKKER ON A HOLIDAY
MR. FOKKER has recently been over to this country on a short holiday; being a true disciple of the doctrine of "practise what you preach" he naturally uses an aeroplane for such a journey. On this occasion he chose one of his own latest productions, a Fokker F.IX.
It is believed that this is the first time this machine has been seen over here and a brief description will not be out of place.
This new machine is a typical Fokker in design and construction and carries 18 passengers and two pilots. The engines are three Jupiter VI's and it can take-off and fly on any two of them with full load. The pilot's cockpit is entirely closed and has an exceptionally fine all-round view, the side windows are all made to slide open easily in case of fog or bad weather, and the pilot should be as comfortable in this cockpit as in any other machine in the world. Dual control is fitted and the tail plane and fin are adjustable during flight. The undercarriage is the normal Fokker type, with Bendix wheel brakes and on this particular machine an extra large ski type of tail skid shoe was fitted, it is understood, however, that this will shortly be replaced by a tail-wheel.
The cabin is large and roomy and especially large luggage accommodation is provided; for Mr. Fokker's use the standard seats had not been fitted, and the cabin was luxuriously equipped with chairs and tables.
The following is a brief specification of this aircraft :-
Dimensions. - Span, 88 ft. 6 in. (27 m.); Length, 60 ft. 8 in. (18-5 m.); Height, 15 ft. 11 in. (4-85 m.); Wing area, 1,109 sq. ft. (103 sq. m.); Cabin, height 6 ft. 3 in. (1 -9 m.), width, 6 ft. 7 in. (2 m.), length, 16 ft. 11 in. (5-15 m.); Capacity of luggage compartment, 196 cub. ft. (5-55 cub. m.); Track, 23 ft. (7-02 m.).
Weights. - Empty, 11,791 lb. (5,350 kg.); Useful load, crew, 353 lb. (160 kg.), petrol (502 galls.), 3,019 lb. (1,370 kg.), oil, 330 lb. (150 kg.), pay load, 4,343 lb. (1,970 kg). Total useful load, 8,045 lb. (3,650 kg.); Total weight, 19,836 lb. (9,000 kg.); Wing loading, 17-9 lb./sq. ft. (87-4 kg./sq. m.); Power loading, 13-2 lb./h.p. (6 kg./h.p.).
Speed :- Max. at 1,800 revs., 132 m.p.h. (212 km./h.); Cruising, 109 m.p.h. (175 km./h.); Stalling, 67 m.p.h. (107 km/h.).
Climb to 9,852 ft. (3,000 m.), 31 min.; Service ceiling, 12,000 ft. (3,600 m.); Absolute ceiling, 14,800 ft. (4,500 m.) on two engines, 4,000 ft. (1,200 m.); on two engines with all up weight of 17,637 lb. (8,000 kg.), 8,000 ft. (2,400 m.).
Range: 700 miles (1,100 km.).
When interviewed recently, Mr. Fokker is reported as saying that he was arranging a combination of European and American interests, to make the Fokker aeroplane a world-wide organisation and to centralise and coordinate the sales organisation. He was, he said, also going to confer with Mr. Sloane, president of the General Motors Corporation, which has taken up 40 per cent, interest in the Fokker Co.
Flight, May 1930
THE FOKKER F.IX
Three "Jupiter" Engines
ONE of the most progressive airlines in Europe is the K.L.M. (Royal Dutch Airlines), and it is quite in keeping with the policy of the company to lose no time in putting into service the latest and most up-to-date machines as soon as these become available. It may be recollected that last autumn Mr. Anthony Fokker paid a short visit to England, arriving in his latest type of commercial machine, the F.IX. This machine has now been acquired by the K.L.M. and put on the England-Holland air route. Last week we published a photograph of the cabin of the F.IX, which is quite unusually comfortable, what with its well-upholstered seats, adjustable head rests, ample leg room, and comparatively little noise. The days when, as Captain Hill put it, operating companies were content to charge double first-class fare for fourth-class accommodation are rapidly disappearing, and the Fokker F.IX marks a new milestone along the road to really comfortable, as well as rapid, air transport.
Although of typical Fokker lines, and with a strong resemblance to the famous F.VII 3 m., the F.IX is something rather more than a mere enlargement of the older type. Of the more important changes it may be pointed out that the pilot's cockpit is farther forward, with a corresponding gain in view, while the rear portion of the fuselage has been raised so as to get a more favourable angle for landing.
In the matter of structural features, the Fokker F.IX is quite similar to previous models, the two main forms of construction employed being all-wood wing and welded-steel tube fuselage.
The Fokker methods of construction being so well known it is superfluous to go into details concerning them, and one may at once turn to the features which will most interest the operator and user of aircraft. From the former's point of view, such items as ratio of gross to tare weight, range, cruising speed, pay load and so forth, are the most interesting. The F.IX, as fitted with three Gnome-Rhone "Jupiter" engines, and fully equipped to carry two pilots and 18 passengers, has a tare weight of 12,012 lb., while the gross weight is 19,836 lb., which gives a ratio of gross to tare weight of approximately 1-65, a figure which must be regarded as good for a machine of this weight. The manner in which the disposable load is apportioned will, of course, depend upon the sort of route and service for which the machine is wanted. The disposable load corresponds to some 5-2 lb./h.p. on maximum b.h.p., and to 7-8 lb./h.p. on cruising b.h.p. With fuel and oil for approximately 5 1/2 hours, and a crew of two, the actual pay load is 4,232 lb., which corresponds to 2-82 lb./h.p. on maximum power and to 4-2 lb./h.p. on cruising h.p. And this is for a still-air range of approximately 590 miles, at a cruising speed of 107 m.p.h. For routes requiring shorter stages, the pay load can, of course, be correspondingly increased. Or conversely, by reducing the pay load the stages can be increased. The pay load of 4,232 lb. corresponds to 18 passengers at 160 lb., plus 1,352 lb. of luggage, mails, etc.
Sufficient has probably been said to show that the F.IX is a machine which should appeal to airline operators, as it combines good performance with a considerable pay load. From the point of view of the passenger who will make use of it, the Fokker F.IX would appear to be an equally promising type. The cabin is large, well lighted and well ventilated.
The seats for the 18 passengers are arranged in three fore-and-aft rows, a single row along the port side and a double row to starboard. The seats themselves are of tubular construction, with leatherette covering and comfortable arm rests. A vertical strap or web runs along the back rest, and on this strap the head rest is mounted in such a way as to enable it to be readily moved up or down until the position most comfortable for the particular passenger is found. Anyone who has made a flight of some hours' duration will know that no seat of fixed parts remains comfortable for any length of time. A change of attitude is needed every so often. In the Fokker type of seat the adjustable head-rest provides a variety of comfortable positions, and can be made to suit tall and short alike.
In the forward wall of the cabin is a door leading to the pilots' cockpit, which in itself is large and extremely well lighted by sliding windows and windscreens. The view is very good, so that what with the provision of dual controls, the crew should work under very favourable conditions, a matter the importance of which is not always fully realised. Probably nothing is so worrying to a pilot as a poor view. When, therefore, the view is good, as in the F.IX, the pilots' cabin is otherwise comfortable, and side-by-side seats and dual controls are provided, the crew is likely to be able to work efficiently, and the risk of accident of any kind is reduced.
The data, etc., likely to interest the aircraft operator and the aircraft engineer will be found in the table on p. 580.
Flight, February 1931
THE FOKKER F.XII
3 Pratt & Whitney "Wasp" Engines
ONE of the most progressive air lines in Europe is the Dutch K.L.M. and K.N.I.L.M., the former being the service operating from Holland to various countries in Europe, and the latter operating the Holland-East Indies route and the local services in the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch company has an excellent record for safety and reliability, and this has not been obtained by a policy of conservatism and timidity, but rather by one based upon the old saying: "First make quite sure you are right, and then go ahead and see if you are." The K.L.M. has never hesitated to adopt new types of aircraft as and when they became available, but not before there were very good prospects of such machines fulfilling the demands of the moment.
It is by no means easy to choose aircraft for a route, and more particularly for a new route. Upon the correct choice a very great deal depends. If too large a machine is chosen, and the traffic does not come up to expectations, a financial loss is likely to be sustained. If, on the other hand, too small a type is chosen, traffic has to be turned away, with the result that potential users of the line suffer disappointment. If a machine with too low cruising speed is selected, there is always the possibility that weather conditions on a new route may cause frequent delays, which in turn will cause dissatisfaction to the users of the line. But on the other hand, by choosing a type with high performance and a great reserve of power, the pay load that can be carried is reduced in proportion to the power expended, and the ideal of commercial aviation "flying by itself" again recedes into the distance instead of coming nearer.
The choice of machine for the new air route which the K.N.I.L.M. is to operate this summer between Holland and the Dutch East Indies must have been particularly difficult, as we understand that it was desired to use the same type of aircraft on all the stages. As these stages include widely varying types of country, not to mention the crossing of considerable stretches of sea, it is obviously necessary to have a type of machine which is quite definitely able to fly on any two of its three engines under any variations of air density encountered, and that without, in most cases, having to run the two engines at full throttle for any length of time. One may be certain that it was not until after going into the subject very carefully that the company decided, for a start at any rate, to adopt the Fokker F.XII for the Holland-East Indies service.
One of these machines paid a visit to Croydon last week, and was kept busy during the afternoon taking up passengers who had been invited to attend the demonstration. By the kindness of Captain Leverton, K.L.M.'s London Manager, we were able to inspect the new Fokker F.XII at Croydon, as well as noting its behaviour in the air. The following notes on the machine are based upon material gathered during that visit.
In general conception and design, the F.XII does not differ materially from previous Fokker types. It is a three-engined cantilever monoplane of typical Fokker construction, with welded steel tube fuselage and all-wood monoplane wing.
Bearing in mind that for a route to the East the ability of a three-engined machine to fly on two engines is one of the first considerations, one naturally turns first of all to the loading figures. It is found that these are: wing loading, 7-8 lb /sq ft , and power loading 12-5 lb/hp. The first thing that impresses one is that the wing loading is high, and that the resulting landing speed is given as 68 m.p.h. This is, according to British ideas, a fairly fast landing speed, but as Sir Eric Geddes said in his lecture to the Marshall Society of Cambridge, the less is the likelihood of forced landings away from a prepared aerodrome, the greater is probably the landing speed that can be tolerated. And from the fact that the absolute ceiling on two engines and at 16,000 lb. gross weight is given as 3,000 ft. (presumably in standard European atmosphere), it seems likely that the machine will, at more normal gross weights, be well able to maintain its height. One may assume that, with good inspection and maintenance, a sudden engine stoppage is not likely to occur during the first part of a flight (or, if it does, it will probably take place during the first half-hour or so, when the machine would be able to return to its starting point), and that the number of cases will thus be few when the machine is compelled to fly for long at this maximum gross weight on two engines.
Engine reliability should be good in the F.XII. To begin with, the Pratt & Whitney "Wasps" have an excellent name for reliability, and an examination of the data reveals the fact that at cruising speed the engines are developing but 285 h.p., or 67 per cent, of their maximum output. At this power the reliability should be very good indeed. As, according to the data supplied by the Fokker Company, the machine absorbs 855 h.p. at cruising speed, it will evidently be necessary to run the remaining two engines at full power when the gross weight is the maximum permitted. If, on the other hand, the gross weight is something less (as it most likely will be on most flights), it should be possible to cruise on two engines with a little power reserve in hand. The next point which suggests itself is the examination of the sort of pay load which a machine with this power reserve will carry. For a normal fuel supply the range is given as 400 miles (although with full tanks this is increased to 790 miles) and for that range the pay load is, after making allowance for crew, cabin equipment and wireless, 3,573 lb., or 2-8 lb. /h.p. In his paper Sir Eric Geddes gave pay load figures for certain British machines, and 3 – 3 1/2 lb./h.p. appeared a good figure. This, however, was at a common range of 300 miles. If one reduced fuel for the F.XII to 300 miles, the pay load increases to some 4,000 lb., or 3-16 lb./h.p. So that the Fokker, in spite of its good power reserve and high cruising speed, is not markedly inferior in the matter of pay load.
As demonstrated at Croydon the Fokker F.XII had seating accommodation for 16 passengers, while there is provision for a crew of 2, with dual control. As in all Fokker machines, the cabin is very comfortable, and not unduly noisy, while the view, owing to the high-wing arrangement, is very good outwards and downwards. The cabin has a capacity of 653 cub. ft., which, for 16 passengers, works out at nearly 41 cub. ft. per passenger. The seats are arranged two at the front of the cabin, two at the back, and four rows of three in between, two in each row being on the starboard side and one on the port. The cabin windows are of safety glass, and are raised and lowered by crank handles. Behind the cabin is, on the port side, the lavatory, and the aft luggage hold is to starboard. There is a separate door to the luggage hold on the starboard side. In the nose, partly under the pilots' cockpit, is another and larger luggage hold.
The pilots' cockpit is totally enclosed, with large windows, which can be opened when desired. The seats are placed side by side, and dual control is provided. The view from the cockpit is good, although the placing of the outboard engines well ahead of the leading edge results in cutting off the view a <...> laterally, except for the small gap between the of the <...> nacelle and the wing. The cockpit is well equipped with instruments, and these are conveniently placed. Communication with the cabin is through a door in the front wall of the cabin.
The engine installation is the usual Fokker type, with the outboard engines pressed well forward and supported on a semi-cantilever structure of steel tubes. Attachment to the wing is very simple, and it should be possible to change an engine very quickly. The exhaust collectors of the outboard engines run along the outer side, farthest away from the cabin, while that of the nose engine runs under the fuselage and provides heating for the cabin. The petrol is carried in three tanks in the wing, each with a capacity of 147-5 gallons. The middle tank is placed above the fuselage.
A wide-track undercarriage of usual Fokker design is fitted. This makes use of the now well-known arrangement of rubber rings stretched over stubs in the two fixed branches of the fork, with stubs on the third, central member bearing against the middle of the rings. The undercarriage has stood up to the test of time, and renewal of the rings is simple and cheap, but it might be thought that even Fokker would have sooner or later to incorporate oleo legs in his undercarriages. It must be admitted, however, that "bouncing" appears much less pronounced than is usually found in rubber-ring-sprung undercarriages.
A feature of all Fokker machines which has been retained in the F.XII is the very long fuselage. If one looks at the side view it is seen that the distance from main wing trailing edge to tailplane leading edge is about two chord lengths or more. We are quite sure this feature is largely responsible for the nice handling of the Fokker machines. The old Avro 504 had a similar, or even greater distance.
Flight, July 1932
THE FOKKER TYPE F. XVIII.
A New Model for the Holland-Dutch East Indies Air Route
DESIGNED specifically for the Amsterdam-Bandoeng air service, the latest Fokker has a long range, a large mail compartment, and very comfortable accommodation indeed for a very small number of passengers. More specifically, the new machine, known as the type F.XVIII, powered by three Pratt & Whitney "Wasps" of 440 h.p. each, has been designed for a range of 930 miles at a cruising speed of 126 m.p.h., carrying a crew of four and a pay load of 1,873 lb.
Five machines of the F.XVIII type have been ordered from the Fokker Works in Amsterdam by the K.L.M., and the first two have been completed and flown, both of them visiting Croydon and Hanworth last week-end. One has been christened the Pelikaan (Pelican), while the other has been named the Oehoe (Owl). Powered by the same engines, and carrying approximately the same load as the type F.XII, the F.XVIII has considerably greater speed, since it has been found possible to reduce the cabin space and so provide a slimmer fuselage of lower drag. As used on the Amsterdam-Bandoeng air route, the F.XVIII has accommodation for four passengers only, but this is in return of a very comfortable nature, with seats which can be tilted and leg rests raised to form couches. In the forward end of the cabin are seats for wireless operator and the engineer, and a resting place for the pilot who is not on duty. The wireless operator also acts as steward, a pantry with tea and coffee in thermos flasks, iced drinks, bread, fruit, etc., being installed in the aft end of the cabin.
In general design and construction the Fokker F.XVIII follows usual Fokker practice, with welded steel tube fuselage and three-ply wooden wing. The "Wasp" engines are fitted with Townend rings to reduce drag. The petrol tanks, housed in the wing, have a total capacity of 442 gallons, which suffices for stages of 930 miles at a cruising speed of 126 m.p.h. The maximum speed of the machine is 152 m.p.h., and the minimum speed about 70 m.p.h., the endurance at cruising speed being a little over 7 hr.
The tare weight of the F.XVIII is 9,587 lb., and the disposable load 7,053 lb., giving a gross weight of 16,640 lb., so that the ratio of gross to tare weight is 1:737.
The main dimensions are: Length o.a., 60 ft. 8 in.; wing span, 80 ft. 10 in.; wing area, 904 sq. ft. The cabin has a length of 19 ft. 4 in., a width of 5 ft. 4 1/2 in., and a height of 6 ft. 1 in., giving a capacity of 600 cu. ft. If the machine is used for shorter stages, accommodation can be provided for 13 passengers.
Actually the Oehoe has been so equipped, and a very fine passenger accommodation has been provided.
The illustration shows the F.IX. in three-quarter front view. The people walking about near the machine give a good idea of the size.
THE FOKKER F.IX. This machine has recently been put on the England-Holland service by the K.L.M.
Three-quarter rear view of the Fokker F.IX.
The side view gives a good impression of the room that there is in the cockpit. The top cylinders, it will be seen, are hooded, which should prevent any chance of the cockpit windows becoming oiled up.
A low-level aerial view of Croydon taken in April 1935.
The Fokker F.IX PH-AGA with Pratt & Whitney Hornets and Townend rings.
An external view of the "office." The cabin heating arrangement from the front engine exhaust should be noted.
Nose of the F.IX.: The engines are "Jupiters" of 500 h.p. each. Note the windows around the pilot's cockpit, which give protection without loss of view. The undercarriage is of the usual Fokker type, with numerous endless rubber rings as the shock-absorbing medium. Wheel brakes are fitted.
The Fokker F.IX 20-passenger machine is fitted with three Gnome-Rhone "Jupiters."
Успех F.IX - самого большого на тот период трехмоторного самолета фирмы "Fokker" был очень незначительным, и машину построили в небольшом количестве.
The Avia-built F.IXD OK-AFG was fitted with three-bladed propellers. Two F.IXDs were built by this Czechoslovakian company, and were powered by Walter Pegasus II.M2 radial engines of 580 h.p.
The apron at Prague Ruzyne airport in 1938, with three DC-2s, a Fokker FVIIb-3m, an Avia F.39, a Wibault 283.T and a Potez 62 in evidence.
A general view in the Grand Palais, looking north. In the foreground may be seen the wings of the Fokker F. IX and the Caudron three-engined monoplane.
A close-up view of the tail, showing the typical clean Fokker design, which is followed even in a machine of this size, and also the new ski-type of skid shoe.
Mr. Fokker in a jovial mood
A view into the luggage compartment, which is exceptionally roomy.
THE FOKKER F.XII: Side view. Note the length of fuselage in proportion to wing chord.
На европейских линиях F.XII летали с экипажем из двух человек и перевозили 16 пассажиров, на Дальний Восток они летали всего с четырьмя пассажирами на борту.
The first Fokker F.XII, PH-AFL first flew early in 1931 and was delivered to KLM on January 16 of that year. Named Leeuwerik (Lark), PH-AFL made the first F.XII Far East flight on March 5-14, 1931. The aircraft was destroyed in a crash at Brilon on April 6, 1935.
OLD AND NEW: The Fokker F.XX (three Wright "Cyclones") with retractable undercarriage, and the standard F.XII (three P. & W. "Wasps"), on the tarmac at Croydon. The cruising speed of the F.XX is 157 m.p.h.
THE NEW FOKKER F.XII: Taxying out for a Demonstration flight at Croydon.
FRONT VIEW OF FOKKER F.XII: The Pratt & Whitney "Wasps" are neatly arranged.
With its tail well up KLM’s Fokker F.XII Uil takes off into a threatening sky.
The Fokker F.XII taking up passengers at Croydon.
ACCLAMATION: Crilly Airways' Fokker F.12, Lisboa, surrounded by an interested crowd at Lisbon after the inaugural flight. A daily service will be started as soon as the aerodromes are really fit for use after the heavy rains.
Fokker F.XIl G-AEOS fitted with three 500 h.p. Pratt & Whitney Wasp T1D1 engines.
British Airways’ Fokker F.XII G-ADZH ready for departure from Gatwick in 1936.
Fokker XII G-ADZJ, acquired from Crilly Airways.
The F.XII G-ADZJ, seen in Crilly Airways livery, had served with KLM as PH-AIE. It later passed to British Airways.
The Swedish F.XII, SE-ACZ, at Bromma in August 1946. It was then in Svensk Flygtjanst service. The aircraft was destroyed in a hangar fire a few months after the photograph was taken.
Fokker F.XII SE-ACZ, named Varmland, of Swedish airline AB Aerotransport, at Fornebu airport in Oslo on its opening day, June 1, 1939. Captain Ernst Tage Joneberg flew the aircraft out of the brand new airport that evening, on a scheduled service to Gothenburg, Copenhagen and Malmo. In the background is Fornebu’s distinctive restaurant rotunda. The number “3” on the wall to its right indicates the runway to be used.
AB Aerotransport's F.XII Varmland was photographed left at Malmo wearing spats.
A Fokker F.XII (three Bristol "Jupiters") used by D.D.L. (Danish Air Traffic Co.).
The Danish-built F.XIIM OY- DAJ at Kastrup, with Townend rings removed.
International convention at Tempelhof - Heinkel He.111, Junkers Ju.52, Danish Fokker, French Wibault, and others.
The inland services of Danish Air Lines are operated by the hardy old Fokker, F.12 (three Bristol Jupiters). Here is a party which has just flown across Denmark. The figure in the white cap is Mr. M. Lichtenberg, the managing director of the Danish Tourist Association.
В авиакомпании KLM каждый из пяти F.XVIII получил собственное имя. PH-AIS - "Snip" (бекас), PH-AIO - "Oehoe" (ушастая сова), PH-AIQ - "Kwartel" (перепел), PH-AIR- "Rijstvogel" (рисовый трупиал, боболинк). После снятия с эксплуатации в KLM самолеты рассеялись по Европе, Южной Америке и Голландской Индии.
THE DUTCH AIR MAIL RECORD: The K.L.M. Fokker F.XVIII, Pelikaan, snapped during its brief halt at Almaza, Cairo, during its record flight from Amsterdam to Batavia.
A FINE FLIGHT: The K.L.M. Fokker, Snip, which, piloted by Mr. J. J Hondong, left Amsterdam with Christmas mails on December 15, and, flying over the South Atlantic via Cape Verde Is., reached Paramaribo, Dutch West Indies, on December 17. It is here seen beside the Shell depot at Casablanca.
THE FOKKER F.XVIII: The engines are Pratt & Whitney "Wasps" of 440 h.p. each. They are fitted with Townend rings.
COMMANDER AND CRAFT: The Fokker F18, Snipe, which will make the Atlantic crossing next month, and her commander, J. J. Hondong.
A SPLENDID RECORD: The crew of the K.L.M. Fokker F.XVIII, Pelikaan, in which they flew from Amsterdam to Batavia and back in record times. They are, from left to right, I. W. Smirnoff and P. Soer (pilots), J. M. H. Grosveld (mechanic), and C. H. van Beukering (wireless operator). Unfortunately, we published in last week's issue (page 11) an illustration which was stated to be the Pelikaan, but as a matter of fact the wrong photograph was inserted by mistake. Actually, the machine shown was the Snip - a sister plane on the same service. Sincere apologies!
Fokker F.XVIIIs were powered by three 420 h.p. Pratt & Whitney Wasp C engines. Illustrated here is the KLM aircraft PH-AIP Pelikaan, which was later sold in France.
Three-quarter front view of the Fokker F.XVIII.
Dutch-built Fokker F.XVIII PH-AIQ was sold to CLS in 1935, becoming OK-AIQ, and is seen at Croydon on December 3, 1938. At the end of that year it was sold to the Commercial Aviation Co in Palestine, and was withdrawn from use in 1939.
K.L.M. IN THE WEST INDIES: Hato aerodrome, Curasao, with two K.L.M. Lockheed 14s and one of the Fokker F.18s which have been used by the company since the services started after the first F.18 had been flown across the South Atlantic.
During 1935-36 CLS acquired two Fokker F.XVIII trimotors - OK-AIQ and OK-AIR - from KLM, the pair operating on the airline’s Berlin and Vienna services until 1938. The type, capable of carrying 12 passengers, was a refinement of Fokker’s standard trimotor design, with wooden wings and a welded steel-tube fuselage.
Airborne the F.XVIII PH-AIR.
The crew compartment of the F.IX.
Looking into the pilots' cockpit of F.XVIII. The circles on the backs of the seats are lightening holes and not instruments!
COMFORTABLE FLYING: The passenger cabin of the latest type of machine, Fokker F.IX with 3 Bristol "Jupiter" engines, to be put into service by the K.L.M., line has ample leg and elbow room. The leather-upholstered chairs are provided with adjustable head rests, so that passengers can change their position to the most comfortable.
Typical European service layout of a KLM F.XII cabin.
The cabin of a KLM F.XII with Eastern route layout. F.XIIs on this route usually had four sleeper seats in their 16ft-long cabins; the maximum seating for the type was 16, in four rows of three-abreast with two single seats forward and two aft.
IN THE CABIN OF THE F.XVIII: On the left a view looking aft. Note the pantry, of "easy work" style. On the right a view looking forward. The seats can be turned into couches. The table on the left is the navigator's chart table.
A Fokker F.12 is used by British Airways for navigational and blind approach instruction. Holding the bubble sextant is Mr. A. R. O. McMillan, ths chief instructor at the company's school.
In the less ominous weather in KEITH WOODCOCK'S colour painting, AB Aerotransport’s F.XII SE-ACZ Varmland is seen in its original form.