Hawker Demon
Варианты:
Hawker - Demon - 1932 - Великобритания
Страна: Великобритания
Год: 1932


Двухместный истребитель
Описание
Фотографии
Hawker Demon и Hart Fighter

  Принятие на вооружение в 1930 году самолета Hart стало качественным скачком для легкобомбардировочных сил британских ВВС и одновременно показало слабость имевшихся дневных истребителей. В ходе проведенных учений Hart оказались несколько быстрее посланных им на перехват машин. Вскоре было принято решение о разработке двухместного истребителя на базе самолета Hart. В соответствии с техническим заданием Министерства авиации 15/30, разработанным на основе результатов полученных при испытаниях варианта бомбардировщика Hart с V-образным рядным двигателем Rolls-Royce Kestrel IIS, Сидней Кэмм спроектировал новый самолет. Его вооружение состояло из двух 7,7-мм пулеметов Vickers в носовой части и одного пулемета Lewis на турели в задней кабине, имевшей вырез для увеличения зоны обстрела.
  Прототип, переделанный из бомбардировщика, получил название Hart Two-Seat Fighter, вскоре сокращенное до Hart Fighter. За ним последовал второй переделанный прототип, а затем и шесть серийных самолетов, которыми с апреля 1931 года вооружили одно звено 23-й эскадрильи. Учения 1931 года показали, что Hart Fighter оказались единственными истребителями Королевских ВВС, способными перехватить бомбардировщики Hart, несмотря на довольно близкие летные характеристики. Но высокая скорость истребителя Hart осложняла работу стрелка, которому набегающий поток воздуха мешал наводить пулемет. Чтобы решить эту проблему, между кабинами установили два дефлектора, и, кроме того, кабину пилота снабдили рудиментарным фонарем, создававшим зону спокойного воздуха над стрелком. Решение оказалось удачным, и стрелку больше не приходилось прилагать чрезмерно большие усилия, чтобы обращаться с пулеметом.
  В начале 1932 года было выпущено техническое задание 9/32 на улучшенный вариант Hart Fighter, а затем размещен заказ на первые 17 серийных истребителей, в июле 1932 года получивших название Demon. Первый из этих самолетов Demon Mk I взлетел в феврале 1933, а к апрелю того же года была готова вся партия, что позволило полностью укомплектовать новыми истребителями 23-ю эскадрилью. Эти машины были оснащены двигателем Kestrel IIS мощностью 485 л. с. (362 кВт). В общей сложности до декабря 1937 года ВВС получили 234 Demon Mk I, включая 106 самолетов, построенных компанией "Boulton Paul". Последние 49 машин постройки "Hawker" и все Demon выпуска "Boulton Paul" изготавливались по улучшенному стандарту. При тех же размерах, что и самолеты раннего выпуска, они оснащались двигателем Kestrel VDR. А с октября 1936 года все истребители производства компании "Boulton Paul" поставлялись в варианте Turret Demon Mk I, и оснащались турелью Frazer-Nash с гидравлическим приводом. Несмотря на возросшую массу и сложность конструкции, турель обеспечивала стрелку полную защиту от набегающего потока, без ограничения зоны обстрела. Позднее ею стали оснащать и ранее выпущенные машины. Последние Demon были сняты с вооружения британских ВВС в 1939 году.
  В начале 1934 года Королевские ВВС Австралии (RAAF) решили заказать вариант Demon Mk I, который мог бы также использоваться в роли дневного бомбардировщика. RAAF первоначально заказали 18 самолетов Demon Mk I. Это был вариант истребителя с двигателем Kestrel VDR и вооружением из двух пулеметов Vickers Mk V в носовой части и одного подвижного пулемета Lewis в задней кабине. Их поставки начались с марта 1935 года.

  Вторая партия из 36 машин, поставленных в 1936 году, имела ряд доработок, включая установку двигателя Kestrel V мощностью 600 л. с. (447 кВт), шести узлов подвески под крылом (бомбовая нагрузка до 113 кг) и организацию лежачего места для стрелка/бомбардира в нижней части фюзеляжа, где был установлен бомбардировочный прицел Mk VII. Эти самолеты отличались высокой аварийностью в основном из-за отсутствия у RAAF подходящих учебных машин. Поэтому была заказана партия из 10 Demon Mk II, снабженных сдвоенным управлением, которые также могли использоваться в качестве буксировщиков мишеней.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Hawker Demon Mk I

  Тип: двухместный истребитель
  Силовая установка: один V-образный рядный двигатель Rolls-Royce Kestrel VDR мощностью 584 л. с. (435 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 4875 м - 293 км/ч; время набора высоты 3050 м - 7 мин 55 с; потолок 8475 м; продолжительность полета 2 ч 30 мин
  Масса: пустого 1513 кг; максимальная взлетная 2117 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 11,33 м; длина 9,02 м; высота 3,17 м; площадь крыльев 32,24 м2
  Вооружение: два 7,7-мм пулемета Vickers Mk III в носовой части фюзеляжа и один 7,7-мм пулемет Lewis в турели Frazer-Nash в задней кабине; до 73 кг боевой нагрузки на двух узлах подвески под крылом
A very welcome vac-form from Aeroclub Models can be completed as the Demon (K2844) of No 23(F) Sqn illustrated here. No 23(F) Sqn received this aircraft in February 1933, flying it from Biggin Hill until December 1936. Transferred to No 608 Sqn. it became an instructional airframe in October 1939.
Demon Mk I использовался шестью эскадрильями в Британии (на рисунке самолет 29-й эскадрильи). Этими самолетами также вооружили эскадрильи на Мальте, в Адене и Египте. В конце своей карьеры Demon Mk I несли службу в пяти подразделениях вспомогательных ВВС.
Demon. Изображен самолет в окраске 604-й эскадрильи (графство Мидлсекс) Вспомогательных ВВС, дислоцированный в Хендоне. 604-ю перевооружили на Demon в 1935 году. В 1939 году она стала эскадрильей ночных истребителей и получила Blenheim.
As WWII operations approached Australia some RAAF silver doped Hawker Demons received a ''panic” camouflage finish, and were later relegated to training units. One such aircraft was A1-59.
The first production Demon, K2842, which flew on 10th February 1933. Cut-down rear cockpit, with canted ring to give the gunner a better field of fire, was the main feature which distinguished it from the Hart
Another photograph of K2842, the first production Hawker Demon.
Hawker Demon K3976, with two red Xs. while the squadron was at Amriya. Egypt, during the Abyssinian crisis
Hawker Demons awaiting delivery outside the new factory at Pendeford.
AFTER THE FIGHT: Refilling the tanks of the fighter "Harts" of No. 23 (F.) Squadron after a 15 minutes combat with No. 33 (B.) Squadron.
Hawker Demon K2842 served with Nos 23, 601 and 604 Sqns after trials with the A&AEE. In April 1940 it became an instructional airframe. This first production Demon is fitted with standard tilted Scarff gun ring.
The Hawker Demon is a two-seater fighter. The Demon and Fury mount the 600 h.p. Rolls-Royce Kestrel.
The "Demon" two-seater is fitted with the 525 h.p. supercharged water-cooled "Kestrel."
A NEW TWO-SEATER FIGHTER: The Hawker "Hart" has now been produced as a two-seater fighter, fitted with Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" super-charged engine, and is taking part in the Air Exercises.
THE HAWKER "DEMON." Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engine. A two seater aircraft possessing excellent fighting qualities and unequalled performance.
Hawker Demon I K3974 of 29 Sqn, 15,000ft above Epping, Essex, on July 22, 1935. After passing to 41 Sqn, this Demon crashed while landing at Catterick on September 6, 1937.
The Demon was the first two-seat fighter to be introduced by the RAF since WWI and was essentially a derivative of the Hart light bomber.
The Controlling Demon: Sqn. Ldr. Gabriel and his Familiar Spirit.
Three 29 Sqn Demons. Nearest the camera is K3982, which later flew with Nos 601 and 600 Sqns before being relegated to a maintenance unit in October 1940. K2983, in the background, collided with K4538 and crashed near Dover on November 5, 1937.
OUR ONLY TWO-SEATER FIGHTER SQUADRON: One Flight of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron in Hawker "Demons" (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel").
Three of a first production batch of Hart fighters - K1952, K1955 and K1951 - supplied to 23 Sqn.
"Demon" ("Kestrel") two-seater fighters of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron.
Dramatic photograph of 64 Sqn Demons demonstrating dive bombing for Flight’s cameraman in June 1937. The squadron was then based at Martlesham Heath.
Two Hawker Demons of 607 Squadron (County of Durham) RAuxAF, based at RAF Usworth in the Thirties. No 607 Squadron had Usworth as its base from March 1930 until August 1939, when it moved to Abbotsinch. K5687 and K5686 became 2198M and 2030M respectively in 1940.
Three 208 (Army Co­operation) Sqn Demons flying over Cairo, Egypt, in December 1935. They were based at RAF Heliopolis.
THE COASTWISE PATROL: The three Auxiliary Air Force Squadrons of the London area have been enjoying a strenuous holiday at the seaside, No. 600 F.S. at Hawkinge, No. 601 at Lympne, and No. 604 at Tangmere. Here five Hawker Demons of 604 (County of Middlesex) (Fighter) Squadron are seen flying past Worthing.
Five 604 Sqn Demons off Worthing during the squadron’s summer camp in August 1936.
Two 607 Squadron Demons up from RAF Usworth in the Thirties. K5683 was the first of a batch of 59 Demon Is delivered to the RAF between September 1936 and July 1937.
An aerial view taken from a "Demon" of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron in the third phase of the fly-past at Duxford. There can be seen a flight of Hawker "Demons" of No. 142 (Bomber) Squadron.
An aerial view taken from a "Demon" of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron in the third phase of the fly-past at Duxford. There can be seen a flight of Hawker "Demons" of No. 12 (Bomber) Squadron.
CLOSE COMPANY: Hawker Demon two-seater fighters (derated Kestrel V) of No. 64 (F) Squadron caught by the Flight camera immediately after a formation take-off at Martlesham Heath.
TWO-SEATER FIGHTERS: A fine close-up aerial photograph ol No. 41 (Fighter) Squadron, from Northolt. It is equipped with Hawker "Demons" and the squadron marking is a broad red band.
A formation of 41 Sqn Demons up from RAF Northolt in 1935.
AS THE REAR GUNNER SEES IT: The Hawker Fleet Fighter with Rolls-Royce F.MS engine photographed from a Hawker "Hart." Mr. Bulman was piloting the "Hart," and the single setter was piloted by Mr. Sayer. Note that the two machines were making a turn, simulating a flight in which the two-seater is endeavouring to prevent the single-seater from getting "on its tail."
A Hawker Demon gunner’s view of another Demon, closing in fast. The Demon was armed with twin Vickers guns forward and a single Lewis gun aft. The type entered RAF service with 23 Sqn.
Demons of No. 29 Squadron, North Weald, practising for the 1935 Empire Air Day. Squadron colours consisted of red cross-hatching on fuselage sides and upper wing
A good formation photograph of Hawker Demon K3776.
This formation photograph of Hawker Demons includes K3776 and K3790, both delivered to the RAF during the second half of 1934.
Dramatic "shot" of Demons of No. 64 (F.) Squadron, a tight echelon
FIENDISH ACCURACY: The Hawker Demon two-seater fighters of No. 604 (County of Middlesex) (fighter) Squadron, under the command of Sqdn. Ldr. C. P. Gabriel, rehearsing air drill for the R.A.F. Display on June 27, 1936. Any inaccuracies - which were conspicuous by their absence - would have been hidden from the permanent audience in the Hendon district by a curtain of clouds which, let us hope, will be completely rung up for the great day.
Squadron V: The Hawker Demons of the Squadron against a fine background of clouds.
Smart box formation of four No. 23 Squadron Demons bearing the red and blue squares squadron insignia on their upper wings and fuselage sides
The Spearhead: The squadron in another of its display formations.
EMPIRE AIR DAY: A diamond formation by "Demons" of No. 23 Squadron, from Biggin Hill.
Demons of No. 600 (City of London) Squadron, Hendon, peeling off. Note tailwheels instead of skids
For Hendon Display purposes: An unusual formation by No. 604 (County of Middlesex) (Fighter) Squadron.
Intimate close-up of Demon K5687, with K5683-5 behind, of No. 607 (County of Durham) Squadron, an Auxiliary unit based at Usworth, in the spring of 1938
The Demon was introduced into R.A F. service in March 1931 when six pre-production "Hart Fighters" were delivered to No. 23 Squadron at Kenley. Shown here in No. 23's colours are four of the first true production Demons
"Demon" two-seater fighters of No. 23 (F) Squadron, at Biggin Hill, in "echelon stepped up" formation.
Two-seater fighters were much used during the war and were re-introduced into the R.A.F. a few years ago. The "Demon" is the standard type, and the picture shows a flight of "Demons" of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron, which is stationed at Biggin Hill.
No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron, which was the first unit to receive the "Demon" two-seater fighter, is here seen breaking from an echelon formation. Future "Demons" will have the 600 h.p. "Kestrel V."
Classic Flight photograph of 604 (County of Warwick) Sqn Demons flying from their RAF Hendon base in July 1936.
SYMMETRY in the SKY: An aerial staircase by No. 604: An excellent example of the difficult formation known as "Echelon to the Right, Stepped up."
"Archie" added to the fun with blank ammunition. In this picture he is seen with some Hawker Demons in the background.
DEMONS: The Secretary of State for Air inspecting No. 23 (F.) Squadron. He was accompanied by Air Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham and Group Capt. H. J. Hunter.
"STRAINING AT THE LEASH": The "Bulldogs" and fighter "Harts" of No. 23 (Fighter) Squadron waiting at Kenley for orders to go up and attack raiders.
BUSINESS BACKING: At the official opening party of the Midland Bank Flying Club. A general view of the proceedings - with one of the Club's two B.A. Swallows in the air, and, on the ground, one of the three Demons of No. 600 (F) Sqd. A.A.F. which put up a display during the afternoon.
A camera gun on a Demon at Hendon casts its spell. Similar scenes were common at some fifty other military aerodromes.
Australia
The Hawker "Demon" Two-seat Fighter Biplane (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engine) as supplied to the Australian Government.
An Australian Demon general-purpose machine with Rolls-Royce Kestrel V engine.
Australian Hawker Demon.
DEMONIACAL VERSATILITY. The first of the eighteen Hawker "Demon" two-seaters ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force is here seen being tested by Mr. M. Summers. These machines, which can be equipped for fighting, bombing, or for army co-operation work, are powered with the Rolls-Royce "Kestrel V" engine, supercharged to give a maximum of 640 h.p. at 14,000 ft. The top speed is in the neighbourhood of 190 m.p.h.
A number of specially equipped Demons (Kestrel V) have been supplied to Australia.
A flight of Australian Demons, incidentally, is seen making a diving attack.
A flight of R.A.A.F. Hawker Demons (R.R. Kestrel II) over Australia’s new “streamlined” train.
Through the hangar doors at Richmond, the largest station of the R.A.A.F. The Blue Mountains are seen in the distance.
DEMONS DOWN UNDER: Permanent personnel of the Royal Australian Air Force in training at Laverton aerodrome. Their headgear is worthy of note. The aircraft nearest the camera are Hawker Demons (R. R. Kestrel V) which, as supplied to Australia, are really general purpose machines with fully supercharged engines. A pair of Ansons may be descried farther down the tarmac, together with additional Demons.
A Moth and Hawker Demons of the R.A.A.F. The Australian Demons are equipped for bombing as well as for fighting, carry army co-operation gear such as message hooks, and use the Kestrel V engine.
First of sixty-four Australian Demons for the R.A A.F.
A1 was first allotted to Imperial Gift D.H.9As in 1920. It was re-allotted in 1934 when eighteen Hawker Demons were purchased from Britain, the first of which is shown above before delivery. By 1939 over sixty Demons were numbered in the A1 series.
 
J9933 (Rolls-Royce "Kestrel" engine), the first production aircraft, was retained by Hawker's for trials. Shown fitted with Frazer-Nash "lobster-back" turret later adopted for the Demon
Hawker Demon K8189 flew with 64 Sqn before passing to 1 Air Armament School.
Hawker Demon K5695 was delivered to the RAF towards the end of 1936 and served initially with 23 Sqn. It later passed to No 9 Bombing and Gunnery School and 14 FTS before being struck off charge in December 1940.
Turret Demon K5705 of No. 23 Squadron in 1938, just before the squadron re-equipped with Blenheim IFs
The prototype Demon, built as a Hart bomber in 1929, taking off from Brooklands fitted with the Frazer Nash "lobster-shell" turret, fitted in May 1934.
Самолеты поздней постройки ("Boulton-Paul") отличались турелями Frazer-Nash с гидроприводами, закрытыми обтекателями "lobster-back" и были известны как "Turret Demon" (на фотографии).
Hawker Turret Demon.
Another view of the Demon prototype fitted with the Frazer-Nash turret. J9933 eventually became an instructional airframe in August 1938.
A CRUSTACEAN DEMON: The Nash and Thompson turret on a Hawker Demon. The shield portion is reminiscent of a lobster's tail and in this view is seen folded down, being linked with the elevating mechanism.
A Hawker Demon two-seater fighter, showing the installation of the Nash and Thompson power-driven gun turret.
A Hawker Demon with Nash and Thompson gun turret. The Demon has been the standard R.A.F. two-seater fighter for seven years.
The Nash and Thompson gun turret fitted to a Hawker Demon, with Flight's representative demonstrating firing over the side.
HAWKER DEMON: Fighter (Kestrel V de-rated engine - 625 h.p. at 12,000ft.); span, 37ft. 3in.; gross weight, 4,490 lb.; max. speed 185 m.p.h. (approx.) at 15,000ft.
A flight of Hurricanes of No. 111 (F.) Squadron gets away over three representative fighter types - Hurricane, Gladiator and Demon I (with turret).
TOTS AND TURRETS: Some of the younger element at Saturday's Northolt display assess the merits of a Nash and Thompson turret of the Turret Demon.
LEWIS-LIKE: A new Williamson camera gun is now in service, and is here seen on an Auxiliary Hawker Demon.
Two views of the Frazer-Nash "lobster-shell" turret fitted to the Hawker Demon. Though operation of the turret was satisfactory, accurate aiming of the Demon’s front guns was difficult when the turret was moved laterally.
Pre-war mishap. Demon K5692 of No. 607 Squadron, slightly bent, on arrival at Southend for the 1937 Summer Camp. The gunner appears to be unloading his baggage
KEITH WOODCOCK’S painting features a pair of 64 Sqn Hawker Demons, K4511 and K4520.
‘Hawker Twins’ by Roy Cross
Stanley Orton Bradshaw’s evocative 1938 water­colour depicting a trio of 601 (City of London) Squadron Hawker Demons. Based at Hendon and later at Kenley, the squadron operated Demons from February 1937 until February 1939. The RAF Museum houses a large selection of Bradshaw watercolours.
Attack by a two-seater Hawker "Demon" on a Fairey "Gordon" light bomber. The fighter uses its rear gun from a blind spot under the bomber's nose. The bomber has one fixed front gun, which can only be brought to bear by dipping the nose of the machine. This form of attack can be used by a formation as well as by a single fighter.
Hawker Demon squadron colours
Key to sketches: A Demon K2844 of 23 Sqn, 1933. B K3976 of B Flight, 29 Sqn. C K3779 of 41 Sqn, September 1934 D K4520 of A Flight, 64 Sqn. E K3776 of C Flight, 65 Sqn. F K5701 of A Flight, 600 Sqn. G K5714 of C Flight, 601 Sqn. H K4500 of 604 Sqn. I K5687 of B Flight, 607 Sqn. J K3779 again, this time with 608 Sqn, 1937-38.
HERALDRY at HENDON: "Demon" No. 23 (F.) Squadron