de Havilland DH.88 Comet
Самолет DH.88 Comet был разработан специально для гонок 1934 года между Милденхоллом и Мельбурном, приуроченным к столетию австралийского штата Виктория, спонсором которых был сэр Макферсон Робертсон. К февралю 1934 года - сроку окончания приема заявок и
заказов - были получены три заявки. Покупателями были А. О. Эдвардс, владелец отеля "Grosvenor House", Бернар Рубин, а также супруги Моллисон, Джим и Эми (в девичестве Джонсон). Comet имел цельнодеревянную конструкцию. В передней части были установлены три больших топливных бака, позади которых тандемно размещались места для пилотов. Силовая установка состояла из двух двигателей Gipsy Six R с большой степенью компрессии, вращавших двухлопастные винты Ratier, имевшие два фиксированных шага лопастей. Перед взлетом необходимый для его выполнения шаг устанавливался вручную, а после набора скорости 241 км/ч лопасти автоматически переводились на крейсерский шаг. Основные стойки шасси с хвостовой опорой вручную убирались в мотогондолы, а на задней части крыла были установлены разрезные взлетно-посадочные щитки.
Первый Comet, предназначенный для Моллисонов, был поднят в воздух Хьюбертом Брэйдом 8 сентября 1934 года в Хэтфилде. Эта машина получила сертификат летной годности 9 октября, а две остальные 12 октября, всего за восемь дней до начала гонки. Утром 20 октября стартовали первые участники состязания, включая Моллисонов на "Black Magic", О. Катгерт-Джонса и К. Уоллера на G-ACSR (принадлежащего Рубину) и С. Скотта и Т. Кэмпебелл-Блэка на "Grosvenor House". "Black Magic" благополучно преодолел участок маршрута между Лондоном и Багдадом, но был вынужден вернуться в Аллахабад из-за проблем с двигателями. Катгерт-Джонс и Уоллер, после вынужденной посадки в Персии, добрались до Мельбурна четвертыми, На обратном пути, взяв на борт почту, они показали рекордный результат для замкнутого маршрута - 13,5 дней. Победителями гонки стали Скотт и Блэк, преодолевшие дистанцию за 70 ч 51 мин. Ныне "Grosvenor House" находится в коллекции Шаттлуорта в Олд-Уордене, в Бедфордшире.
Были построены еще два Comet, один из которых использовался для доставки почты правительством Франции. Вторая машина предназначалась Сирилу Николсону, ставшему спонсором двух неудачных попыток установить рекорд на трассе между Лондоном и Кейптауном. Во время второй попытки, 22 сентября 1935 года, из-за остановки двигателей над Суданом, экипаж воспользовался парашютами, и самолет был потерян.
de Havilland DH.88 Comet
Тип: двухместный гоночный и почтовый самолет
Силовая установка: два рядных поршневых двигателя de Havilland Gipsy Six R мощностью по 230 л.с. (172 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на оптимальной высоте 381 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 354 км/ч; начальная скороподъемность 274 м/мин; потолок 5790 м; дальность полета 4707 км
Масса: пустого 1288 кг; максимальная взлетная 2413 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 13,41 м; длина 8,84 м; высота 3,05 м; площадь крыла 19,69 м2
Flight, September 1934
THE DE HAVILLAND "COMET"
Boat-building practice has been extensively adopted in the construction of the machines for the MacRobertson Race
STRESSED-SKIN construction has been used extensively in the new de Havilland machines specially designed and built for the England-Australia Race. For the benefit of the less technically-minded of our readers it may be pointed out that this expression is applied to a form of wing or fuselage covering which, in addition to giving the component the desired external form, helps also to give it strength. In an ordinary biplane wing, the strength is provided by the primary structure: Spars and ribs; the doped fabric is not taken into account, although it may under certain conditions contribute something to the strength. The "stressed-skin" covering may, of course, be of any material capable of resisting compressive loads, such as wood or metal. When metal is used, it is of necessity applied in very thin panels in order to reduce weight. This means that unless stiffened by some internal framework of stringers or the like, the metal skin will crinkle. When wood is used for the skin, less stiffening is usually necessary because the wood, being much lighter than metal, can be and is used in much greater thicknesses.
In the case of the de Havilland "Comet" the use of a stressed skin was, once wooden construction had been decided upon, forced upon the designers by the fact that two spars of a size which could be housed in the thin wing-section employed would not have provided sufficient strength, even if they were of solid wood. To obtain the requisite strength the wing covering had to be made of a form which would reinforce the spars. The system finally adopted was one in which certain members having the appearance of orthodox wing spars, and of similar construction, i.e., box-section, are used for taking the shear loads and for transmitting the loads to the covering. Bending and torsional loads are taken by the skin, which is in the form of a spruce planking laid on after the manner of "double diagonal" planking of many lifeboats. That is to say, there is an inner and an outer layer, each composed of spruce strips some two inches wide, the strips of inner and outer layers crossing each other at approximately right angles. The thickness of this skin or planking is reinforced where the stresses are high, such as on the upper surface near the root of the wing, by a third and even a fourth layer, reaching in places a thickness of more than half an inch. At other places, such as at the tips where the loads are small, the planking is only about one-eighth of an inch thick.
For the fuselage a somewhat similar construction has been adopted. The shape is almost a perfect streamline, but not quite. The sides, which are not of great depth, are flat, and there would be no point in using the double-diagonal type of planking for them. Consequently they are covered with plywood in the ordinary way. The top and bottom of the fuselage, however, have a double curvature, and are planked with spruce strip in the same manner as the wing. This is necessitated by the fact that sheet material cannot be bent to a double curvature. It can, to put it in a different way, be bent into the form of a cylinder or cone, but not into the shape of a barrel. The use of diagonal strip planking makes it easy to get a smooth double curvature. The nose and tail fairings of the fuselage are of beaten Electron sheet.
From an aerodynamic point of view the de Havilland "Comet" is interesting on account of the trouble taken to reduce drag to a minimum. The fuselage is, as already mentioned, of nearly perfect streamline form. Its maximum cross-sectional area has been kept down to the minimum which would house the crew, and by placing the cockpit well aft, increasing the fuselage depth slightly behind the cockpit, and using a flatly-sloping windscreen, the break in the airflow caused by this necessary excrescence has probably been reduced to a minimum. The view obviously cannot be as good as if the cockpit were in the nose of the fuselage, but in a racing machine something must always be sacrificed for speed.
The Retracting Undercarriage
The fact that the machine is a twin-engined monoplane has brought with it the almost inevitable use of retractile undercarriages, the wheels of which draw up into the tail fairings behind the engines. A mudguard over the front of each wheel prevents stones, etc., from being flung into the airscrews, and when the wheels are raised this same mudguard forms part of the bottom of the engine nacelle, leaving merely an opening large enough to let the air escape from inside the engine cowling.
Sheet metal fillets are used where the wing joins the fuselage in order to reduce interference and keep the airflow as smooth as possible. The same system has been employed on the tail, fillets being used to run the fin surface gradually into that of the fuselage and tailplane. The rudder extends down to the top of the fuselage only so that in straight flight and for small rudder movements, there is an easy path for the air to follow and eddying is reduced to a minimum. By giving wings and fuselage several coats of paint, rubbing down between coats, and repeating the process, a remarkably smooth surface has been obtained, which by reducing skin friction in such a fast machine should add materially to the speed.
A machine with the aerodynamic “cleanness” of the "Comet" will obviously have a very flat gliding angle, and when most of the fuel has been consumed, so that the wing loading is reduced, it might be a matter of some difficulty to bring the machine into a small aerodrome. In order to make this possible air brake flaps have been fitted. These take the form of. split trailing edge haps over the central portion of the wing, extending from one engine nacelle to the other. When closed, the flaps lie snugly against the main wing surface. They are operated by a simple torque tube and levers.
Designed for long-range flying (the distance from London to Baghdad is about 2,550 miles), the "Comet" is provided with very large petrol capacity. The three tanks are all carried in the fuselage, one of 128 gallons capacity in the nose, another of 110 gallons capacity approximately over the centre of gravity, and a third, of 20 gallons, just aft of the cockpit. The latter tank is used for trimming purposes. As petrol is consumed the forward tank begins to empty, and to keep the machine from being tail-heavy a small quantity is taken from the rear tank, which is farther from the e.g., and therefore works on a longer "leverage." In addition, the elevators are provided with a spring-loading device for trimming purposes. The tailplane itself cannot be adjusted for incidence.
Accommodation is provided in the cockpit for a crew of two. They are seated one behind the other, and have dual controls so that they can take turns at piloting. A well-equipped instrument board is placed in front of the forward seat, and can be seen, by craning slightly, from the back seat also. The flying controls are of the usual type, with a plain "stick" for elevator and ailerons. A large wheel to the right of the front seat operates the undercarriage retracting gear. On the left is a lever which operates the air brake flaps fitted under the central trailing edge portion of the wing. Wheel brakes are connected to the rudder bar for steering on the ground. A transparent roof over the cockpit encloses the occupants.
Flying control surfaces are of usual type, with a form of Frise aileron operated by the patented de Havilland differential method. The ailerons are mass-balanced by lead distributed along the leading edge of the aileron. Rudder and elevators have the usual bob-weight mass balances. In the rudder and elevator controls a mechanism has been inserted to give a very low gear ratio at small angles of movement of the control surfaces and an increasingly greater ratio for larger movements. This has, of course, been done in order to provide lightness of control and eliminate violent response to small movements of the controls at high speed.
Engine mountings and undercarriage attachments form almost the only metal parts in the "Comet." Welded steel tube construction is used for the engine supports, and the undercarriage wheels are carried en steel forks with telescopic limbs. The wheels are raised and lowered by a worm gear, or rather by the use of “overgrown” bolts and nuts, the "nuts" forming cable drums for the operation of the gear. Thus when the “nuts” are rotated by cables from the cockpit, they draw the “bolts” upwards, shorten one member, which forms one side of a triangle, and thereby raise the triangle and with it the wheel. The movement is explained in two diagrams. As the worm gear is self-locking, no danger arises if the machine should land with the wheels not quite in the “fully down” position. The Dunlop wheels are provided with brakes, which can, as already mentioned, be operated separately via the foot bar. They can be locked "on" together for parking. Instead of a tail wheel there is the usual tail skid, which is thought to offer less air resistance and which helps to pull the machine up when landing.
The power plants fitted in the "Comet" are de Havilland "Gipsy Six" engines, specially modified for the purpose of the MacRobertson Race. By using a modified cylinder head, valve rocker gear and piston, the overall height of the engine has been slightly reduced, the compression has been raised from 5.25 to 6.5, and the engine works satisfactorily on standard service fuel to D.T.D. 224 specification.
In order to take advantage of the use of the Hamilton controllable pitch airscrews fitted, the normal speed of the engine has been increased to 2,350 r.p.m. At the maximum of 2,400 r.p.m. the engine develops 224 b.h.p. on the bench. In the air this is slightly increased owing to the small degree of "boost" obtained by the high forward speed of the machine. A new crankshaft has had to be made to get an appropriate hub fixing for the Hamilton airscrew. The high pressure required (about 100 lb. /sq.in.) to operate the pitch control of the propeller is obtained from the usual engine pumps through duplicate oil relief valves. It does not affect in any way the normal lubrication system. The standard arrangement of alternative hot or cold air supply for the carburetters has been retained in case adverse weather conditions are encountered during the race. Warm air, if required, is taken from the vicinity of the cylinders through a flame trap.
A special coupling is provided on the rear end of the crankshaft for driving a rotary vacuum pump used to operate the Sperry gyro compass.
But few data relating to the "Comet" are available. The dimensions and areas are shown on the general arrangement drawings. The gross weight is in the neighbourhood of 5,250 lb. As the quantity of fuel carried is 258 gallons, a little "guessing" puts the tare weight, fully equipped, at something like 3,000 lb. Should this be approximately correct, the ratio of gross to tare weight is 1.75. In other words, the machine carries 75 per cent, of its own weight.
Flight, October 1934
THE SUCCESSFUL MACHINES
Points of Interest in the Specifications of the De Havilland "Comet,” Douglas D.C.2 and Boeing Transport
WHEN the details of the route over which the England-Australia Race was to be flown were made known, there were many who held that it was impossible to produce a machine capable of a flight of more than 2,500 miles non-stop and yet capable of passing the I.C.A.N. take-off requirement, which demands that an aeroplane in the "normal" category, i.e., not stressed for aerobatics, shall be able to clear, from standing start, a barrier 20 metres (66ft.) high in a horizontal run not exceeding 600 metres (656 yards). The De Havilland Aircraft Company, Ltd., designed and built the "Comet," and in a test flight Capt. H. Broad, the firm's chief test pilot, cleared the barrier by as much as 120ft., carrying full load.
It still remained to be proved whether or not the machine would do the flight from Mildenhall to Baghdad non-stop. The Mollisons provided the proof by leaving Mildenhall at 6.30 a.m. last Saturday and landing at Baghdad at 7.10 p.m. the same day without having landed en route. Moreover, they covered the distance at an average speed of 200 m.p.h.
The De Havilland "Comet" is a very small low-wing cantilever monoplane of all-wood construction. One of its most interesting features is the wing construction. A very thin wing section was chosen because of its low drag, but the problem of providing the necessary strength in so small a thickness was a serious one. It was solved by planking the wing with spruce strips some 2in. wide, the strips of one layer crossing those of another layer at approximately right angles. A similar form of construction is often used in boat building, and is known as the “double-diagonal” type of planking. Near the wing roots of the “Comet” there are several layers, and the thickness of the planking is more than half an inch thick.
The streamline fuselage is of somewhat similar construction, and by placing the crew far back the “break” in the lines which is caused by the windscreen has been reduced to a minimum.
With two special high-compression "Gipsy Six" engines placed outboard on the wings, it was logical to fit retractable undercarriages, as these would go nicely into the engine fairings. This was done, and the combination of a small fuselage of small cross-sectional area and nearly perfect streamline form, with a cantilever wing of very small thickness, and streamlined engine nacelles housing also the wheels, has produced what is probably the most efficient aeroplane ever built.
Accommodation in the tiny cabin is of necessity somewhat cramped, as there is no room for the occupants to get up and stretch their legs, nor is it possible for them to change places. In a racing machine something has to be sacrificed, and in this case it had to be comfort. As far as one can ascertain, Scott and Campbell Black were no more tired than other competitors who were flying larger machines in which it was possible to change seats and alter position, so that the strain of sitting in one position for ten or twelve hours cannot have been altogether excessive.
Although built as a racing machine, it is obvious that by taking out the large petrol tanks and fitting smaller ones, reducing the range to, perhaps, 1,000 miles, and possibly transferring the cockpit to the nose of the fuselage for better view, the "Comet" could be turned into a very useful mailplane with quite a good payload and relatively economical in operation.
Flight, June 1935
NEW and EXPERIMENTAL TYPES at HENDON
It is known that the de Havilland "Comet" which won the air race to Australia last October will be seen at the Display. It may or may not be included among the new machines in the aircraft park. This machine, a low-wing cantilever monoplane with two de Havilland "Gipsy Six R." engines of about 230 h.p. each, has been acquired by the Air Ministry for research purposes. Flown by C. W. A. Scott and T. Campbell Black in the Australia race, the machine has a maximum speed of about 230 m.p.h., and at Hendon there will be but one military type as fast - the Gloster "Gauntlet" single-seater fighter. The "Comet" is, of course, a two-seater.
DH 88 Comet. Экипаж К. Скотт и Т. Кэмбелл-Блэк
DH 88 Comet. Экипаж Дж. Моллисон и Э. Моллисон
DH 88 Comet. Экипаж О. Кэтгард-Джонс и К.Вэллер
Все три гоночные "Кометы"
Восстановленный DH-88 на выставке в Фарнборо в сентябре 1988 г.
Один из самых известных экспонатов коллекции Шаттлуорта, DH.88 Comet "Grosvenor House", выиграл воздушные гонки Макробертсона 1934 года на трассе Великобритания-Австралия. Этот красивый самолет все еще может рулить и разбегаться по ВПП, и в таком состоянии его можно увидеть в дни демонстрации экспозиции.
After a 14yr restoration by the Shuttleworth Collection, the Royal Aircraft Establishment and British Aerospace, de Havilland D.H.88 Comet G-ACSS Grosvenor House took off for the first time at 1328hr on Sunday, May 17. The successful 40min flight from Hatfield - whence ’CSS made its original first flight 53yr ago - was, in the words of the Comet’s pilot, George Ellis, “a marvellous experience”.
Вместе со своим мужем Джимом Моллисоном Эми Джонсон в 1934 году приняла участие в гонках Mac-Robertson Race. Самолет супругов DH.88 Comet, подобный показанному на снимке, сошел с трассы в Аллахабаде.
THE BUSINESS END: Note how carefully the engine nacelles are faired into the wing of the "Comet." The wheels retract, and the mudguards form part of the engine cowlings. The engines are high-compression "Gipsy Sixes."
ALL THERE IS OF IT: When the undercarriage wheels are drawn up, the cowls form part of the smooth bottom of the nacelles.
STREAMLINING: This side view of the D.H. "Comet" shows how near the fuselage approaches to an ideal shape.
CANTILEVER TAIL SURFACES: A tall skid is used instead of a tail wheel on account of its smaller drag. It is fully castering, and helps to shorten the run after landing.
THE AIR BRAKE: This is a trailing edge flap extending from one engine nacelle to the other. It is divided into two halves and operated by levers and a torque tube.
AFTER THE FIRST TEST FLIGHT: Capt. Broad relates his impressions. From left to right, Capt. G. de Havilland, Capt. Broad, Mr. Hagg, Capt. Walker and Major Halford.
Король Георг V и королева Мария (на переднем плане третий и пятая слева) возле "Кометы" супругов Моллисон (крайние справа). Милденхолл, 19 октября 1934 г
ROYAL INTEREST IN FLYING: Their Majesties the King and Queen paid a visit to Mildenhall on the eve of the Australia Race. In the background is Mr. and Mrs. Mollison's "Comet."
ZERO HOUR: The crowd watches the competitors line up. In the foreground is the unlucky Mollisons' "Comet," and behind it Col. Roscoe Turner's Boeing.
Накануне старта: пара "Комет" и "Грэнвилл" R-6H на открытой стоянке Милденхолла
THE SOUTH ATLANTIC "COMET": Salazar, once Black Magic, the "Comet" which has been bought by the Portugese Government and which is to be flown across the South Atlantic by Bleck and Macedo. Mr. Buckingham, of De Havillands', was flying the machine near Hatfield when a Flight photographer took this picture - the first close-up view of a taken from another aeroplane.
Two views of de Havilland D.H.88 Comet G-ACSS Grosvenor House, airborne at last after its lengthy restoration.
В конце 1980-х годов "Grosvenor House" недолгое время совершал полеты, пока не получил повреждения при аварии. Ныне эта машина хранится в коллекции Шаттлуорта и вряд ли в ближайшем будущем поднимется в воздух.
Самолет Comet выиграл межконтинентальную гонку. 20 октября 1934г.: стартовала межконтинентальная гонка по маршруту Англия - Австралия, приуроченная к юбилею основания штата Виктория. Спонсор перелета сэр Макферсон Робертсон установил для победителей призы на общую сумму 15 000 фунтов стерлингов. Победителем стали Чарлз У. А. Скотт и Том Кэмпбелл Блэйк, преодолевшие маршрут на самолете de Havilland DH.88 Comet Grosvenor House (G-ACSS) за 70 часов 54 минут 8 секунд.
14-20 ноября 1937г.: флаинг-офицер Э. И. Клоустон и миссис Бетти Кирби-Грин на DH.88 Comet The Burberry (G-ACSS) установили рекорд на маршруте Великобритания - Южная Африка - Великобритания. Перелет из Кройдона в Кейптаун и обратно занял 5 суток 17 часов 28 минут.
de Havilland D.H.88 Comet Grosvenor House.
Подготовка самолетов DH-88 "Комета" к гонкам
THE WINNER: Scott and Campbell Black's "Comet" (two Gipsy Six Racing Engines) at Mildenhall.
THE PRINCE'S VISIT: His Royal Highness chats with Messrs. Campbell-Black and Scott (on left); on the right are Lt.-Com. H. E. Perrin, Secretary of the R.Ae.C, and Mr. Lindsay Everard, M.P.
Победители гонки К. Скотт и Т. Кэмпбелл-Блэк
Скотт и Блэк приветствуют короля Георга V у своего DH-88
Re-flown at Hatfield on 17th May 1987 after fifteen years' hard restoration work, the sole remaining and irreplaceable de Havilland D.H.88 Comet G-ACSS
ONE OF THREE: The second "Comet," entered by Mr. A. O. Edwards and flown by C. W. A. Scott and T. Campbell Black, is taxied up to the big hangar.
NOCTURNE: Refuelling the winners' D.H. "Comet" at the Baghdad control. Scott and Campbell Black arrived almost immediately after the Mollisons had left for Karachi.
SPOTTING A WINNER!: Mr. Bellamy, the Hon. A. Hore-Ruthven, Lord Glanely, Lady Furness and Lord Furness chat with Scott and Campbell-Black, crew of the "Comet" Grosvenor House, who scored such a notable victory.
Владелец самолета "Гросвенор Хаус" Б. Рубин приветствует вернувшихся чемпионов, заодно установивших новые рекорды скорости на трассах Мельбурн - Лондон и Дарвин - Лондон
The Orphan's guardians. F/O Clouston (right) is the pilot and Flt. Lt. Nelson, his companion, will navigate.
Another view of Comet racer G-ACSS shows it on trestles in the Essex Aero hangar at Gravesend. This aircraft is being reassembled at BAe Hatfield at the time of writing.
Photo shows the D.H.88 Comet racer at Gravesend, where it was rebuilt by Essex Aero Ltd after a landing accident during Air Ministry trials on September 2, 1936. Painted pale blue and named The Orphan, the Comet took part in the 1937 Marseilles-Damascus-Paris air race. Flown by A. E. Clouston and George Nelsen, 'SS came fourth.
Although the Comet is three years old it is still remarkable for the high speed it can maintain over long distances. As will be seen, no major alterations have been made to the The Orphan.
The installation of the Series II Gipsy Six engines.
HOMECOMING TRIUMPHANT: F/O. Clouston and Mrs. Kirby-Green bring the D.H. Comet to the Croydon tarmac after their remarkable flight to Cape Town and back in 45 hours (outward) and 57 hours (homeward).
The D.H. Comet is now fitted with two Series II Gipsy Sixes. It came fourth in the recent Damascus race.
Ken Waller, seated astride the Comet at Cardiff, superintends refuelling, armed with a screwdriver and a long white wand - like the best wands, invisible.
Mr. Waight takes the D.H. Comet across the aerodrome at low altitude.
COMETARY: Grosvenor House, "Comet," No. 34, nearing completion at Hatfield, and (inset) the "Comet," nominated by Mr. Bernard Rubin, on test.
The Shuttleworth Collection’s D.H.88 Comet Grosvenor House is undergoing final assembly at Hatfield.
FOURTH TO FINISH: Lt. Cathcart Jones and Ken Waller in their D.H. "Comet," which finished fourth and is now on its way homeward in an attempt to beat the standing record.
Зеленая "Комета" заправляется в Багдаде
NIGHT PHANTASY: Mechanics at work on two of the "Comets" a few hours before the race
COMPASS SWINGING: The "Comet" flown by Lt. O. Cathcart Jones and Mr. "Ken" Waller undergoes an important ceremony.
Последние минуты перед стартом гонки на приз Мак-Робертсона
ON MACROBERTSON EVE: An impressive scene on the apron at Mildenhall. On the right stands Jones's and Waller's "Comet," with its undercarriage undergoing last-minute repairs; Baby Ruth is at the compass base; in the centre is the Mollisons' "Comet"; behind it are Hewett's and Kay's "Dragon Six" and a D.H. service "Dragon"; and in the background the "Gee-Bee" is being run up, while the ill-fated Fairey Fox can be discerned.
JUST LIKE A ROCKET: Actually this is Lt. Cathcart Jones and Ken Waller taking off in their D H. "Comet" from Baghdad aerodrome, leaving a trail of sand dust.
HOME AGAIN: The D.H. "Comet" surrounded by an admiring crowd at Lympne alter Lt. Cathcart Jones and Ken Waller had flown 23,000 miles to Melbourne and back in less than a fortnight.
Кэтгард-Джонс и Вэллер вернулись в Лондон на своей зеленой "Комете" через 13 дней после старта гонки. Видно, что задняя часть фонаря кабины затянута черной тканью - видимо, для удобства отдыха второго члена экипажа
PILOTS AND OWNER: Lt. Cathcart Jones, Ken Waller and Bernard Rubin beside the record-breaking D.H. "Comet" at Lympne.
MAILS TO THE CONGO: The modified (and renamed) "Comet" ready for Mr. Ken Waller and M. Franchomme to carry the Christmas mails to the Congo. With the rear tank removed and with a mail compartment and a smaller tank in the nose, the machine still has a safe range of 2,000 miles carrying 200-250 lbs. of mail matter. The "Reine Astrid" left Brussels last Thursday.
The D.H. Comet with two Gipsy Six R engines is perhaps the most successful long-distance racing type of recent years.
THE NEW D.H. "COMET" with which Mr. T. Campbell Black hopes shortly to make three long-distance record flights - to Cape Town and back in five days, England to Hong Kong in five days, and Canada and back in a week-end. The new machine derives a cruising speed of 220 m.p.h. from its two special "Gipsy Sixes" and has a range approaching 3,000 miles. Seen beside it are Mr. Black and Mr. Nicholson, the sponsor of the attempts.
BOOMERANG: Last Thursday, shortly before Mr. Campbell Black and Mr. McArthur left Hatfield in an attempt to fly to Capetown and back in record time, the "Comet" was named Boomerang by Lady Fielding. Seen in front of the machine are (left to right) Mr. Cyril Nicholson, who is sponsoring the flight. Lady Fielding, Mr. J. H. McArthur, Mrs. Campbell Black and Mr. T. Campbell Black. The flight was abandoned at Cairo owing to a shortage of lubricating oil. A further attempt will be made very shortly, and it is hoped to cover the 7,300-mile journey with only two stops for fuel, at Cairo and Kisumu.
PARIS WITHIN THE HOUR: The D.H. "Comet" for the French Air Ministry which, in the hands of Mr. Buckingham, flew from Croydon to Le Bourget in 54 minutes. This machine, one of two ordered, will probably be used on the French mail route across the South Atlantic, with Jean Mermoz as pilot.
Предшественниками «Москито» были гражданские самолеты фирмы «Де Хэвилленд» DH.88 «Комета» (на фото) и DH.91 «Альбатрос»
A low-altitude aerial view of the "New and Experimental" park. The big machine in the centre, dwarfing the D.H. "Comet" in front of it, is the A.-W. bomber transport.
The beautiful lines of the "Comet," which won the MacRobertson Race and now bears Service markings, were the subject of unanimous praise.
Perhaps one of the two best-known racing types in this country is the D.H. Comet (two 224 h.p. Gipsy Six R). The presence of R.A.F. markings on the Comet indicates that the Service can learn from a racing aeroplane.
THE SPECIAL RACING ENGINE: The De Havilland Gipsy Six inverted six-cylinder air-cooled engines in the "Comets" had the compression ratio increased to 6.5 : 1 and develop 224 b.h.p. at 2,400 r.p.m.
ROOM ENOUGH, BUT ONLY JUST: The diminutive cockpit of the "Comets." The wheel on the right of the first pilot is for raising and lowering the undercarriage. On the left, the landing light in the nose of the fuselage.
"Салазар" - португальская "Комета" (бывшая "Черная магия")
TEAM WORK: The men responsible for the "Comet." From left to right, Mr. A. E. Hagg (chief designer), Capt. G. de Havilland (technical director), Major F. B. Halford (designer of the "Gipsy-Six" racing engine), Mr. F. T. Hearle (general manager), and Capt. C. C. Walker (chief engineer), of the De Havilland Aircraft Company.
THE REPLICA: Mr. C. W. A. Scott with a scale model of the "Comet," presented to him by Flight as a small mark of appreciation of his Melbourne Race success.
"SKYBIRDS". Three recent additions to the realistic 1-72nd-scale models produced by A. J. Holladay & Co., Ltd. They are: Albatros D.III; D.H. "Comet"; and Fairey "Seal."
MODERN MOTIF: The Comet Hotel, near Hatfield aerodrome, exhibits this attractive model of Scott and Black's MacRobertson mount as its sign.
ART AND THE AIR: This small reproduction gives some idea of the fine composition and dignity of Norman Wilkinson's painting of the Race-winning "Comet," but it cannot convey the beauty of the colouring. Fine art prints, measuring (without margin) 16 1/2 in. x 20 in., are being offered by the De Havilland Aircraft Co. at ?1 1s.; a few artist's proofs are available at ?3 3s.
Central headlamps are not a monopoly of trams - the three D.H. "Comets" are so equipped for night landings.
SHORTENING THE APPROACH: One of the split flaps on the "Comet." These are raised and lowered by a lever on the left of the first pilot.
On the D.H. "Comet" racing monoplane the wheels retract rearwards into the engine nacelles.
BIG CLAUS AND LITTLE CLAUS: Front elevations, to the same scale, of the De Havilland "Comet," the Douglas D.C.2, and the Boeing 247-D. These machines were first, second and third respectively to reach Australia.
De Havilland "Comet" 2 Gipsy Six Racing Engines