Miles M.14 Magister
На волне успеха гражданского самолета Hawk Trainer Министерство авиации выпустило спецификацию T.40/36 на разработку Hawk в варианте самолета первоначального обучения для британских ВВС. Конструкцию машины пересмотрели
и решили увеличить кабину. Производство M.14 началось в первой половине 1937 года согласно откорректированной спецификации T.37/37. Поставки британским ВВС начались в мае 1937 года. Самолет стал первым британским военным учебным монопланом. Вскоре у Magister выявили склонность к штопору, из-за чего в конструкцию пришлось внести изменения. Новый вариант обозначался M.14A и строился в 1937-1941 годах. Всего компания "Miles" построила 1293 самолета, еще 100 машин собрали в Турции по лицензии после испытаний четырех M.18 постройки "Miles". Контракт с британскими ВВС предусматривал изготовление 1229 самолетов. M.18 также экспортировались в Ирландию (15), Египет (42) и Новую Зеландию (2). Некоторое количество самолетов поставили гражданским заказчикам, а после окончания войны самолеты британских ВВС продавались на гражданском рынке как Hawk Trainer III. На пике использования M.18 британскими ВВС этими самолетами были вооружены 16 эскадрилий первоначального обучения и Центральная летная школа. Кроме того, M.18 использовали различные Командования Королевских ВВС; последний самолет сняли с вооружения в 1948 году. M.18 также эксплуатировались в британской Армии и ВМС Великобритании.
Miles M.14 Magister
Тип: двухместный самолет первоначального обучения
Силовая установка: один мотор жидкостного охлаждения de Havilland Gipsy Major I мощностью 130 л. с.
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 300 м - 212 км/ч; практический потолок 5485 м; дальность 612 км
Масса: пустого 583 кг; максимальная взлетная 862 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 10,31 м; длина 7,51 м; высота 2,03 м; площадь крыла 16,35 м2
Flight, March 1938
TRAINING for TO-MORROW
EVEN were there no other reasons, the Miles Magister is particularly interesting as a flying machine because it is the first basic trainer of the new era and because it is a low-wing machine with a full aerobatic C. of A.
Since the majority of present-day military and civil types are of such design it was obvious that it would soon be necessary to train both civil and Service pilots from the very start on the kind of machine which they would eventually need to fly. In the ordinary course of events nobody who can handle a normal training biplane with proficiency is liable to go very far wrong with any type of machine, but the psychological effect of a drastic change-over must not be forgotten and there are, in fact, one or two flying characteristics of the low-wing machine which are not repeated in one of what is still, for some reason, called “conventional” design.
The firm of Phillips and Powis were in a good position, since they had already been producing low-wing types for a number of years, and the Magister may virtually be considered as a natural development of the Hawk Major. Various important changes and modifications have, of course, been necessary in order to bring the Magister into line with accepted ideas on aerobatic manners and strengths, but the basic design is unaltered.
A third, and perhaps more important, reason why the Magister has a special interest from the pilot’s point of view concerns the many opinions which have lately been current on the spinning characteristics of the low-wing type and (because of the work for which it is being used) of the Magister in particular. The fact of the matter is that the introduction of the machines designed on what has been called the "modern formula" has changed most of our ideas on the subject of spinning. Whereas in the old days every machine except those of the very largest size were automatically tested and expected to behave quite normally in a spin, the tendency at present is to treat this manoeuvre as one which should never be used. A comparatively recent Air Ministry demand in the matter of tail parachutes for all spinning tests effectively echoes official feeling in this matter. It would probably be true to say that no two low-wing machines spin or recover in quite the same way, and that few, if any, machines of this type, other than the Magister, have been allowed to do more than one or two turns before recovery.
Nevertheless - even if the machines which a pilot will eventually fly have not been and are not expected to be spun, it is obviously necessary that he should both know how to recover and have practice in this recovery during his training. Furthermore, this practice and experience should preferably be gained on a type which might reasonably be considered to perform in a similar manner to that of the machines in service.
My first and most obvious interest in the Magister concerned its behaviour during this old-fashioned manoeuvre, and to this end I did dual at Reading with Mr. H. W. C. Skinner, the Phillips and Powis test pilot, who acted as instructor in this affair of low-wing spinning and who provided some moral support while I did my worst in the matter. He has, one way and another, done so much spinning in this particular type that he could be forgiven for being thoroughly tired of the whole business. However, he proceeded to demonstrate a long-period spin and the recovery therefrom and afterwards handed over to me.
After two or three turns I always tend rather to lose interest in the labour of counting these turns, but I should say that the maximum number, carried out consecutively both to the right and to the left, was something like fifteen. And if a machine is to develop any unreasonable characteristics during the spinning process these should certainly appear some long time before the fifteenth turn. Actually, the Magister does not lose height very rapidly during a spin and it was not necessary to waste too much time in climbing up to a safe height; 5,000ft. was our starting point on each attempt.
Let it be admitted straightway that a machine of this type does not, and cannot be expected to, act quite like a biplane during a spin. It would only be curious if it did. Nevertheless, beyond the fact that reasonably vigorous recovery measures had to be taken, I was not told anything about such differences before leaving the ground. Yet no particular difficulties were experienced, and the sensations were not sufficiently different from those noticed with other “conventional” trainers to cause anything more than interested comment after returning to earth.
So far as right-hand spins are concerned, at any rate, one's weight is rather disconcertingly offset - a fact which might possibly worry the uninitiated new-comer into the belief that there was something wrong - and every third turn is made at a somewhat swifter tempo. Both these characteristics are apparent also in left-hand spins, but in this direction they are not sufficiently marked to be noticeable. The autorotation begins without preamble just as soon as the controls are crossed at or about stalling speed.
During recovery conventional ideas about centralisation or "easing the stick forward" must be forgotten. In fact, I was taught to use opposite rudder in my original training, so the fact that this control was present for use and not merely for ornament did not come as a surprise. The stick, however, must definitely be moved forward of the neutral position, and, as the resisting pressure is not inconsiderable, there is no question of "easing."
Alter six, twelve, or fifteen consecutive turns in either direction, let it be impressed, the firm use of full opposite rudder, followed immediately by forward pressure on the stick, causes the Magister to stop spinning without a moment’s hesitation. It is difficult to estimate the speed of recovery after a very large number of turns, but it seemed that the rotation could be stopped always in something rather less than a whole turn. Needless to say, with a machine as clean as the Magister quite a lot of speed is gathered during recovery from the diving position and the pull-out should be done without unreasonable hesitation.
As an aerobatic or ab initio trainer it is difficult to find fault with the machine except, perhaps, that it is a little too easy to fly - a fault which may be said to have applied to almost every training aeroplane that has ever been built. For best results the take-off must be made in the usual low-wing manner, getting the tail well up for initial acceleration and easing the stick a little back again before take-off speed is reached, so that the machine is allowed to show the necessary signs of being air borne. The process of landing has that air of easy finality which one has learnt to expect in the low-wing type - a feature which discourages pump-handling and which gives one the impression that the machine has landed itself.
Where aerobatics are concerned, I contented myself with a few vertical turns and straightforward loops. The latter appeared to be best carried out with an initial speed of about 140 m.p.h. and the circuit graduated on the stick so that the constant pressure was half as much again as that normally experienced through the action of gravity; by this means it was possible te loop without any appreciable loss of height. As might be expected, the ailerons are a little heavier than those which are customary on aerobatic biplane types, but little pressure or movement is necessary in going from bank to bank unless the change-over is required to be very rapid.
From the initial training point of view it is a good thing that the Magister should have the now almost universal split flaps so that the pupil, from the very start, learns to make use of them. Though not quite so potent, perhaps, as those, for instance, of the Whitney Straight, they are efficient enough, yet not so efficient that the hold-off from a natural approach speed is dangerously shortened in time, or that the change ol angle during the landing process is too difficult for the new-comer.
There was practically no wind on the particular day when I flew the machine, and the float from an approach speed of 60 m.p.h. with the flaps down was quite sufficient to provide the necessary time for landing adjustment. Incidentally, the flaps are vacuum-operated on the Theed system, their operation being quite automatic, following the movement of a small sliding control placed below the throttle gate. Below this flap control is the hand-brake lever, whilst the trimming lever is on the right-hand side of the cockpit to match the throttle control.
Altogether, it must be admitted that it was a pleasant and interesting experience to treat a low-wing type, for once, as one would treat any of the aerobatic trainers on which most of us were originally educated. An experience, too, with a moral.
MILES MAGISTER. (130 h.p. Gipsy Major).
Span 33ft. 10in.
Length 25ft. 3in.
Weight, empty 1,240 lb.
All-up weight 1,825 lb.
Maximum speed 145 m.p.h.
Cruising speed 125 m.p.h.
Landing speed 45 m.p.h.
Range 400 miles.
Service ceiling 18.000ft.
Rate of climb at sea level 1,200ft./min.
Makers : Phillips and Powis Aircraft, Ltd. Reading Aerodrome, Reading, Berks.
Miles M.14 Magister Mk I из Школы первоначального обучения летчиков ВВС Великобритании, 1940 год.
Magister V1075/G-AKPF после восстановления Адрианом Бруком. 1995 год, аэродром Shoreham
Magister V1075/G-AKPF, занявший третье место в Королевских воздушных гонках 12 июля 1958 года, пилот W.H.Bailey, аэродром Elstree
Magister V1075/G-AKPF, победивший в воздушных гонках Magister Race 21 августа 1949 года, пилот Ron Paine, аэродром Thurxton
MAGISTER ARTIUM: Mr. F. G. Miles, past-master of the art of aircraft demonstration, reveals the qualities of the Miles Magister trainer (D.H. Gipsy Major) at a "family gathering" of Phillips and Powis employees last week when the prototype was christened with due ceremony by Mrs. Miles. The Magister is basically similar to the Hawk Trainer, but has been revised in detail. Note, for example, the new undercarriage and the tail wheel.
Miles Magister Mk I, задняя кабина которого оснащена складывающимся колпаком для обучения полетам по приборам.
The Miles Magister Two-seat Training Monoplane (130 h.p. "Gipsy-Major" engine).
MAJESTY AND MAGISTER: A production-type Miles Magister with Gipsy Major engine set against a background of the kind which is the raison d'etre of the blind-flying "bonnet" over the rear cockpit. The Magister is really an improved Hawk Trainer.
MILES MAGISTER: Trainer (Gipsy Major engine - 130 h.p. at sea level); span, 33ft.; gross weight, 1,825 lb.; max. speed, 145 m.p.h. at 1,000ft.
TRAINING THE TRAINER: Mr. H. W. C. Skinner, Philips and Powis test pilot, takes a turn with the Magister, now modified by the fitting of a rudder of higher aspect ratio.
The attractive view of a Miles Magister at work. Since the blind-flying hood tends to spoil the appearance of the machine in the picture, it might be asked whether these excrescences cannot be hidden!
A unique formation of eight Service types which are normally to be found at Gosport. They are, reading from the top of the picture, Vildebeest, Osprey, Shark, Tutor, Avro 504N, Swordfish, Nimrod and Magister.
Miles M.14A Magister I elementary trainer, P2378, was photographed at El Kabrit on June 18, 1943.
Учебно-тренировочный самолет Miles Magister ВВС Великобритании.
Miles Magister L6096/BAPC-44, seen at Air-Britain's Tenth Annual Fly-in at Wroughton on June 27-28, 1987, has been presented to the Berkshire Aviation Group by its owner, Graham Johnson. It is destined for eventual display in the projected Berkshire Museum of Aviation, for which a site adjacent to Woodley Airfield awaits approval by Wokingham District Council.
Adrian Brook won the Best Vintage Aircraft award with his Miles Magister G-AKPF, marked as V1075. Runner-up was Ian Castle's Tiger Moth, G-AGPK.
With its trailing edge flaps, Gipsy Major engine and sturdy construction, the Miles Magister will be a welcome addition to the ranks of Service trainers.
MAKING WAY FOR THE YOUNG ’UNS: A symbolic picture of a new Miles Magister on a visit to one of the few R.A.F. stations with an Avro 504N still on charge. The 504 series (and later the Tutor) were, of course, in the very front rank of training aircraft. Even to-day the Tutor is finding wide employment, but will eventually be superseded by monoplane types.
Variety: Sqn. Ldr. Gillan’s Hurricane flies over an International Air Freight Condor; on the left is Capt. Percival’s Mew Gull, and in front of the Condor is a Magister.
MILITARY MILES: A Miles Magister trainer (130 h.p. D.H. Gipsy Major) as delivered to the R.A.F. The Magister is a development of the Hawk Major series and is fitted with a new pattern of undercarriage. It incorporates, of course, Miles split flaps.
A batch of Miles Magisters (Gipsy Major) just emerged from their makers' works at Woodley, Reading. These machines are now in steady production for Service ab initio and blind-flying training.
Самолет Miles M.14A Magister I, принадлежащий А.Бруку. Аэродром Шорехем бай Си, 1995г.
One of the 100 Miles M.14A Magisters constructed under licence by the Turkish Air League (THK), where, as Vaclav Nemecek points out, aircraft design was under the direction of Polish refugees.
Хвостовое оперение "Магистра" с противоштопорными гребнями
Следом за "французской эрой" в авиации Эстонии наступила "английская". На снимке "Майлс-Магистер"
Strathallan types, with Miles Magister G-AHUJ/R1914 in centre, parked outside the office and existing hangars at the start of a day
Part of the Strathallan Collection on display - Prentice G-AOLU/VS356 (foreground) with Harvard IIB G-AZBN/FT391 behind it, then Magister G-AHUJ/R1914, Texan G-AZJD and Desford G-AGOS/VZ728, all of which are airworthy. On the extreme left is visiting Yak-11 G-AYAK. In the background is Hurricane IIB G-AWLW/”P3308"
The Hurricane beats up the airfield - Magister and Texan G-AZJD below
Under the shining "bonnet" of the Miles Magister is a De Havilland Gipsy Major engine.
Mr. J. Gadd, of Cirrus, inspects a Major 150 installed in a Miles Magister.
CIRRUS-MAGISTER: The first few of a batch of Cirrus Major 150 engines have been installed in Miles Magisters and encouraging results obtained. Externally, the new Cirrus combined manifold and exhaust pipe are apparent.
The Miles Magister shown here was fitted experimentally with a thick-section wing in the course of development of the Miles M.18. Originally registered G-AEZS, it bore the Miles Class B marking U6 during the period of its use as a prototype but later reverted to standard form for use as a company "hack".
Передняя и задняя кабины пилотов
Very complete instrument duplication is a feature of the Miles Magister Trainer. The control on the right, matching the throttle on the left, is that for fore and aft trim.
Mr. Miles has adopted this "leg"-type undercarriage for the Magister.
The Miles M-14 Magister Primary Trainer.