North American T-6 Texan / AT-6 Harvard
Варианты:
North American - T-6 Texan / AT-6 Harvard - 1935 - США
Страна: США
Год: 1935


Двухместный учебно-тренировочный самолет повышенной подготовки
Описание:
T-6 Texan / AT-6 Harvard
Flight, January 26, 1939
A YANK at RANTHAM
Фотографии:

Цветные фото (58)

T-6 Texan / AT-6 Harvard

North American Т-6/SNJ/Harvard

<...>
  Потребность в учебно-тренировочном самолете базовой летной подготовки привела в итоге к разработке модификации NA-26, которая стала вариантом модели NA-16, но имевшим убирающееся шасси с хвостовым колесом, двигатель R-1340 мощностью 600 л. с. и более совершенное оборудование. Серийные варианты включали BC-1 (177 самолетов, из которых 30 были модифицированы в учебно-тренировочные BC-11 для обучения полетам по приборам), BC-1A (93) с конструктивными изменениями планера и BC-1B с модифицированным центропланом (построен один самолет). Переклассификация самолета в учебно-тренировочный повышенной подготовки привела к необходимости смены названия - 94 самолета стали носить обозначение AT-6 Texan, они почти не отличались от варианта BC-1A. Последующие варианты самолета: AT-6A с двигателем R-1340-49 и измененными топливными баками (1847), AT-6B для подготовки стрелков (400), AT-6C и AT-6D с измененной силовой конструкцией для экономии легких сплавов(2970 и 4388, соответственно), а также AT-6F с усиленной конструкцией (956). ВМС США тоже активно эксплуатировали данные машины и после варианта NJ-1 к ним поступили самолеты: SNJ-1 (16 машин, похожих на BC-1, но с металлической обшивкой фюзеляжа), SNJ-2 с двигателем R-1340-56 (61), SNJ-4 (2400) и SNJ-5 (1357), эквивалентные вариантам AT-6C и AT-6D, а также SNJ-6 (931 AT-6F, переданный ВМС США из партии в 956 машин, заказанной Армией США). Обозначение SNJ-5C было дано самолетам SNJ-5, оборудованным посадочным гаком для обучения летчиков посадке на палубу авианосца.
  В июне 1938 года Великобритания заказала 200 самолетов BC-1, присвоив им обозначение Harvard Mk I. Но это была только первая партия. Всего же авиации стран Британского Содружества в общей сложности было поставлено более 5000 самолетов - позже машины поставлялись преимущественно в рамках программы ленд-лиза. Большая часть из первых 200 самолетов Harvard Mk I была отправлена в Южную Родезию для использования в рамках плана Содружества по подготовке летчиков своих ВВС (Commonwealth Air Training Plan), но британские ВВС оставили себе почти всю вторую партию - 200 машин. После того, как в целом схожие 20 самолетов были приобретены канадскими ВВС, были закуплены 600 самолетов, схожих с AT-6 и получивших обозначение Harvard Mk II. Данные машины были распределены между британскими ВВС (20), новозеландскими ВВС (67), а также канадскими ВВС (все остальные самолеты).
  Также были приобретены самолеты Harvard Mk III, эквивалентные модификациям AT-6C и AT-6D. Обозначение Harvard Mk IIB было присвоено 2610 самолетам, построенным под обозначением AT-16 компанией "Noorduyn Aviation Ltd" на заводе в Монреале для использования в ВВС Великобритании и Канады и соответствующим модификации AT-6A. В 1946 году данная компания вошла в состав корпорации "Canadian Car and Foundry", которая построила для канадских ВВС 270 учебно-тренировочных самолетов Harvard Mk 4 (по стандарту T-6G) и 285 схожих машин в рамках программы взаимной помощи с ВВС США - под обозначением T-6J.
  Начиная с 1949 года, 2068 самолетов T-6 различных модификаций были переоборудованы, они обозначались T-6G и отличались двигателем R-1340-AN-1, увеличенным запасом топлива, усовершенствованной компоновкой кабины и управляемым хвостовым колесом. Самолеты поступили на вооружение ВВС и ВМС США, и во время войны в Корее 97 из них были переоборудованы в вариант LT-6G и применялись как наблюдательные самолеты и как передовые авианаводчики. В дополнение к Texan, экспортированным в Бразилию, Китай и Венесуэлу, самолеты поставлялись и в другие страны - из запасов ВВС Великобритании, Канады и США.


ТАКТИКО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  North American SNJ-5

  Тип: двухместный учебно-тренировочный самолет повышенной подготовки
  Силовая установка: один звездообразный ПД Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 мощностью 550 л. с. (410 кВт)
  Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость на высоте 1525 м - 330 км/ч; практический потолок 6555 м; дальность 1207 км
  Масса: пустого 1886 кг; максимальная взлетная 2404 кг
  Размеры: размах крыла 12,81 м; длина 8,99 м; высота 3,58 м; площадь крыла 23,57 м!

Flight, January 26, 1939

A YANK at RANTHAM
First North American “Basic” Trainer Delivered to the R.A.F. : The Harvard Described

  A GREAT many opinions have been aired recently on the subject of American aircraft and engines for the R.A.F.; the behaviour and performance of the first Harvard trainer, which has been delivered to No. 12 Flying Training School, Grantham, will therefore be subjected to a very critical examination. The Harvard is the name given, for R.A.F. service, to the two-seater trainer built by North American Aviation, Inc., of Inglewood. California. Two hundred have been ordered. More Harvards are at present being assembled in this country, but delivery is temporarily held up as Mr. Burton, the American test pilot who passes them out, is unwell.
  Several minor modifications have been made to this machine as compared with its American prototype, but the main differences lie in the provision of a retractable undercarriage and the fitting of a 530 h.p. Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine.
  There have been whisperings about the fixed leading-edge slots which are now fitted to the Harvard, but which were not to be found in the earlier North American B.T.9 as used, by the U.S. Army Air Corps. It seems, however, that the flying characteristics of the type were never vicious, and it speaks well for the machine that while, even now, it “stalls on the clock” without over-much warning, those pilots who have so far tried the machine are looking forward to their next flight. It is possible that the Harvard handled more sweetly under normal flying conditions without the slots.
  The "eyebrow" slots, as they are called in America, are a quite recent addition and were devised by the Army Air Corps Material Division.
The first order for some hundred BT-9 "basic" trainers for the U.S. Army Air Corps was completed in 1936, and at the present time another much larger order for slightly modified types is being executed for the U.S. Army and Navy. The Navy version of BT-9B is known as the NJ-1. The latest mark in the States is for Basic Combat or Fighter training. This machine has a Wasp engine and retractable undercarriage and resembles the Harvard more closely than do the rest.
  A.V.M.L.A. Pattinson, Commanding Officer of No. 23 Training Group, said that some twenty-six of these machines are to be delivered to No. 12 F.T.S. at Grantham, to be used in the first place for training fighter pilots in their second (or advanced) term at the school. A normal course at this and the other Flying Training Schools follows immediately after the ab initio training, and is usually divided into two terms of about thirteen weeks with fourteen days break between.
  Grantham’s equipment up to date has consisted of flapped Ansons (camouflaged, with undersurfaces painted “training yellow”), but these are soon to be replaced for pilot training by Airspeed Oxfords in addition to the Harvards.
  As will be seen from the photographs, the Harvard is a low-wing tandem two-seater monoplane. It is of metal covered, welded steel-tube construction with fabric-covered control surfaces. The cantilever wing, made up in five sections, is built round a single spar. Both rudder and elevator are fitted with tabs which are adjustable from wheels in the cockpit. The undercarriage legs fold inward and upward.
  Armament consists of a Browning gun and a camera gun.
  In view of unsuitable weather conditions, the Harvard was not flown at the time of Flight's visit to Grantham. A creditable start from cold, using the hand-operated energy starter was, however, made (the starter can also be electrically energised), and on opening the throttle the combined phons emanating from engine and airscrew - at close quarters noisy to the point of being painful - seemed to justify the widespread comments concerning a yellow monoplane which has already attracted the attention of practically everyone in Grantham.
  A large number of neatly arranged controls and instruments are displayed in the Harvard cockpit, and the traditional American ingenuity and thoroughness in this class of work is apparent. Most controls and instruments are duplicated in the rear cockpit. A pilot passed out as thoroughly conversant with the Harvard and its equipment should be ready to cope with any British Service type.

The Power Plant
  The Wasp S3H1 9-cylinder direct-drive radial engine is supercharged for moderate altitudes, and for take-off gives boo h.p. at 2,250 r.p.m. The normal output at 5,000ft., with a crankshaft speed of 2,200 r.p.m., is 550 h.p. For take-off the mixture is set at full rich; for maximum level flight the air-fuel ratio is about 11:1, and for continuous cruising about 14:1. The take-off boost registered in inches of mercury above zero is 36in. The normal boost is 32.5in., using 87-octane fuel.
  A Hamilton two-bladed 9ft. constant-speed airscrew is fitted, the master control being placed on the same quadrant as the throttle and mixture levers. These three, located on the port side of the cockpit, are all interconnected. The setting of the airscrew blades ranges from 27 deg. in coarse pitch to 11 deg. in fine.
  Three alternative methods of lowering the undercarriage are provided: the normal hydraulic system, a hand pump, and a lever which releases the catch of the top position lock and lets the wheels drop down and out. For normal operation the up or down position is selected on the main lever and momentary depression of a push button on the hydraulic selector valve then starts the movement. This same valve also operates the flaps in a similar manner.
  Three indicator devices are used in connection with the landing wheels. As usual, an electric horn sounds if the throttle is closed below 1,000 r.p.m. with the wheels up. A switch is, however, provided to cut out this warning in case it is desired to close the throttle during flight, and in this case the circuit is automatically reinstated to normal working order on raising the engine speed to about 1,200 r.p.m. Red and green warning lights appear on the panel, these having an intensity control so that bulbs powerful enough to show in daylight do not dazzle at night. Two small indicators painted red on one side and green on the other give a further visual indication of the position of the wheels to supplement the lights. To prevent accidental retraction the control lever must first be pulled upwards before it will move rearwards.
  In the case of an emergency lowering of the wheels, the bottom catches may not engage until the aircraft is rocked laterally. If this expedient fails an emergency plate at the forward end of the lever quadrant is moved aside and the lever pushed forward an extra two inches or so to operate the lock manually.
  Split trailing-edge flaps are attached to centre and outer wing sections. These are fitted with indicators and have an operation lever of square section on the same quadrant as the landing wheels. They may not be lowered at speeds exceeding 126 m.p.h., and for take-off are normally set at about 15 deg.
  Several heating and cooling devices are fitted. The cockpit has a warm air supply pipe, the induction air intake has a hot-cold control lever, permitting very fine adjustment in order to combat possible icing-up; the main oil tank can be almost entirely short-circuited to help in quick warming up of the engine, following a cold start; the pitot head, attached well out on the starboard wing, is electrically heated; and finally, the two emergency venturis for the instruments are placed on the starboard side of the fuselage behind the exhaust outlet.
  In addition to the cockpit heater the pilot’s comfort is further considered. The rudder pedals move horizontally and are adjustable for position; the brake pedals combined with the rudder controls are very light in operation; a telephonic intercommunication system is provided; the seat has a wide range of adjustment for height; and located centrally in front of the control column is a large locker for maps, cards, etc.
  Port and starboard fuel tanks are fitted, each holding 42.6 gallons, of which the port tank has 15.8 gal. held in reserve. The single petrol cock, placed on the port side of the cockpit, has four positions: "off," "right on," "left on," "reserve." A red warning light connected with the fuel pressure system indicates the need to change over tanks, and two fuel gauges on the floor, one each side of the pilot’s seat, have individual illumination, controlled by a switch on the main panel. The endurance at cruising speed (65 per cent, power at rated altitude) is about 3.95 hours. At top speed this is reduced to just over 2 hours.
  Valuable training in the use of a mixture control will form part of the course on Harvards, and an exhaust-gas analyser, a cylinder temperature thermometer and a boost gauge will all have to be used intelligently in conjunction with the mixture, throttle and airscrew controls. Complete blind- and night-flying equipment is fitted.
  A master locking device is interconnected with all flying controls, the position being set to cause the machine to nose over into the ground if the throttle should be inadvertently pushed open when no one is at the controls. A parking brake is also provided.
  In view of the growing complexity of the modern military aircraft the following instructions (as received from America) are not without interest.
  Assuming the fuel and oil tanks to be full and cylinders free of excess oil, the starting operations are: -
  Preliminaries. - (1) Put on parking brakes. (2) Turn on left fuel tank. (2) Carburetter control heat on full cold. (4) Airscrew control coarse. (5) Mixture control full rich. (6) Throttle half-inch open. (7) Fuel hand pumped to 3 lb. pressure [descriptively termed “wobbling-up the gas”]. (8) Four to six strokes of priming pump. (9) Contact. (10) Press rear end of starter pedal to energise starter, (11) Press forward end of starter pedal to engage starter.
  Warming-up. - Minimum oil temperature for take-off, 40 deg. C.; maximum cylinder temperature on the ground 260 deg. C. (1) Adjust throttle to give 500 to 600 r.p.m., holding this until 50 lb. oil pressure is obtained. (2) Airscrew in fine pitch. (3) Throttle to 1,000 r.p.m. (4) Mixture full rich.
  Take-off. - Items to be observed: (1) Fuel on. (2) Controls unlocked. (3) Mixture control rich. (4) Airscrew fine. (5) Flap position (15 deg. for maximum obstacle clearance). (6) Elevator tabs neutral. (7) Carburetter heater cold.
  It is usual to turn on the right-hand tank after about 5 minutes’ flight, possibly to ensure that a brimming tank does not lose fuel due to expansion on reaching high altitudes.
  Landing. - Items to be observed: (1) Mixture control rich. (2) Landing gear down. (3) Flaps down. (4) Airscrew fine. (5) Carburetter heater cold.
  Stopping the Engine. - (Carburetter has an “idle cutoff” (or slow-running cut-out) device when mixture is at full lean). - (1) Set airscrew control at coarse pitch. (2) Idle engine at about 600 r.p.m. (3) Set mixture at full lean (weak). (4) Turn off ignition switch after the engine ceases to fire.
  Figures for the Harvard are: Span, 42ft.; length, 27ft. 6in.; height, 8ft. 9in.; wing area, 255 sq. ft.; wing loading, 20.1 lb./sq. ft.; power loading, 9.68 Ib./b.h.p.; all-up weight, 5,130 lb.; maximum speed, 210 m.p.h. at 2,000ft.; cruising speed, 190 m.p.h. at 11,000ft.; cruising range (consumption. 23 gall./hr. approx.), 750 miles; service ceiling, 23,500ft.; climb to 10,000ft., 11.6 min.
USA
FRANK MORMILLO’s colour plate shows the SNJ-5 in its current generic World War Two camouflage scheme.
Ben Harrison’s North American SNJ-3
The colour plate was taken by a remotely-controlled camera attached to the wing tip.
Gary Numan smokes into the blue in his North American Harvard IV G-CTKL, now painted in an attractive US Navy scheme.
Этот AT-6A сфотографирован во время службы в школе подготовки стрелков, Харлинген, 1942 год.
The colour plate was taken by the author over Kent in July 1992.
Air Center Aviation's T-6, photographed in October 1978 by FRANK B. MORMILLO
This is believed to be the first time a photograph of Texan 44-81723 has appeared in print. Originally built for the US Navy as AT-6D 44-34497, it later served with the Spanish Air Force and is now owned by Walt Newton.
Rudiger Hass in his Dennis Beuhen-restored ‘Super Six' (Harvard IV) N662DB
North American AT-6D Texan (слева) и реплика NA-68 стоят рядом на стоянке аэродрома "La Ferte Alais". Это прекрасная возможность сравнить самолеты-родственники.
Ex-fire-bomber Fairchild R4Q-2 Packet with SNJ-5 under its wing and FJ-3 Fury in the foreground.
North American T-6 Texan - один из самых популярных летающих военных раритетов ("warbird"). Самолет достаточно дорог в эксплуатации, но зато обеспечивает весьма зрелищную демонстрационную программу.
Учебно-тренировочный T-6 "Тексан"
First air-to-air of Bob Davies’s North American T-6J Harvard, another ex-Mozambique example newly restored by Andrew Edie at Shoreham. Delivered to its owner at the end of August 1993, the Harvard was temporarily registered G-BSBE, soon to be replaced by the more appropriate G-TVIJ. The photograph was taken on September 4.
UK
North American AT-16 G-BBHK/FH153, owned by R.Lamplough and based at Duxford
North American Harvard IIB G-BBHK/42-12540/FH153, owned by Rob Lamplough and photographed by TOM HAMILL of Flight International during the Duxford display on June 18, 1978.
The radial-engined section of the Heritage Flight, comprising museum and privately-owned Harvards and Winjeels, formate on the Australian War Memorial’s C-47 for a photo session. The Dak is operated for the War Memorial by the RAAF, and among other duties acts as a support aircraft for the Sabre.
Doug Arnold’s Blackbushe-based North American AT-6D Harvard IIB G-AZSC, alias FT323.
The Heritage Flight’s Harvard, a former RNZAF aircraft, with pilot Flt Lt Keith Williamson. The flight’s aircraft are operated by aircrew decked out in period uniforms.
The North American Harvard was one of the many types tested in California by British test pilot James Addams.
Part of Cardington’s main restoration workshop, with North American Harvard FE905 in front of Supermarine Southampton flying-boat N9899.
Canada
North American Harvard N13595 is operated by the CAF’s Southern Minnesota Wing.
Displayed at the 1994 Hickory show, in Royal Canadian Air Force markings, was Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk 4 N452CA, c/n CCF4-132. (Photo,
Two very different North American Texans photographed over the Pacific Ocean near Santa Monica, California, this year. Bill Melamud's Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk IV, in the authentic RCAF markings it wore when in service, formates with Bruce Redding's highly-modified Reno racer N88RT, race number 88.
South Africa
Harvard - one of Herman Potgieter's photographs from "Aircraft of the South African Air Force".
Two South African Air Force Harvards escorting Supermarine Spitfire LF. IX PT672 Evelyn. Built as Spitfire LF IX MA793 at Castle Bromwich in 1943, this aircraft went to South Africa in 1948. In 1975 it was painstakingly restored to airworthy condition to represent SAAF Spitfire PT672.
Several types of Harvard and T-6 are still operated by the Active Citizen Force, on counter-insurgency as well as training duties. Those illustrated equip No 40 Squadron at Dunnotar.
Rhodesia
«Харвард» Mk.II «Родезийской Учебной Авиагруппы» на аэродроме Солсбери. Хорошо видна желтая окраска, стандартная для британских тренировочных самолетов, а также то, что белому механику «ассистируют» трое чернокожих. Конец 1940-х гг.
Единственный сохранившийся до наших дней в импровизированном авиамузее при аэропорте Гверу родезийский «Харвард» Mk.ll. Окраска, маркировка и опознавательные знаки самолета соответствуют периоду до 1953 г.
Spain
A Hispano HA.200 Saeta accompanied by one of the T-6G Texans of the FIO. In the background, the snowy peaks of the Sierra de Guadarrama, North of Madrid.
On June 10, 2018, the Ejercito del Aire's Academia General del Aire (Spanish Air Force Academy) staged an air show to commemorate its 75th anniversary. Flypasts featuring former and current aircraft operated by the Academia General del Aire took place off the coastline near San Javier Air Base, including a North American T-6G Texan and a Beechcraft T-34A Mentor belonging to the Fundacion Infante de Orleans flying museum. This photo shows a current Academia General del Aire CASA C-101 leading an historical and unique formation comprising a T-6G, T-34A and a ENAER T-35 Tamiz.
Gabon
A pair of GPG T-6s, including TR-KFE nearest the camera, flying low over the Gabonese jungle. The rugged, dependable T-6s were initially painted in a dark blue colour scheme, which was replaced by a plain natural-aluminium scheme, as seen here, before ultimately being put into a brown two-tone camouflage scheme.
North American T-6s of the GPG taxy out for a demonstration flight during a national parade at Libreville. In the background are five Skyraiders and the GPG’s Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.
The Gabonese Presidential Guard (GPG) fleet beside the hangars at Libreville in the early 1980s, before the retirement of the unit’s Douglas Skyraiders in 1982.
New Zealand
Wearing the markings common to all RNZAF trainers from 1970 onwards, NZ1015 shows off the Harvard’s classic profile. One of some 202 Harvards acquired by the Service between 1941 and 1970, NZ1015 has been on RNZAF charge continuously since its original acceptance in September 1942.
The Historic Flight’s Harvard and Tiger Moth join two Central Flying School CT4 Airtrainers and a Bell Sioux helicopter in a flypast over Wigram. The Historic Flight is under CFS supervision, and its aircraft share a hangar with the New Zealand-built Airtrainers, the design of which is based on the Australian Victa Airtourer.
Others
После войны на многих AT-6/T-6 в хвостовой части фюзеляжа установили антенны радиопеленгатора, как на этом итальянском самолете.
Вооруженный вариант North American Т-6 Texan, разработанного в качестве учебного самолета еще перед началом Второй мировой войны, широко использовался во время колониальных войн 1950-1960 годов. Т-6 зарекомендовал себя надежной и эффективной машиной для проведения противоповстанческих операций.
В тренировочном полете доминиканский T-6G «Тексан». Начало 1950-х гг.
Самолеты North American T-6G активно использовались в качестве легких штурмовиков во время войны в Алжире. Примерно 700 таких машин были на вооружении 28 эскадрилий. Из них в составе группы GALA 72 временами действовало не менее 21 эскадрильи. Самолеты T-6G вооружались двумя контейнерами с пулеметами калибра 7,5 мм, напалмом, бомбами калибра 10 кг или ракетами.
В полете звено LT-6G «Тексан» ВВС Австрии. Начало 1960-х гг.
T-6 «Тексан»
AT-6A Texan
AT-6 "Тексан"
Noorduyn Harvard Mk.IIB
Пилот ВВС Южного Вьетнама в процессе освоения T-6G «Тексан». Хорошо видно, что на хвостовом оперении этих самолетов еще сохранились французские знаки, конец 1950-х гг.
Civil
Многие T-6 после снятия с вооружения попали в руки частных лиц. В 2013 году в мире насчитывается немало T-6 в пригодном к полетам состоянии. Некоторые из них сохранили военную символику, а часть получила яркую окраску.
Unmodified but renamed, Harvard IV G-BRLV - known as Night Train since 1990 - has emerged from its winter layup as Texan Belle, the latest addition to the Bar-Belle Aviation fleet.
Colourfully-finished racing AT-6s, photographed by Chuck Aro. Left to right, lop to bottom, these are No 9 flown by Marshall Wells in 1977; Jerry McDonald's No 5 in 1983; No 44 "Miss Behavin" which won the National Championship in 1981 and 1982; No 77 "The Wildcatter" at Reno in 1983; No 11 flown by Ray Schutte in 1983 and Don De Walt's "Exorcist", which was lost in 1978.
A howling posse of AT-6/SNJs bank for the pylon at the end of lap one.
Modified
The Duxford-based Old Flying Machine Company's Mitsubishi Zero replica (nee Harvard) N15799 takes off in its new colours, representing an aircraft flying from Rabaul.
The California-based Air Museum's Planes of Fame Collection's Zero and "Almost Zero" - actually disguised Harvard N7757 - flying from Chino in May 1987. The genuine Zero, 61-120 (the one in the background), was the subject of a Preservation profile in our June 1987 issue.
Перл-Харбор, рейд Дулитла на Токио и стратегические бомбардировки Европы - вот сценарии реконструкции боевых действий в исполнении МВС. На фотографии: Т-6 Texan, изображающий японский Zero, атакует уже дымящийся B-17.