Miles M.3 Falcon
Прототип первого настоящего кабинного моноплана M.3 Falcon, спроектированного Ф. Г. Майлзом, выполнил первый полет 12 октября 1934 года. Прототип был трехместным, но в более широкой кабине первой серийной машины помещалось четыре человека. Всего построили 36 самолетов нескольких вариантов, включая M.3A Falcon Major и M.3B Falcon Six. Шесть машин накануне Второй мировой войны поступили в британские ВВС.
Самолет M.6 Hawcon спроектирован на основе M.2 Hawk и M.3 Falcon с использованием мотора от M.4 Merlin, машина предназначалась для исследований крыла с толстым профилем в Фарнборо.
Flight, August 1934
NEW CABIN MONOPLANE
The "Falcon" Designed by F. G. Miles, to Carry Three or Four Persons
REAL comfort for three or four persons, high cruising speed, easy flying characteristics, and unusual robustness of construction, are the chief features of the new Miles ''Falcon.''
One of these machines has been entered for the England-Australia air race by Mr. H. L. Brook, so the performance of the first model, which will be flying very shortly, is awaited with particular interest. The "Falcon" is a logical development of the "Hawk Major," in which particular attention has been paid to providing really comfortable seating for the passengers and to flying qualities of the kind which will make it possible for relatively inexperienced pilots to fly in and out of confined spaces. The "Falcon" will not have a landing speed appreciably greater than the 40 m.p.h. of the standard "Hawk," which is particularly easy to land.
Mr. Miles, as in his other machines, has, despite the cleanliness of the whole machine with its consequent high cruising speed, managed to retain steep and slow gliding characteristics, so that it will be possible to bring the "Falcon" down over high objects without necessitating side slipping or any other aerobatic means of losing height just before landing. Furthermore, this machine will later be available with a new form of wing flap, which Mr. Miles has developed, and this will have the effect of decreasing the gliding speed by some 15 m.p.h., so that when landing with the flaps down, and by using the wheel brakes, the landing run need not exceed 70 yards.
Generally, the construction of the "Falcon" is similar to both the standard "Hawk," and the "Hawk Major." The wing is extremely rigid, and has a plywood covering enclosing box-section, spruce and plywood, spars. The ribs are normal girder construction, of spruce with plywood "biscuits" at the joints. The plywood wing covering is glued to these ribs, and obviates the use of any other bracing between the spars. It will be remembered that when the "Hawk" first came out, Phillips and Powis, in their factory at Reading aerodrome, made good use of factory methods calculated to assist economical production. For instance, the way they achieved this glueing-on of the plywood was with a simple form of office stapling machine, which clamps the plywood to the ribs, and, for that matter, to the longerons and struts in the case of the fuselage, until the glue is dry. After this the staples are removed so that a perfectly clear, dean surface is left, helping considerably with the production of that particularly high-class finish of all Miles' "Hawks."
The fuselage is also of the box type of construction, using spruce and plywood. There is a welded steel tube structure over the spacious cabin, covered with transparent celluloid with unbreakable glass in the front. One side of this structure hinges forward, forming a door of ample size for getting in and out of the cabin.
The normal seating accommodation, when a "Gipsy Major" engine is fitted, is for three persons, the pilot sitting in front, slightly to the left-hand side, and his two passengers behind him on a well-padded seat, very similar to that found in most modern motor cars. The seat itself and its back rest is right across the fuselage, and has a collapsible arm in the middle.
Where it is wished to operate the "Falcon" as a regular taxi machine, or on feeder lines, or from large aerodromes only, it is quite possible to carry another passenger beside the pilot, while still being able to carry a reasonable amount of luggage without exceeding the C. of A. weight. In this case, of course, the operator will not be justified in expecting quite such a good take-off, but in other ways the machine will be no different from the three-seater.
When fitted with the "Gipsy Six" engine, a considerably better speed is expected. At the time of writing, the "Falcon" has not flown, and the performance figures are not, therefore, included in our table. While not wishing to dogmatise on the matter, the designer confidently expects a top speed and cruising speed of 136 m.p.h. and 120 m.p.h. respectively for the "Gipsy Major" engine, and 160 m.p.h. and 140 m.p.h. for the "Gipsy Six."
The undercarriage is the same cantilever type as is used in the "Hawk Major," except that medium-pressure tyres will be fitted. Our sketch fully explains how this neat form of landing gear is attached to the centre-section spar. By means of carefully planned fairings over each half of the undercarriage, the drag has been reduced to a very low figure, so low that Mr. Miles is convinced that the cost and weight of fitting a retractable undercarriage is not justified in a machine of this type.
As we have said already, one of the chief aims which has been kept in mind in designing the ''Falcon" is to produce a machine which above all things shall be easy to fly, and by a slight increase of the dihedral angle over that of the "Hawk," that is, from 3 1/2 deg. to 5 deg., the “Falcon” has been made sufficiently stable to fly "hands and feet off” for long periods, while at the same time retaining ample manoeuvrability for handling while landing, or during emergencies, with great ease.
In the matter of upkeep, the "Falcon" should be just as good as any other "Hawk." The absence of bracing wires and outside fittings are points in its favour, which, taken together with the robustness of its general construction, make it a machine which will stand up to a good deal of hard work, and which will only cost a very small sum when the annual renewal of C. and A. is made.
Phillips and Powis have now had considerable experience in operating "Hawks" for school work, and their figures show that the type is very economical. The owner of a "Falcon" need not, therefore, expect that because he is getting a larger machine his maintenance costs will go up to any great extent.
Flight, January 1935
IMPROVEMENTS in the "FALCON"
Some Interesting Alterations in a well-known Miles Product: An Unusual Windscreen Design, Enlarged Accommodation, and Neat Control Layout
AT Mildenhall, on the morning of the England-Australia Race, the public saw the first four-seater to be produced by Phillips and Powis, Ltd., of Reading. This was the Miles "Falcon," which had been previously described in Flight for August 23, 1934. Since that time considerable alterations and improvements have been made to this model, and first details are published below.
A point which will first be noticed when this latest "Falcon" comes out of the factory - as it will do very shortly - is the new windscreen. Instead of the sloping screen characteristic of British design for many years past, Mr. Miles now employs one which actually slopes forward. He has already tried out this design in "mock-up" form, with gratifying results and an increase of speed of approximately 4 m.p.h. The small front panes are at a sharp angle, and fine rain or snow should not collect upon them. The top part of the screen, over these panes, is of "Rhodoid," moulded to the correct shape. The general theory of this screen, as evolved in the United States on certain of the larger high-speed commercial air liners, is that the air in front of the screen is pushed forward and forms a cushion which tends to streamline all that part of the machine, so that the flow comes from the nose of the machine over the windscreen and flows aft, unbroken, behind it. With the sloping form of screen the air is shot steeply upwards over the screen, creating eddies above and behind it, thereby creating more drag than in the former case.
The internal arrangement of the "Falcon" has also been somewhat redesigned. It is now slightly wider and will provide extremely comfortable seating for four people. Dual control has been arranged in a neat manner which obviates the necessity for having two control columns or a changeover wheel type of control. This has been achieved by jointing the stick well above the bottom pivot, as is done in some military aircraft; reference to our sketches will show the details. An arm-rest will be arranged between the seats, thus allowing the pilot in the left-hand seat to fly with his right elbow on the rest, in which position the stick comes comfortably to his hand.
Very considerable interest has been aroused by this machine, and although at the time of writing it has not yet flown, several orders have been placed. It is hoped that the cruising speed will be in the neighbourhood of 125-130 m.p.h. with the "Gipsy Major" 130 h.p. engine. With the "Gipsy Six" which can be fitted if a smaller payload can be accepted, the performance will be substantially higher. The balanced flaps, which have already achieved such success in the “Hawk Major,” will be used, and for the present, at any rate, their operation will be very much the same, though the question of hydraulic operation is under consideration.
All the "Hawk" series are substantially the same as regards their construction, that is to say, the spars are boxed up with spruce booms and plywood webs, and both the wings and fuselage are completely covered with plywood, which is secured to the appropriate members by glue. It will be remembered that in a description of the "Hawk" when it first came out, Flight commented very favourably upon the method by which Mr. Powis ensured perfect glueing while at the same time doing away with all pins or screws. This was by the use of a form of office "stapling" machine with the turn-over mechanism removed, so that the small wire staples, of the kind normally used for clamping sheets of paper together, were forced straight into the plywood and through to the member underneath. This can be done exceedingly quickly, and when the glue is dry the staples are removed.
Mr. Miles believes in an adequate margin of strength, and his aircraft are, therefore, considerably stronger than the Air Ministry regulations require, so that for special circumstances a great deal more load can be carried. It is understood that this feature is being made use of in a subsequent type which will carry five people, and for which orders have already been accepted.
Flight, February 1935
The Miles "Falcon" in Production: Features to Appeal to the Private Owner: Impressions During a Test
THERE should be a large demand for the Miles "Falcon," which has just gone into production, because it seems to have nearly every desirable feature which private owners will require in an aeroplane of this type: Strength - as with all Mr. Miles' designs, the factors are more than the legal minimum; comfort - plenty of room for four people and ample space for luggage; speed - we found the A.S.I. showing 122-125 m.p.h. at normal r.p.m.; slow landing - with flaps down we touched down “off the clock” and ran only a few yards; stability - hands or feet off, the "Falcon" flew safely.
Taking the flying characteristics in more detail, because Flight has already dealt with the structural features (August 23, 1934, and January 10 of this year), a prolonged trial showed that we were justified in thinking that the "Falcon," in its production form, would be even more pleasant to fly than was the "Hawk Major," although when we tried the latter machine it did not seem possible to ask for more. A slight increase in the dihedral of the wings has resulted in more lateral stability, so that the "Falcon" almost flies itself, but it has not, as is so often the case with a machine having this characteristic to a marked extent, lost any of its manoeuvrability. In addition, the "Falcon" is both directionally stable and has its fin surface so nicely proportioned that turns can be made, and the machine flown for all normal purposes, without touching the rudder bar.
A Good Outlook
The unusual shape of the windscreen enables the pilot to sit well forward, so that he has an excellent outlook when flying, landing or taxi-ing. The outlook when landing is also helped by the nose-down attitude in which the "Falcon" can be glided when the flaps are lowered. Probably there is no machine in which an approach is so easy as in this. The hydraulically operated flaps can be used in exactly the same way as the brakes on a car, and this ability to lengthen or steepen the glide at will proved of inestimable benefit when the engine cuts, as it did last Sunday, and we had to land “from where we were" so to speak. Actually, the possession of these flaps robbed such a proceeding of any excitement, and the incident, which was due to a stuck fuel gauge showing a supply which was non-existent, served only to prove their great value.
In the air it is delightful to throttle back, lower the flaps with a few strokes of the hydraulic pump handle, and then, with a “waffle” of engine, cruise along at less than 50 m.p.h.
Of the other products from Reading, the five-seater with “Gipsy Six” engine, to which we referred last January, is now well ahead, and a “Falcon" also with the larger engine, has been designed.
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEWED
SINCE 1933, when-the original Miles Hawk appeared, Phillips and Powis Aircraft have gone from strength to strength, and their range of machines, from the M.5, or Sparrow Hawk, to the twin-engmed Peregrine, numbers about eight, if the special Air Ministry machine, known as the Hawcon is included. The chief designer, Mr. F. G. Miles, can be said to have done as much as anyone to develop the cantilever low-wing tradition in this country. Furthermore, the Hawk Major, first introduced in 1934, was the first British aeroplane to appear with split flaps, and since that time all new Miles machines have been fitted with these aids to slower flying and steeper approaches.
The Miles Falcon, a four-seater cabin version of the Major, was first produced with a Gipsy Major engine, in which form it cruised at 125 m.p.h. Later, the fitting of the Gipsy Six as an alternative power unit raised this speed to 155 m.p.h. or more, and a, three-seater version of this machine won last year's King's Cup and broke both the out and home Cape records in the hands of Fit. Lt. Rose. The Falcon has a number of interesting control features, including the hydraulically operated flaps and a central control column between the two front seats (when these are so arranged), and a special five-seater charter version, known as the Merlin, has put in good work both here and in India. The Night Hawk is a special trainer for night and blind flying, based on the Falcon.
The specification of the standard Falcon is as follows: Weight empty, 1,300 lb.; disposable load, 900 lb.; span folded, 15ft. 10in.; length, 25ft.; maximum speed, 145 m.p.h.; cruising speed, 125 m.p.h.; landing speed, 44 m.p.h.; range, 615 miles.
"Miles" являлась одним из основных производителей легких самолетов в межвоенный период, но лишь немногие ее самолеты отличала присущая M.3A Falcon элегантность.
SOMETHING NEW: The first Miles "Falcon" (D.H. "Gipsy Major") which will be flown by Mr. H. L. Brook
This Miles "Falcon," with tandem seating, has been entered for the King's Cup by Viscountess Wakefield, and will be flown by Fit. Lt. "Tommy" Rose.
STRAIGHT FROM THE SHOP: The Miles "Falcon" was only delivered to Mr. H. L. Brook on Saturday. Note the position of the extra tank filler cap.
AN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIR: The scene at Littorio (Rome) Aerodrome, Italy, at the start of the recent International meeting for a flight round Italy. The first lap was to Naples. A Miles Falcon is in the foreground.
One of the first batch of production-model Miles "Falcons," taken last week-end by a Flight photographer over Reading Aerodrome, where the makers' works are situated, and which is the home of the Reading Aero Club. The engine of the "Falcon" is a 130 h.p. "Gipsy Major" and the cabin seats three passengers and a pilot in comfort.
На M.3 Falcon стоял мотор de Havilland Gipsy Six мощностью 200 л. с. Размах крыла самолета составлял 10,67 м, максимальная скорость - 290 км/ч, нормальная дальность полета - 900 км.
The Falcon Six - actually the King's Cup winner being flown by Flt. Lt. Rose himself.
ODYSSEY, 1936: The Miles Falcon (Gipsy Six) in which Fit. Lt. T. Rose handsomely lowered the England-Cape record; this Flight photograph was taken during a final test on the day before the successful attempt started.
H. L BROOK FLYING A STANDARD MILES FALCON (GIPSY MAJOR) Accomplished the amazing performance by flying from AUSTRALIA to ENGLAND in 7 DAYS 19 hours 50 mins.
The victorious Miles Falcon (Gipsy Six) snapped as it swooped across the line, winner of the final at 176.28 m.p.h.
Genesis: This photograph, taken by a Flight photographer from a standard "Hawk" (Cirrus III), shows the "Hawk Major" (Gipsy Major), the "Falcon" (Gipsy Major) and, at the top, the "Merlin" (Gipsy Six).
FALCON SIX Gipsy VI Engine WINNER OF KING'S CUP AIR RACE, 1935 Price ?1,485 ex Works. Maximum Speed 180 m.p.h. Cruising Speed 160 m.p.h. Landing Speed 40-45 m.p.h. Landing run with brakes and flaps 130 yards. Rate of climb 1,125 feet/min. Petrol consumption 10 galls./hr. Range 560 miles (with enlarged tank 880 miles). Beautifully furnished cabin with side by side seating of ample dimensions for two passengers.
Types of competing machines: Miles Falcon
Two high-speed low-wing monoplanes, the Miles Falcon Six and the Airspeed Courier.
A view which gives a good idea of the area of the flaps
"Leading-in the winner" of the King's Cup is as much a rite as leading in the winner of the Derby.
Mr. Brook being congratulated by Fit. Lt. "Tommy" Rose on his arrival at Lympne.
CABIN COMFORT: Signor Parodi, the pilot of a Miles "Falcon," is congratulated after winning the Raduno Sahariano in Tripoli. General Balbo, in a sun helmet, can be seen beside the engine cowling. The "Falcon" was the only English machine in the Rally.
Abyssinia? Fit Lt. Rose snapped only five minutes before the start of the Eliminating Race.
The flaps seen from behind
The clean undercarriage and the new windscreen
Еще двое "артистов цирка Кроне" - английские спортивные "Майлзы", использовавшиеся на Северном фронте в качестве легких многоцелевых боевых машин.
"GILLETTE FALCON". This much-modified Miles M.3B Falcon Six (L9705) was converted at Woodley, Reading, in 1944 to take scaled-down, knife-edge main- and tailplanes in order to provide data for the ill-fated 1,000-m.p.h. Miles M.52 research project (Air Min. Spec. E.24/43). These new surfaces were of highly polished wood. First flight, 11/7/44. Fate unknown.
Twenty-five-year-old Miles M.3A Falcon SE-AFN, c/n. 216, ex U-20 and G-AEEG, returned to Miles at Shoreham for overhaul 23/7/61
One of the earliest full-scale experiments into boundary layer control made use of the Miles M.6 Hawcon.
M.6 Hawcon был экспериментальным самолетом, собранным из компонентов Falcon и Hawk. На M.6 испытывались крылья с толщиной профиля 15% (вверху) и 25% (внизу).
FOR HIGH-SPEED RESEARCH. The Miles Hawcon has been built specially for the Air Ministry in order to carry out high-speed research on thick wing sections. Wings of different thickness-chord ratios will be tested. The engine is a 200 h.p. Gipsy Six.
The in-line air-cooled engine permits a clean cowling installation, as typified on the Miles Hawcon (D. H. Gipsy Six) in the Flight photograph.
SMITH INSTRUMENTS and "HUSUN" COMPASS are standard equipment on the MILES FALCON.
In its three-seater form the pilot of the Miles Falcon - in this case the Gipsy Six model - is seated centrally. As a four-seater the third passenger sits beside the pilot, who has the control column on his right. The arrangements for passengers and luggage are shown in the diagram.
Dual control has been arranged in a neat manner which, obviates the necessity of having two control columns or the swing over type. The "Falcon" is extremely economical, 20 miles to the gallon, comparable to a light car, and with a top speed of 145 m.p.h. and cruising of 125 m.p.h. is faster than any other 3/4 seater of similar horse power. Easier to fly, quicker take-off, and lower landing speed are obtained with the hydraulically operated Miles split flaps, and with them 10% REBATE IN INSURANCE.
The fuselage of the Miles "Falcon" is unusually wide, and comfort has been specially considered in the design of the seating accommodation. The roof, sides and floor of the cabin are doubled, and between is packed a special light soundproof material, resulting in a very high degree of sound insulation being attained. The noise of the airscrew and engine has been so reduced that passengers may converse easily and without strain. The new type windscreen prevents rain from obscuring the view and at the same time affords the occupants an extensive outlook.
Our artist's impression of the new Miles "Falcon" ("Gipsy Major"), as it will look with its redesigned windscreen.
A cut-away view of the cabin of the machine which, in the hands of Fit. Lt. Rose, won the King's Cup at 176.28 m.p.h. Providing comfort better than that of the majority of motor cars, the Falcon's upholstery (by Rumbold) is extremely pleasing. Among the instruments can be seen the Sestrel compass, Reid and Sigrist turn indicator, and an array of Smith's aircraft instruments. On the left of the control column is the flap-operating lever, and in front are those for brakes and tail trim.
Details of the central control box, carrying the hinged control column and the support for the two pairs of pedals. Hingeing of the column in this manner provides full aileron movement without incommoding the passengers, although the column is between them.
This cantilever undercarriage has 9 1/2 in. travel. The oil tank forms the inner portion of the leading edge of the wing centre section. The fuel tanks are placed each side between the spars
Structural details of the cabin, showing the formation of the windscreen. Part of the starboard wing flap is shown; the flaps are of the balanced type, with the centre balance portion operating forward, and thus in the opposite direction to the main flaps.
CLOSED IN: The latest and next edition of that popular light aeroplane, the Miles "Hawk," will have a cabin top, as seen in this sketch. The undercarriage will be of the single strut type - not so far seen in recent years in this country - and a tail wheel will be fitted. The first one (with a "Gipsy III" engine), which is being built for Mr. S. Cliff, should have a high cruising speed.
Miles "Falcon" 3-4 Seater Cabin Monoplane 130 h.p. D.H. Gipsy Major Engine
Miles "Falcon" 3-4 Seater Cabin Monoplane 130 h.p. D.H. Gipsy Major Engine