Handley Page H.P.38 и H.P.50 Heyford
H.P.50 Heyford представлял собой самолет с бипланной конструкцией, выглядевшей достаточно массивно, и основными опорами шасси, имевшими стойки с обтекателями, что в целом наводило на мысль о его низкой скорости и малой эффективности. Это впечатление усиливалось
тем, что фюзеляж был установлен под верхним крылом, а большой промежуток между фюзеляжем и нижним крылом заполняли стойки. Такая компоновка преследовала определенную цель: центральная часть нижнего крыла имела почти вдвое большую по сравнению с остальными машинами того времени толщину, позволявшую разместить там существенную бомбовую нагрузку, к тому же на расположенные близко к земле держатели легче было подвешивать бомбы. Еще одной отличительной особенностью самолета было расположение трех пулеметов - один из них размещался в специальной подфюзеляжной турели, которая могла опускаться под фюзеляжем, позади крыла. Прототип H.P.38 совершил первый полет 12 июня 1930 года, а последующие успешные результаты опытной эксплуатации машины привели к заказу ВВС крупной партии самолетов, получивших первоначально обозначение Heyford Mk I. Всего же ВВС получили 124 самолета (15 Heyford Mk I, 23 Heyford Mk IA, 16 Heyford Mk II и 70 Heyford Mk III), выпуск их был прекращен в июле 1936 года. Модификации поставлявшихся самолетов отличались преимущественно силовой установкой: Mk I оснащались двигателями Kestrel III, машины Mk II и Mk III - двигателями Kestrel VI мощностью 640 л.с., хотя были и другие отличия - четырех-, а не двухлопастные воздушные винты, крыльевой радиатор, модифицированное крепление двигателей на модели Mk III и пр. Самолеты поступили на вооружение 99-й эскадрильи, дислоцированной в Верхнем Хейфорде, графство Оксфордшир, в ноябре 1933 года. Впоследствии самолеты Heyford поступили на вооружение 7-й, 9-й, 10-й, 38-й, 78-й, 97-й, 102-й, 148-й, 149-й и 166-й эскадрилий. Последние из них были сняты с вооружения в 1939 году в связи с заменой на бомбардировщики-монопланы Vickers Wellington. Heyford продолжал эксплуатироваться некоторое время в учебных подразделениях, пока окончательно не был списан в июле 1941 года.
Handley Page Heyford Mk IA
Тип: ночной бомбардировщик с экипажем из четырех человек
Силовая установка: два V-образных ПД Rolls-Royce Kestrel IIIS или IIIS-5 мощностью по 575 л. с. (429 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 3960 м - 229 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на высоте 3050 м - 185 км/ч; набор высоты 3050 м - за 15 мин 18 с; практический потолок 6400 м; дальность полета 644 км - с бомбовой нагрузкой 1426 кг
Масса: пустого 4173 кг, максимальная взлетная 7666 кг
Размеры: размах крыльев бипланной коробки 22,86 м; длина 17,68 м; высота 5,33 м; площадь крыльев 136,56 м2
Вооружение: один 7,7-мм наводимый пулемет Lewis в носовой части фюзеляжа, по одному 7,7-мм наводимому пулемету Lewis для обороны задней полусферы - в надфюзеляжной и выдвижной подфюзеляжной установках, плюс до 1588 кг бомб в отсеке в нижнем крыле и на восьми подкрыльевых узлах подвески
Flight, July 1933
THE HANDLEY PAGE "HEYFORD"
2 Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" Engines
SINCE the original Handley Page H.P.38 was designed, built and flown, there has been a change in load factors, etc., and the new "Heyford" night bomber, which is in effect the production version of the H.P.38, therefore differs considerably in some respects from the prototype; so much so that it has been given a new works series number, and is identified as the H.P.50. Before the construction of the "Heyfords" ordered by the Air Ministry was undertaken, the Handley Page works at Cricklewood were thoroughly overhauled and re-equipped with new and improved machinery. Very extensive use has been made of jigs, and the result of all these improvements, which one suspects to be largely due to Mr. Hamilton, who joined the firm as works manager about the time when the work on the "Heyfords" was begun, is at once evident in the form of vastly improved workmanship and finish. An interesting article could be written on the workshop methods used in producing the "Heyfords," but that would be outside the scope of these notes, which are intended to deal with the finished machine rather than with the methods by which it has been produced. As it is, we have not the space this week to describe the "Heyford" completely, and we have, therefore, decided to divide the article into two instalments, the first, which follows, dealing with the structural aspects of the "Heyford," and the second, which we hope to publish later, to describe the finished machine, its lay-out and general equipment.
In the notes which follow it is advisable to bear in mind that the "Heyford" is an unorthodox aeroplane in the arrangement of its large components. The fuselage and two engine nacelles are placed immediately under the upper plane, while the lower centre section is uninterrupted by any such large bodies, and is, in fact, used as a receptacle for the bombs. This arrangement has introduced certain changes in structural policy.
Structurally speaking, the fuselage is built in four separate sections joined together by bolted joints. Beginning at the nose, there is a forward portion which is of metal monocoque construction. Then follows a single-bay portion, with very stout diagonal strut bracing in the side panels, which is in line with the wings. Aft of that is the main rear fuselage portion, with vertical and horizontal struts and tie rod cross bracing. Finally, the fuselage terminates at the stern in a small unit which carries the tail and castering tail wheel.
The front, monocoque, portion of the fuselage is of very neat and simple construction. It carries no very heavy weights (crew and their equipment only) and therefore a heavy primary structure has not been necessary. The longerons are built up of an outer curved corner strip and an inner strip of “Omega" section. In the forward half of the monocoque the lower longeron "omegas" are fairly shallow, while in the rear half they are deeper, to meet conveniently the tubular longeron of the rear fuselage portion. The "omegas" of the top longerons are shallow and of uniform depth throughout.
Top and bottom longerons are connected by vertical formers of small, light-gauge strip of "omega" section. Like the longeron strips they are of Duralumin. The covering is "Alclad," riveted on in fairly large panels. The skin is reinforced by external stringers of shallow channel section, and the side of the rear half of the monocoque is reinforced by an internal diagonal member riveted to the skin and to the vertical formers. The deck and bottom of the monocoque are of a construction similar to that of the sides.
Two half-bulkheads divide the monocoque into three compartments. The bulkheads are composed of vertical channels from floor to roof, double walls attached to the side skin by L-section strips, and internal channel stiffeners. The front bulkhead, which forms the forward wall of the pilot's cockpit, has a two-fold door which, when closed, keeps the draught from the forward gunner's cockpit from entering the pilot's compartment.
Aft of the monocoque is the single-bay fuselage portion which carries the wings. This has steel tubular longerons and diagonal struts in the side panels, while the top horizontal panel is braced by swaged rods and the floor panel by streamline wires.
The rear fuselage main portion, which is really typical of the general construction, has steel tube longerons and struts, with tie rod cross bracing. The joints combine welding, bolting and riveting in a somewhat unusual manner. Welding is used solely as a means of locating the strut fittings on the longerons. Two flat plates have their edges welded to the longeron, or to a sleeve over the longeron, and between the free edges of these plates are inserted the strut ends, secured to the plates by tubular rivets.
Extensive use is made of sleeve joints for struts and longerons. The ends of struts or longerons are inserted in the sleeve, at the other end of which may be another tube or a fitting. In either case the attachment is by thin studs through tube and sleeve, a large number of studs being used, radially disposed to clear each other. If a damaged strut or longeron is to be replaced, all that has to be done is to undo the nuts of these "spoke studs," when the sleeve can be slid along and the tube removed from the structure.
Owing to the unusual arrangement of the fuselage, engines and bombs, the wing structure of the "Heyford" shows local variations in the type of structure used. The top centre section, upper and lower end portions, are, generally speaking, of one type, while the bottom centre section is of quite different construction owing to the need for accommodating the bomb load.
Duralumin is the material used in the main wing spars and ribs. The spars are of built-up box section, as shown in our sketches. The ribs are of tubular construction, joints being made by flat plates and tubular rivets. The compression or drag struts are of a section similar to that of the spars, but of slightly smaller overall dimensions.
In the bottom centre section the spars have bulb-section booms joined by a single thin flat web, reinforced by channel-section stiffeners on front and back. Both booms of the front spar, and the upper boom of the rear spar, are of heavy gauge, and are formed on the draw-bench. The bottom boom on the rear spar is of much lighter gauge, and has its free edges curved for stiffness.
The ribs of the lower centre section are somewhat more elaborate than those used generally in the wings. The wing section used is fairly deep, to accommodate the bombs, and the concentrated loads are, of course, very much greater. The ribs, therefore, have channel-section flanges of fairly large dimensions, and the tubes of the rib wab are of much larger diameter than those of the normal ribs.
The engine mountings of the "Heyford" are steel tube structures, using partly welded joints and partly "spoke stud" joints similar to those in the fuselage. The engine mountings are made as complete units, even including the interplane struts, and are built in elaborate jigs. The undercarriage telescopic struts are hinged to the front interplane strut inside the engine mounting. Each wheel is carried on a fork, and the single telescopic strut allows the wheel to rise and fall inside its "spat." A castering tail wheel is fitted.
HAVING dealt, in our issue of July 6, with the structural features of the Handley Page "Heyford" night bomber, we will turn to the finished machine, which presents many points of interest, caused mainly by the novel conception of the general arrangement of large components such as fuselage, engines and bombs. Hitherto the accepted formula for night bombers, at any rate as far as Great Britain is concerned, is the biplane cellule with fuselage on the bottom centre section and engines on or but a short distance above the lower wing. This arrangement, which has served us well enough in the past, is open to criticism on several points, mainly in connection with the defensive armament, i.e., the position of the machine gunners. The customary twin-engined night bomber has a forward gun position in the extreme nose and another gunner's position in the extreme stern of the fuselage. It will be obvious that the top wing, placed as it is a considerable distance above the fuselage, somewhat blankets the view and field of fire of the forward and rear gunner. In a rearward direction the machine is well protected by the gunner in the extreme tail, but it is not, perhaps, altogether satisfactory to have one member of the crew so far away, as communication between him and the rest is likely to be made a little difficult during a "scrap."
In the Handley Page ''Heyford'' a complete breakaway from the orthodox arrangement has been made by the designers. To begin with, the blind area above the machine has been eliminated by raising the fuselage to the level of the top centre section. In this way the gunner in the nose and the gunner behind the wings can see each other and can cover a complete hemisphere above the machine. Instead of the gun position in the extreme tail, the "Heyford" has a retractable gun turret just aft of the upper rear gunner's position. When this turret is let down, the gunner can cover the whole area behind and under the tail, while the upper gunner covers the area behind and above the tail. This feature was well brought out in the photograph which we published in our July 6 issue. As the interior of the fuselage is so arranged that members of the crew can walk from the retractable gun turret aft of the wings to the cockpit in the nose, communication between members of the crew is rendered much easier.
The placing of the offensive armament is also different in the "Heyford." All the large bombs are carried in the centre section of the lower plane, where they are out of the airstream and thus do not add to the drag, or at least only add to it to the extent that the centre section which houses them is rather thicker than the rest of the wings.
The resulting "cleanness" is reflected in a considerably enhanced performance (the "Heyford" cruises at something like 115 m.p.h.), which is further helped by careful streamlining of the engine nacelles and by large "spats" over the wheels of the undercarriage.
The two Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines are, as already mentioned, close under the upper wing. The petrol tanks are situated behind the engines and so shaped as to form a tail fairing for the engine housings. The high placing renders the engines somewhat inaccessible, but light ladders of tubular construction hook on to fittings on the top front spar and are strutted at their lower ends into "keyhole" plates on the lower leading edge. The ladders can be placed in position in a few seconds, and the sides of the engine housing fold down to form platforms on which the engineers can stand while working on the engines. The landing wheels (Palmer wheels with brakes) are, as mentioned in our first article, carried on forks, and are partly enclosed in fairings. In the upper rear part of each wheel fairing is a small door which gives access to the Ki-gass starter, starter magneto switch, and fuel and oil points. The machine is fuelled by attaching the tube from the pump to the fuel point in the wheel fairing. Ordinary filler caps are also provided in the tanks, on the left side of each engine, between the exhaust pipe and the upper wing. On top of each wheel fairing are supports for the vertical and horizontal shafts of the hand turning gear. These are not, of course, permanently attached, but can be shipped and unshipped in a few moments, and carried from one engine to the other.
The interior of the fuselage of the “Heyford" is reached via a small trap door in the floor, above the trailing edge of the lower centre section. On the vee struts which support the fuselage from the lower plane are fitted steps which render access to the interior very easy. As one enters the fuselage through this trap door, the rear gunner's cockpit end the retractable gun turret are behind one, while ahead stretches the front part of the fuselage with, first, a large stowage compartment, then navigation and wireless compartment, pilots' cockpit, and finally, in the extreme nose, the forward gunner's compartment.
In the rear gunner's cockpit there is a tip-up seat on the starboard side, and all the usual gear used by a gunner, with ammunition drums on pegs, points for the electric heating of clothes, etc., and so forth. The floor of this compartment is slightly raised, and to the rear is the retractable gun turret, which is entered from the gunner's compartment, and lowered by him. When in the "down" position the turret can be rotated through a considerable range.
In the front of the gunner's cockpit is a large compartment used for stowing all manner of gear, but with ample gangway space. The floor is corrugated aluminium, but wooden strips are let into the corrugations, so that one actually walks on the wooden strips, which is very much more pleasant than walking on metal.
Situated immediately ahead of the plane of the front spars is the navigation and wireless compartment, with revolving seat and folding table on the port side. Ahead of the table, and also on the port side, are shelves carried on tubular stanchions. These shelves carry the wireless equipment, the battery of which is placed on the floor, under the wireless set.
The wireless compartment is separated from the pilots' cockpit by a half bulkhead on the port side. On the inner edge of this bulkhead is the very large tail-trimming wheel. On the starboard side is the seat for the second pilot. This folds flat against the wall, so that a free passageway to the nose is provided. The seat itself folds down and the backrest hinges back. On the port side, just ahead of the bulkhead, is the seat for the first pilot. This is divided into two halves, the half nearest the outer wall being fixed,, while the inner half hinges down to enable the pilot to get into his seat between the back rest, the rim of the tail-trimming wheel, and the pillar rising from the floor, on which are mounted the engine controls. Once in his place, the pilot raises the inner half of the seat, which is provided with a catch. The control wheel is of the cut-away type to give the pilot a good view of his instrument board, which in the "Heyford" is very neatly arranged. The second set of flying controls are built up as a complete unit, and can be detached in a moment when not required. Pedals with heel cups are provided for the rudder control, and are individually adjustable for length, the adjusting wheels being so placed that the adjustment can be made with the feet, and there is no need for the pilot to stoop down to reach them with his hands. A trigger on the control wheel applies the Palmer wheel brakes, and movement of the rudder pedals then gives the differential action.
A bulkhead with a two-fold door on the starboard side divides the pilots' compartment from the forward gunner's cockpit. This is provided with a "piano stool" type of seat which folds out of the way when not in use. Firing steps are provided at the sides of this compartment, so that the gunner can stand up on them and fire in a downward direction. In the extreme nose of the fuselage is a large window, hinged along its upper edge. A worm gear is provided for opening this window, which affords space for the bomb sight. On the starboard side is the switchboard by means of which the bombs are released, either singly or in salvos. The bomb release on the "Heyford" is electrically operated. On the rear wall of this compartment are the pegs for ammunition drums, etc., and other equipment.
The extreme stern of the fuselage is closed by a hinged cover, which opens to give access to the supports for the castering tail wheel, the tail-trimming gear, etc.
The first of the "Heyfords," which was rushed through the shops in order to have it flying at the S.B.A.C. Display at Hendon recently, is now at Radlett Aerodrome having service equipment installed. When this work has been finished the machine will be sent to Martlesham Heath for official performance tests. In the meantime no performance figures can be published. Other machines are in course of construction at the Cricklewood works, and some of these are expected to be flying towards the end of next month.
Flight, June 1934
Handley-Page "Heyford" Mark II
Although resembling in most of its features the "Heyford" which has recently been issued to the Royal Air Force, the "Heyford" Mark II shows certain detail alterations, such as engine nacelles of improved shape and a transparent roof over the pilot's head. The engines are Rolls-Royce "Kestrels" of 525 h.p. each, and the wing span 75 ft.
The prototype HP.38, J9130. Note the 20lb practice bombs under the trailing edge of the rear wing - these gave clearance problems at the A&AEE.
The Handley Page HP38 J9130 was the prototype Heyford, and is seen at Upper Heyford after an undercarriage collapse on June 10, 1932. It was repaired, only to be destroyed on July 10 when it crashed and burst into flames at North Coates, the crew escaping unharmed.
Another view of the HP.38 showing the upper turret and the 'dustbin' in lowered position.
The Handley Page "Heyford" heavy bomber has one gun position in the nose, a second gun above the fuselage behind the wings, and a revolving turret which can be lowered underneath the fuselage. It would be difficult to find a blind spot.
UNORTHODOXY: The Handley Page 38 Night Bomber (two "Kestrel") has fuselage and engines placed under the upper wing.
"HEYFORDS" FOR HEYFORD: View of the Handley Page "Heyford" night bombers just delivered to No. 99 (Bomber) Squadron, Upper Heyford.
Handley Page "Heyford" (two "Kestrel" III.MS).
Front view of the first production Heyford, K3489. In between the mainwheels can just be discerned the bomb cells in the lower wing centre section.
"NOSE-ON": This front view gives a good idea of the small frontal area of the "Heyford."
READY FOR MARTLESHAM: The first production model of the Handley Page "Heyford" bombers (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines) was completed last week, and after constructor's trials was flown to Martlesham for official trials. Our photographer did not stand in a pit dug in the aerodrome when he took the head-on view. The pilot was Sqd. Ldr. T. H. England.
Крылья Heyford имели металлическую конструкцию с полотняной обшивкой, фюзеляж - металлический с обшивкой из легкого сплава и полотна, экипаж - четыре человека, шасси - неубирающееся с хвостовым колесом.
THE HANDLEY PAGE H.P. 38: This machine, produced two years ago, is still surrounded with a certain amount of secrecy. It is a night bomber with high performance, and the arrangement of the fuselage and engines is such as to provide monoplane view while retaining biplane manoeuvrability. Wing span 75 ft. Gross weight 15,600 lb. The H.P. 38 will be seen at Hendon on June 25.
THE LATEST HANDLEY-PAGE NIGHT BOMBER: The engines are Rolls-Royce "F" type. Note the placing of the fuselage under the top plane.
" ... guns firing downwards from positions in the floor of the fuselage." (The Heyford and its "dustbin.")
Study in light and shade: a Heyford of No. 102 (B.) Squadron on its way from Worthy Down to Finningley during the recent move to the new aerodrome.
EFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION OF ARMAMENT. On the Handley Page "Heyford" Night Bomber one gun is carried in the nose and two midway between the wings and tail. Of these, one is mounted in the "dustbin" seen extended.
Mk.I K3500 of 99 Squadron with its gunners taking exception to the photo-ship! Delivered in March 1934, it crashed near Colchester in May 1937.
READY FOR MARTLESHAM: The first production model of the Handley Page "Heyford" bombers (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines) was completed last week, and after constructor's trials was flown to Martlesham for official trials.
A glimpse of the 2s. enclosure, with four Heyfords taking off.
No. 10 (BOMBER) SQUADRON. A flight of five Handley-Page "Heyfords" flying in formation by day. Last week the squadron made night raids on Portsmouth and was very successful in evading the searchlights.
View of a flight of Heyfords in formation.
Farewell to Worthy Down: Heyfords on the way to their new home at Finningley
The leading Heyford zooms after making its shot at the skittles. Two bombs can just be discerned falling from another machine
"HEYFORDS" FOR HEYFORD: View of the Handley Page "Heyford" night bombers just delivered to No. 99 (Bomber) Squadron, Upper Heyford.
Famous shot of two Heyfords cavorting for the press, very likely at Scampton, Lincs.
What is the weather in three hours' time?
"HEYFORDS" FOR HEYFORD: View of the Handley Page "Heyford" night bombers just delivered to No. 99 (Bomber) Squadron, Upper Heyford.
Handley Page "Heyford," Mark II (two Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engines).
NIGHT BOMBER AND TRANSPORT TYPES: In the foreground the nose of the Handley Page "Heyford." Flying past is the Vickers "Vellox."
Heyford K3503 was used by HP for a series of improvements, including Kestrel VIs and an enclosed cockpit. It is wearing the Hendon 'new types park' number '14' for the 1934 Air Pageant.
The Handley Page Heyford fitted with 600 h.p. Kestrel VI's.
MORE COMFORT AND PERFORMANCE: An improved version of the Mk. II Handley Page "Heyford" heavy bomber. Points to notice are the enclosed pilots' cockpit, four-bladed airscrews, which are driven by fully supercharged "Kestrels" of 600 h.p. and the bomb-aimer's position. The rear gunner's cockpit has also been modified.
This British machine is the subject of large Air Ministry contract: the Handley Page Heyford. This type, as at present being built, mount the 600-h.p. Rolls-Royce Kestrel VI, which is supercharged to give that power at 11,000 ft.
Handley Page "Heyfords" will appear in service with 600 h.p. "Kestrels," enclosed pilots' cockpits and other refinements. The speed should be in the neighbourhood of 150 m.p.h
Heyford II K4868 newly-delivered to 7 Squadron at Worthy Down in April 1935. Note the slats, four-bladed props and the profile of the nose.
Night view of a Mk.II. Outboard of the wheel spats it carries racks for 112lb bombs and Light Series racks.
The Shelvoke & Drewry engine-driven tail-wheel trolley, for moving machines about on the ground.
An unusual visitor to Gravesend was Handley Page Heyford III K5187, which flew with 102 and 149 Sqns and was struck off RAF charge in 1940.
Mk.III K6868 joined 9 Squadron in February 1936. In March 1939 it moved to 4 AOS and was struck off charge in July 1940.
With a 'C' Type hangar under construction in the background, another view from the press demonstration, believed to be at Scampton.
AFTER THE HARE: Apart from its touch of the picturesque, this photograph of local harriers meeting at Aldergrove R.A.F. station is interesting as showing machines of No. 502 (Ulster) (Bomber) Squadron and also in recalling the links between hunting and aviation, as expressed by such names as Handley Page Hare (which appeared just before the Heyford), Fairey Fox, Hawker Harrier, De Havilland Hound, Blackburn Beagle and Vickers Vixen.
Some of the Handley Page Heyfords (Rolls-Royce Kestrels) of No 10 (Bomber) Squadron.
Not-so-new equipment: the visitors pass between the ranks of trusty Heyfords, each machine with its crew, in full flying kit, standing to attention.
A Heyford taxies out at Hornchurch for its "show."
Attention to an engine. The ladders are very light and handy, and are carried on board.
The "kidney" or "ramshorn" type of exhaust system, which gives a noise reduction equal to that obtained with the more usual perforated tail pipes, is standard equipment on certain R.A.F. machines, notably the Handley Page Heyford.
WINDING THE ELASTIC: The starting equipment is removable, and is taken from one engine to the other.
Prince George is shown the new night bomber with its streamlined wheels.
The scene at Mildenhall on the arrival of the King, with a background of Hinds and Heyfords.
Navy Day! A scene of suspended animation at a Redland aerodrome during Thursday's storm, which grounded the major portion of the defending air force. On the left are the Heyfords of No. 99 Bomber Squadron with No. 269 General Reconnaissance Squadron's Ansons on the right
The King at Mildenhall with the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York. He has stopped to inspect the "Heyfords" of No. 99 (B) Squadron.
Three Kings pause before a Handley Page Heyford of No. 99 Squadron. King George V is seated in the Rolls-Royce, behind which are the Prince of Wales (who became King Edward VIII) and the Duke of York (later King George VI)
The Heavy Bomber Wing, consisting of No. 99 (Bomber) Squadron (above) and No. 10 (Bomber) Squadron (below) flying their "Heyfords" past the King at Duxford. Each squadron is in the formation "flights astern."
The twenty Heyfords of Nos. 99 and 10 Squadrons set off to lead the fly-past
ONLY A "SPARTAN" WOULD ATTACK THE "HEYFORD": With a gunner above and a gunner below, in a rotatable turret, the new Handley Page night bomber is well defended. On this occasion the "Heyford" was piloted by Sqd. Ldr. T. England and the "Spartan" by Capt. Cordes.
TWIN RUDDERS AND MONOPLANE TAIL: The aerodynamic horn balances of the rudders are below the tailplane, while the mass balances are at the top.
THE HINGED STERN CAP: This gives access to the tailwheel support, tailplane trimming gear, etc. Since this photograph was taken mass balances have been fitted the elevators, and are housed inside the fuselage.
THE FUSELAGE: The front portion is a metal monocoque structure, while the rear is a steel tube wire-braced girder.
INTERIOR VIEWS: These were taken before the machine was finished. On the left, the wireless compartment, looking forward. On the right, a view into the front gunner's compartment, taken before the nose cap was put on. Note the firing steps and the "piano stool" seat.
THE PILLAR BOX: This is raised, lowered and rotated by the gunner himself.
FUSELAGE DETAILS: Left, built-up longeron, metal skin and channel formers of the monocoque portion. On the right, joints in the single-bay portion in way of the wings. Several sleeve joints are shown. The transverse bracing is arranged to provide a doorway to the rear gunner's cockpit.
FUSELAGE DETAILS: Typical joints in the rear fuselage portion.
WING CONSTRUCTION: The two photographs show the general wing construction, while the sketch illustrates some of the details thereof. They relate to a starboard lower plane.
Details of an outer lower wing, with interplane strut fitting, and support for lifting jack. The internal drag bracing strut is of the same section as that of the main spars, but of slightly smaller dimensions.
LOWER CENTRE SECTION: The construction of this differs from that employed generally in the wings. The small sketch in the upper left-hand corner shows the location of the various numbered details.
Handley Page H.P.50 2 Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" Engines