Cloud / A.19
Амфибия, двухмоторный моноплан смешанной конструкции. Моторы на пилонах над крылом. Проект A.29 являлся военным вариантом гражданской амфибии A.19. Последнюю создали в КБ фирмы "Саундерс Роу" (более известной под торговой маркой "Capo") под руководством Г.
Ноулера. В свою очередь, A.19 была развитием удачного типа А. 17 "Катти Сарк" (1929 г.). Пассажирская амфибия A.19 вышла на испытания в июле 1930 г. В 1931 г. ВВС Великобритании приобрели один доработанный серийный самолет в качестве учебно-тренировочного. На нем изменили внутреннюю компоновку фюзеляжа, ввели двойное управление и увеличили запас горючего, предусмотрели установку двух турелей и подвеску бомб под крылом. На этом самолете позднее отрабатывали различные усовершенствования, предназначенные для внедрения на A.29.
Военный A.29 отличался увеличенными рулями высоты, ужесточением оперения и мотоустановкой. Опытный образец не строили. Головной серийный "Клауд" для ВВС изготовили в мае 1933 г. Основное назначение - учебно-тренировочный гидросамолет. Выпуск серии осуществлялся на заводе "Саундерс Роу" в Ист-Коувсе. Всего построен 21 экз., из них 16 военных.
На 2-й серии (с 6-го самолета) в 1934 г. существенно усилено днище лодки, немного увеличена длина фюзеляжа, установлены моторы "Сервал" III. В конце 1935 г. ликвидировали обтекатели стоек под мотогондолами, сняв их со всех ранее выпущенных амфибий.
Экипаж - 2 чел. и 4-8 курсантов или пассажиров. Двигатели "Сервал" I (1-я серия) или "Сервал" III (2-я серия). Вооружение 2x7,69 (пулеметы устанавливались редко), бомбы до 180 кг.
"Клауд" приняли на вооружение британских ВВС в августе 1933 г. С этого времени он эксплуатировался как учебный и транспортный. В феврале 1935 г. этими машинами вооружили одну боевую эскадрилью для применения амфибий в качестве ближних разведчиков. В июле 1939 г. эти самолеты начали снимать с вооружения, но начало Второй мировой войны вынудило использовать "Клауд" для патрулирования побережья и как самолеты ПЛО.
Выпуск военных A.29 прекратили в январе 1935 г., гражданских A.19 - в июле 1933 г.
Военные машины все списали осенью 1939 г., последняя гражданская амфибия А. 19 эксплуатировалась до мая 1941 г.
Моторы, количество х мощность:||2 х 340 л.с.
Взлетная масса, максимальная:||4540 кг
Максимальная скорость:||194 км/ч
Практический потолок:||4270 м
Saro A.19 Cloud
Успех летающей лодки Saro A.17 (в конце 1920-х годов продажа 11 самолетов считалась успехом) побудил фирму спроектировать и построить прототип самолета A.19 Cloud, фактически являвшегося увеличенной копией A.17 Cutty Sark. При экипаже из двух летчиков A.19 Cloud могла перевозить до восьми пассажиров.
На Cloud сохранили прежнюю двухмоторную силовую установку, так как она позволяла без особых затрат устанавливать различные двигатели по желанию заказчика.
Неудивительно, что на Cloud ставились моторы пяти типов. На прототипе (G-ABCJ) изначально стояли два 300-сильных мотора Wright J-6 Whirlwind, но через три года эксплуатации их заменили на Napier Rapier IV мощностью по 340 л. с.; между новыми моторами установили небольшую аэродинамическую поверхность для ламинаризации воздушного потока.
На одной лодке Cloud использовали необычную силовую установку из трех моторов Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью no 215 л. с. - такую силовую установку потребовал заказчик. Но из-за проблем с совместимостью трех моторов в конечном итоге лодка была поставлена с двумя 425-сильными моторами Pratt & Whitney Wasp C. Четвертая и последняя гражданская лодка Cloud оснащалась двумя моторами Armstrong Siddeley Serval III мощностью по 340 л. с., но после поставки Чехословакии и демонстрационного турне по Европе двигатели заменили на два 300-сильных Walter Pollux.
Четыре проданные гражданские летающие лодки Cloud сложно назвать удачей, но к счастью для компании «Saro» министерство авиации заказало прототип и 16 серийных лодок для обучения летчиков и штурманов.
Эти лодки штатно оснащались моторами Armstrong Siddeley Serval V; экипаж лодки состоял из двух человек. В бывшей пассажирской кабине оборудовали рабочие места для обучения шести штурманов.
Предположительно, один из поставленных самолетов являлся прототипом и позже был модернизирован для испытаний крыла Monospar, изготовленного фирмой «General Aircraft Limited».
Saro A.19 Cloud (военный вариант)
Тип: учебная летающая лодка для подготовки летчиков и штурманов
Силовая установка: два мотора воздушного охлаждения Armstrong Siddeley Serval V мощностью по 340 л. с. (254 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 190 км/ч; практический потолок 4265 м; дальность 612 км
Масса: пустого 3084 кг; максимальная взлетная 4309 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 19,51 м; длина 15,28 м; высота 5,00 м; площадь крыла 60,39 м2
Вооружение: предусмотрена установка 7,7-мм пулеметов Lewis на турелях в носовой и хвостовой частях корпуса, до 22,7 кг практических бомб на внешней подвеске
Flight, July 1930
THE SARO "FLYING CLOUD”
An Amphibian Boat with Two "Whirlwind" Engines
FEW machines among those exhibited at the Olympia Aero Show last year attracted greater or more favourable attention than the little "Cutty Sark" flying-boat exhibited by Saunders-Roe, of Cowes. There was something irresistibly pleasing about the lines of the machine, and the four-seater cabin was so obviously comfortable while at the same time providing an excellent view for passengers as well as pilot. Since that time several "Cutty Sarks" have been produced and put into service, and the expectations of the designers were fully realised.
When the little "Cutty Sark" was first laid down she was regarded by the Saunders-Roe firm, not as an isolated type, but as the beginning of a whole "family," of which she was to be the smallest. In fact, two larger versions were "sketched out" at the same time that the first "Cutty Sark" was being built; these were given the names "Windhover" and "Flying Cloud" respectively - the former to be a four-five-seater and the latter a six-eight-seater. Both types were put in hand some time ago, and the first of the larger boats has now been completed, and was launched on July 16. This is the larger of the two, the "Flying Cloud," a twin-engined amphibian flying-boat fitted with Wright "Whirlwind” engines.
In a general way, the Saro “Flying Cloud" is very similar to, but an enlarged version of, the "Cutty Sark." Detail improvements have, however, been made where experience with the smaller machine indicated the advisability of making changes. These are of a minor character, and essentially the "Flying Cloud" is a large "Cutty Sark." Seaworthiness is a relative term, and although the little "Cutty Sark" is seaworthy enough for use along the coast or over fairly sheltered bays and river estuaries, she is not claimed to be designed for use over the open sea, although one is being used now on the new service between Woolston, Southampton, and the Channel Islands. The "Flying Cloud," with its larger hull, greater propeller clearance and wider beam, may be expected to be sufficiently seaworthy for use over quite large stretches of open sea, such as are found in almost any part of the British Empire.
The form of hull construction employed in the "Flying Cloud" is similar to that of the "Cutty Sark," and consists of perfectly straight-sided frames covered with a planking of "Alclad," an aluminium alloy covered with a layer of pure aluminium, which is very resistant to corrosion. The Saunders-Roe firm has patented a form of metal planking in which parallel corrugations spaced some inches apart run in a fore-and-aft direction, the corrugations crossing the hull frames at right angles. By corrugating the planking itself in this manner, longitudinal stringers become unnecessary, and a good deal of riveting is avoided. At the same time the plain, straight-sided frames and flat planking provide a very simple form of construction, as the planking can be put on "in the flat" and no panel beating is required.
The Saunders-Roe hulls have another special feature, which is really the outcome of the use of straight frames, and the desire to avoid panel beating. This consists in joining to the vee bottom at the chines a narrow horizontal strip, or fore-and-aft step, which not only strengthens the construction, but also serves to throw the water outwards instead of upwards, as happens with a plain straight vee bottom.
Lateral stability on the water is obtained by the use of wing floats, of a construction similar to that of the main hull.
The monoplane wing is of the pure cantilever type, and of all-wood construction. There are two main spars, of box-section, with spruce flanges and three-ply walls. The ribs are of three-ply. The wing planking, also of three-ply, is made entirely watertight, so that in case of damage to the hull, the wing would probably keep the machine afloat for quite a considerable period. The inspection doors provided here and there on the wing are made a watertight fit, and where controls, etc., pass through the wing covering, they pass through sleeves or glands. The only holes in the wing are small vent holes in the trailing edge, the lowest point in the wing. The upper wing surface is planked, in the neighbourhood of the engines, with stouter plywood so as to enable the crew to walk on the wing for attending the engines.
The power plant of the first "Flying Cloud" consists of two Wright "Whirlwind" engines driving tractor airscrews. Other engines of approximately the same power can, however, be fitted if desired. The engines are cowled in by streamline fairings or nacelles, and are supported on a simple structure resting on the wing. The engines are easily started by means of the hand turning gear, the engineer standing on the wing at the side of the engine. Or if desired a Heywood-Jap starter can be fitted at slight extra cost.
With the high position of the engines, gravity feed is not possible, and the petrol, contained in tanks in the wing, is forced to the engines by A.M. pumps, one to each engine. To guard against failure in the petrol supply system, a cross-connection is made so that both engines can be supplied by one pump, the capacity of the pump being sufficient for both engines. The lubricating oil is carried in conical tanks formed to the shape of the tail portion of the engine cowling. In this position the tank forms its own oil cooler by having its surface exposed to the slipstream.
Such few steel fittings as are used - for example, the four simple fittings by means of which the wing is attached to the boat hull - are either made of rustless steel or are protected by a cadmium plating. The hull, the planking of which is already in itself greatly resistant to corrosion is enamelled as is also the wing covering. All aluminium and Duralumin parts used elsewhere are anodically treated against corrosion.
The land undercarriage is of the retractable type and consists of two tripods, one on each side, formed by the bent axle, the radius rod, and the telescopic leg. The inner end of the axle is hinged to the specially strengthened frame carrying the front wing spar, while the radius rod is hinged to the rear spar frame. Both hinges are above the water line so as to avoid making the machine "dirty" during take-off. The telescopic leg is provided with rubber compression blocks as well as oleo gear. The initial shock of landing is taken on the oil.
The "Flying Cloud" is designed to carry normally six passengers. The cabin is placed under and ahead of the wing, and large side windows and a transparent roof panel give plenty of light and air. The floor of the narrow gangway which runs between the two rows of seats is on a slightly lower level than the floor under the seats, and the headroom above the central gangway floor is 5 ft. 9 in.
The pilot's cockpit is ahead of the cabin, and is entirely enclosed. Access to it is by a sliding hatch on the fore deck, and the central portion of the windscreen, which is hinged. The windscreen panels are of "Triplex," while the side window and roof panels are of celluloid. The side panels are made to slide so that the pilot can lean out and look straight down for landing or for manoeuvring on the water.
Aft of the cabin is a lavatory with wash basin, and behind that again is a large luggage compartment.
The extreme bows of the hull have a compartment for the stowing of warps, anchor and other marine gear, the compartment being closed by a hatch in the deck.
The amphibian version of the machine has a pay load, for a range of about 380 miles, of 1,420 lb., which can be used either for passengers or, by removing the chairs from the cabin, for freight and/or mails.
Flight, June 1931
SPECIAL TYPES AT THE DISPLAY
AN amphibian flying boat for civil work, the "Cloud" is designed and built by Saunders-Roe, Ltd., of Cowes, Isle of Wight. It has a hull of Duralumin and the wing is of wood construction. Fitted with two Armstrong Siddeley “Double Mongoose" engines, the machine carries eight passengers at a cruising speed of about 100 m.p.h. (160 km./h.). At this speed it has an endurance of 4 hours. The gross weight is 9,500 lb. (4,300 kg.)
Flight, November 1932
Cowes, Isle of Wight
FROM the time Sir Alliott V. Roe and Mr. John Lord joined forces with Mr. H. E. Saunders, the firm of Saunders-Roe has pursued a vigorous policy of flying-boat development. During a period of a few years no less than four distinct types of flying boat have been produced, of which three are civil types, the fourth a military machine.
The Saro "Cloud" is an eight-seater amphibian flying-boat fitted with two Armstrong-Siddeley Double Mongoose engines of 340 h.p. each. The main data are:
Length o.a. 49 ft. 9 in. (15,15 m.)
Wing span 64 ft. (19,5 m.)
Wing area 650 sq. ft. (60,4 m2.)
Tare weight 5,800 lb. (2 640 kg.)
Pay load 2,580 lb. (1 173 kg.)
Gross weight 9,700 lb. (4 400 kg.)
Maximum speed 128 m.p.h. (206 km./h.)
Cruising speed 102 m.p.h. (164 km./h.)
Range 400 miles (645 km.)
Flight, June 1934
Saunders-Roe, Ltd., of Cowes, have for a number of years specialised on the design and construction of flying boats and amphibian flying boats. The "Cloud" which will be seen in the Display differs from the standard machine in that it has a monospar wing instead of the usual two-spar plywood-covered wing. The main feature of this wing design is that the single spar is placed as near as possible to the centre of pressure position, and the wing is prevented from twisting by a system of wire or tie-rod bracing which forms two spirals. Two Siddeley "Serval" engines of 340 h.p. each are fitted. The wing span is 68 ft.
A VISITOR TO THE LEICESTER MEETING: The Saunders-Roe "Cloud" (described in our issue of July 25) in its amphibian form, is a very comfortable six-passenger machine, fitted with two Wright "Whirlwind" engines. The machine is quite exceptionally easy to fly, and, in fact, all but flies itself.
The Saro "Cloud" arrives at Riga for the demonstration.
Saro "Cloud" (2 "Serval") eight seater.
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales inspects the Saro "Cloud" before flying to Calshot to see the "Do.X."
SARO CLOUD leaving the water at HELSINGFORS
The Saunders-Roe Cloud was one of the inspirations for Folland to begin design work on a series of amphibians in 1930. This example, K2681, was fitted with a Monospar wing and is seen here at an RAF pageant at Hendon.
"Do.X" AND THE SARO "CLOUD." - This view showing the "Cloud," with the Prince on board, alighting alongside the "Do.X," illustrates the similarity of these two machines.
A Saro "Cloud" fitted with two Napier "Rapier" engines. These engines, having 16 cylinders arranged in four rows of four each and are air-cooled, develop 340 h.p. As an amphibian the "Cloud" carries 8 passengers, with a duration of either 4 hours or 5 1/2 hours. The cruising speed is just over 100 m.p.h.
The Handley Page H.P.47 general purpose monoplane (Bristol "Pegasus") flying above the Saro "Cloud " amphibian (two Napier "Rapier" engines).
The Saro Cloud shown there has two Napier Rapier engines. It is also available with two Siddeley Servals.
G-ABCJ, the first Saro Cloud, after returning from Canada and being fitted with Napier Rapier engines.
The Saro "Cloud" in a small river at Wyszkow, in Poland, where a landing was made almost in the dark.
THE SARO AMPHIBIAN FAMILY: On the left is the "Cutty Sark," in the centre the latest "Windhover," and on the right the "Cloud."
IN ST. HELIER HARBOUR: Last week a Saro "Cloud" belonging to Spartan Air Lines arrived at Jersey and was moored in London Bay. There are rumours that an inter-Channel Island mail service may be started soon, and various important personages have been seen in Jersey.
Первая амфибия 2-й серии перед испытаниями, Феликстоу, январь 1934г.
The "Cloud," another Saro product is an amphibian used for navigational training.
Saro "Monospar Cloud" (two Armstrong-Siddeley "Serval" engines).
THE LATEST SARO "CLOUD": Two views of the machine on the water. The engines are Armstrong-Siddeley "Double Mongoose," and the estimated performance of the machine has been considerably exceeded.
Военные летающие лодки Saro A.19 Cloud использовались в училище воздушного пилотажа ВВС Великобритании в Эндовре, учебной гидроэскадрилье в Кэлшоте и 48-й эскадрилье. Самолеты эксплуатировались с 1933 по 1936 годы.
WITH AIR SERVICE TRAINING: A R.A.F. Reserve pilot alighting on Southampton Water at Hamble in a Saro "Cloud" amphibian.
"Клауд" Королевских ВВС в полете
Saro "Cloud" (two Siddeley "Serval").
A SARO "CLOUD" OVER SOUTHAMPTON WATER: In the picture the white flyingboat shows up well over the mud flats.
K2898, the fifth A.29 Cloud for the RAF.
TRAINING BOAT PILOTS: All pilots who are posted to a flying boat squadron are first sent for a course with the Seaplane Training Squadron at Calshot. The Saro Cloud is used for preliminary training.
CRAFT OF THE SEAPLANE TRAINING SQUADRON: The machines from left to right are Fairey "Seal," Avro "Tutor," Saro "Cloud," Hawker "Osprey" and Supermarine "Southampton."
THE STAGE SET: This aerial photograph of the Royal Air Force Display machines assembled in the operational park at Hendon forms a fitting introduction to the pictures, in the ensuing pages, of the Display in progress. There are eight monoplanes in the assembly - Ansons (third row) and Clouds (fifth).
Lighter-and-heavier-than-air Day in the big hangar at Cardington. In this non-stop variety picture are barrage balloons, a Blenheim and a Battle (left), a new Hind Trainer (foreground), Hector, Shark, Swordfish and Cloud (right), not to mention other less discernible aircraft and a goodly proportion of the population of Bedfordshire.
Гражданская амфибия A.19, эксплуатировавшаяся в Чехословакии, отличалась моторами Вальтер "Поллукс" и дефлекторами на крыле за мотогондолами
The last civil Cloud, OK-BAK for CSA.
FOR CZECHOSLOVAKIA: In last week's issue details were given of this Saunders-Roe "Cloud," which has been delivered to a Czechoslovakian operating company. The machine has been purchased so that the harbour at Susak may be used when the hill-surrounded aerodrome cannot be reached in bad weather.
CSA’s Walter Pollux-engined Cloud at SuSak on the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia while operating a Pressburg (now Bratislava)-SuSak service.
Saro A.19 Cloud OK-BAK flew on the Susak-Split extension from 1936. It was previously G-ACGO.
G-ABHG, the second Cloud, originally had three Lynx engines. Here it has Pratt & Whitney Wasps, auxiliary wing, and (not visible) modified tail surfaces. On its bow is the name Flying Amo.
CLOUD CEILING. A large auxiliary aerofoil is mounted above the engine nacelles (which carry Pratt and Whitney Wasps) on Mr. O. S. Baker's Saro Cloud amphibian.
SARO CLOUD (1931) From an old album given to Jerzy Orwovski comes this novelty which baffled the experts - a tri-motor Saro Cloud. The reason for surprise is that very few people seem to recall the existence of a three-engined Cloud amphibian. Initially filled with three 220-h.p. Wright Whirlwind radials "for extra safety" (at the special request of the purchaser, the Hon. A. E. Guinness), G-ABHG was tested by Sq./Ldr. L. S. Ash, M.B.E., R.A.F.O. Later the Cloud was converted back to the conventional two-motor installation totalling 680 h.p. Span 64 ft.; length 51 ft.; weights: empty 6.250 lb., loaded 9,500 lb.; speeds: maximum 118 m.p.h., cruise 95 m.p.h.; service ceiling 12,000 ft. F.a.f. price ?9,000. Seventeen Clouds went to the R.A.F. in the mid-1930s as "flying classrooms".
FOR THE CLYDE-BELFAST SERVICE: The Saro "Cloud" amphibian of British Flying Boats, Ltd., being christened Cloud of Iona by the Duchess of Hamilton - supported by Mr. John Lord and Sir Alliott Verdon Roe - at Cowes. As previously reported in "Flight," B.F.B., Ltd., will operate services between the Clyde and Belfast, and in other parts of Scotland. The service to the Isle of Man, previously planned, is for the moment held up pending arrangements for landing at Douglas, where British Amphibious Air Lines, Ltd., hold sole landing rights in the Bay in connection with their service between Liverpool and the Island.
AT BRUSSELS: From left to right - John Lord; Capt. S. D. Scott (pilot); A. Wallace Barr; V. Bloos (representing Cellon in Belgium); Van der Goes (agent for Hawkers and Handley Page in Belgium); and J. de C. Ballardie.
Miss Vivien Spooner, Miss Winifred Spooner, Sir Sefton Brancker, Miss Amy Johnson, Flt.-Lt. S. D. Scott and Mr. John Lord, all evidently satisfied after their flight in the Saro Cloud (2 Whirlwinds J6-nine)
LIGHTER CONSTRUCTION: These two views show the Saro "Cloud," for which a Monospar wing has been built. As can be seen, the wing is heavily tapered, and the result should be an increase in performance.
SMOOTHING OUT THE AIRFLOW: A small auxiliary aerofoil is fitted above the wing of the Saro "Rapier-Cloud," with marked improvement in the effectiveness of the controls.
Saro "Flying Cloud" (6-8 seater) 2 Wright "Whirlwind" Engines