Fairchild Model 24 (C-61 Forwarder, J2K и Argus)
Рост продаж машин серии Model 22-C7 побудил фирму "Fairchild" сделать его модификацию с закрытой кабиной. При этом аэродинамическую схему изменили на подкосный высокоплан. В увеличенном по высоте фюзеляже появилась кабина с двумя стоящими в ряд креслами. Также
установили хвостовое колесо вместо прежнего костыля. Первый аэроплан Model 22-C8 оснастили лицензионным британским инвертным четырехцилиндровым рядным мотором ACE Cirrus Hi-Ace мощностью 95 л. с. (71 кВт). Большинство вариантов поставлялись на выбор с колесным, поплавковым либо лыжным шасси. Базисный самолет Fairchild Model 24-C8 сертифицировали в апреле 1932 года. Поначалу собрали только 10 самолетов, но они, как и в случае с Model 22-C7, вскоре привлекли к себе всеобщий интерес и новые заказы.
Model 24-C8A: около 25 машин со звездообразными моторами; прототип летал с 11-цилиндровым мотором Warner Scarab мощностью 110 л. с. (82 кВт), а серийные самолеты имели версию этого мотора мощностью 125 л.с. (93 кВт)
Model 24-C8B: два аэроплана с рядными инвертными четырехцилиндровыми моторами Menasco Pirate мощностью 125 л. с. (93 кВт)
Model 24-C8C: около 130 машин увеличенного размера с трехместной пассажирской кабиной и семицилиндровыми звездообразными моторами Super Scarab мощностью 145 л.с. (108 кВт). Первую из них сертифицировали в апреле 1934 года
Model 24-C8D: 14 трехместных машин, подобных C8C, но с шестицилиндровыми инвертными моторами Ranger 6-390B по 145 л.с. (108 кВт)
Model 24-C8E: до 50 машин версии C8C с улучшенным оборудованием и рядом усовершенствований
Model 24-C8F: около 40 машин модификации C8D с улучшенным оборудованием и другими усовершенствованиями
Model 24-G: до 100 машин C8E с повышенным комфортом либо с четырехместной кабиной
Model 24-H: около 25 машин, в целом подобных C8D, но с моторами Ranger 6-390D-3 в 150 л. с. (112 кВт)
Model 24-J: до 40 машин версии Model 24-G с четырехместными кабинами повышенного комфорта
Model 24-K: 34 экземпляра, подобных Model 24-H с шестицилиндровыми инвертными моторами Ranger 6-410B мощностью 150 л.с. (112 кВт)
Model 24R9: до 35 машин усовершенствованной версии Model 24-K с двигателями Ranger 6-410B-1 в 165 л.с. (123 кВт)
Model 24R40: около 25 машин, подобные Model 24R9, строились под заказ только с роскошными салонами
Model 24W9: до 40 машин усовершенствованной версии Model 24-J, предлагавшихся как с роскошной (deluxe), так и с универсально-практичной отделкой салона
Model 24W40: около 75 машин, подобных Model 24W9, но доступных только с универсально-практичной отделкой салона
Model 24W41: до 40 машин, подобных Model 24W40, но с моторами Super Scarab Series 50A
Model 24W41A: около 10 машин, аналогичных Model 24W41, но с моторами Super Scarab 165D в 165 л.с. (123 кВт);
C-61 (более позднее обозначение UC-61): военное обозначение Model 24W41 с мотором R-500-1 Super Scarab в 145 л.с. (108 кВт); собрали 161 самолет. Это же обозначение дали двум реквизированным гражданским самолетам
C-61A (позже UC-61A): армейское обозначение Model 24W41A с модифицированной радиостанцией и другим военным оборудованием; собрали 509 самолетов. Это обозначение также присвоили трем реквизированным гражданским самолетам
GK-1: обозначение ВМФ США для 13 реквизированных аэропланов Model 24W40
JK-1: обозначение ВМФ США для двух реквизированных машин Model 24-H
J2K-1: обозначение Береговой охраны США для двух реквизированных машин Model 24R
J2K-2: обозначение Береговой охраны США для двух слегка измененных реквизированных машин Model 24R
От UC-61B до UC-61J: обозначения, присвоенные 14 гражданским самолетам, реквизированным для военных целей
UC-61K Forwarder: 306 машин последнего серийного варианта времен войны с шестицилиндровым рядным мотором Ranger L-440-7 мощностью 200 л.с (149 кВт)
UC-86: обозначение ВВС Армии США для девяти реквизированных машин Model 24R40
Argus Mk I: обозначение британских ВВС для UC-61, поставленных по ленд-лизу
Argus Mk II: обозначение британских ВВС для UC-61A, поставленных по ленд-лизу
Argus Mk III: обозначение британских ВВС для UC-61K, поставленных по ленд-лизу
Тип: трех-/четырехместный легкий пассажирский самолет
Силовая установка: звездообразный поршневой мотор Warner Super Scarab Series 50 мощностью 145 л. с. (108 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 209 км/ч на уровне моря; крейсерская скорость 190 км/ч на уровне моря; начальная скороподъемность 206 м/мин; практический потолок 5030 м; дальность полета 764 км
Масса: пустого самолета 669 кг; максимальная взлетная 1089 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 11,07 м; длина 7,26 м; высота 2,24 м; площадь крыла 16,09 м2
Flight, October 1935
TWO AMERICAN MONOPLANES
By C. N. COLSON
IT is not often that one is privileged to try out foreign aircraft in the country of their origin, so when, during a recent visit to the United States, I was given this opportunity I seized it with alacrity.
The two machines with which I shall deal are both single-engined jobs, but there any similarity ceases. I chose them because they are at opposite ends of the scale, and I am therefore relieved of the doubtful pleasure of comparing them.
Turning now to my second machine, we come to something of an entirely different class. This was the Fairchild 24 three-seater cabin machine with the 145 h.p. Warner Super-Scarab engine. Here we have something which is virtually the American answer to our own Leopard Moth class of machine. I was naturally somewhat prejudiced against it at the start in view of the large horse-power and the fuel consumption, but after flying it I must admit that, from a private owner's point of view, it was one of the most fascinating aeroplanes I have ever been in. It seemed quite impossible inadvertently to do anything wrong. By that I mean that no matter in how slovenly a manner I made turns, or how I stalled the machine, or used the controls in a foolish, coarse manner, nothing serious happened or even looked like happening. The machine would, to all intents and purposes, fly itself "hands and feet off," and for all normal flying it did not matter whether you flew either with the stick or with the rudder alone, provided you had trimmed-up fairly carefully.
Being a high-wing monoplane design, the Fairchild naturally led me to expect a fairly high degree of pendulum stability, but I was not quite so prepared to find the aerodynamic stability in all planes so pronounced. It was a real pleasure to have a machine in which one could "let go" and turn round to talk to one's passenger or reach for a sandwich without feeling that at any second it would be necessary to grip the controls and pull out of a steep diving turn, or something equally alarming. It would be difficult to imagine a machine more suitable for the American pilot who wants to fly with comfort in any weather and to visit any class of aerodrome.
From an inside point of view this little Fairchild is admirable. The two front seats are arranged side by side with full dual control, and upon the instrument pane; are all the essential instruments, although the layout in this respect is not so lavish as that of many other American machines. The outlook, however, is good, with deep windows along each side, and the seating is comfortable. The third passenger is placed behind the other two, leaving a space at the side for luggage. Actually, something over 200 lb. of luggage can be carried, as well as three passengers and enough fuel and oil for 490 miles.
Flight, September 1937
THE FAIRCHILD IS HERE
Flying the Ranger-engined Version of the "24": An Excellent Compromise from America
THE majority of us hold certain quite definite (but dissimilar) ideas about the perfect machine for everyday flying by the amateur pilot who wishes to make reasonably extensive use of the air.
As an example, my own "ideal" specification stresses features such as a good take-off and a steep, fully adjustable approach (for safe operation in and out of small aerodromes), coupled with a really useful range and the sort of cabin accommodation which provides both actual and visual comfort. Speed above a certain reasonable minimum for dealing with headwinds appears to me to be an overrated virtue unless a machine is to be used for very long distance or competition work. Few people, in any case, appear to know what to do with the odd quarter of an hour which may be saved on a normal journey by a fast aeroplane, and travelling is usually more fun than arriving - provided that we do not not suffer from control cramp.
Needless to say, the average aeroplane designed for the use of the private owner is an unholy compromise - stress being laid on certain features according to the particular opinions held by the manufacturer. In America power has been laid on without stint (fuel being cheap), not so much to provide great speed as to enable a sort of car body to travel through the air with reasonable swiftness. Over here we have had to do our best with engines of comparatively small power, and cabin space has necessarily been somewhat restricted to some extent.
Last week, by courtesy of Malcolm and Farquharson, of Heston, I had a chance of flying one of the new Fairchild “24s" with a six-in-line Ranger engine, and it appeared to me that here was an almost perfect Anglo-American compromise. The machine has all the rigid stability (particularly in the fore-and-aft plane), and the interior comfort which one has learnt to expect in American types, yet it should not cost too much to operate. The 150 h.p. Ranger engine, in fact, uses a little less than nine gallons of fuel in an hour's flying at cruising power, and the machine carries three people in considerable comfort with a reasonable amount of baggage. This engine is specially designed for reliability and long service. With the lighter and more efficient Warner Super-Scarab, the "24" carries four people and their luggage.
There is nothing particularly startling about the performance of the Fairchild. I found that at 2,100 r.p.m. the machine cruised comfortably at 120 m.p.h. It is simply a good, sturdy, viceless and comfortable means of private transport, which is what most people require.
Properly trimmed, it will take itself off, though the run is shortened if the tail is forced off the ground during the process of acceleration. In the air it will fly by itself and will turn accurately on either rudder or ailerons if the movements are made with reasonable caution. It is quiet, one can fly with each of the two car-type windows right down without experiencing any draught (I flew with the "driving" window down the whole time, having forgotten that it was open), and there is no great multiplication of controls.
The approach and landing are the easiest imaginable. With the engine throttled back and the glide properly trimmed by means of the roof handle, one can float silently around at 60 m.p.h. until the machine is in a good position for the final approach. The mechanically operated flaps can then be moved to the half-down position with one eye on the boundary, and, finally, if one is still a little high, these flaps can be fully depressed, making the gliding angle as steep as one could wish. There is no change of trim as the flaps are moved to their two positions, though they emit a syren-like sound when fully down. This sound, incidentally, fades out at about 5 m.p.h. above the stall, so it has its uses. The landing can be made anyhow, and the undercarriage should be wide enough to take any accidental swing after touching down. With the flaps either up or down, the "24" sideslips with pleasant visibility, so one has a third means of adjusting the approach without the rumbling which is so necessary on many modern types.
At a safe height I played with straight stalls, both flapped and unflapped, and made one exceedingly slow sideslip by way of learning the worst. In each case the machine simply sinks and drops its nose a trifle to the accompaniment of minor shudderings as the A.S.I. indications go below 50 m.p.h. No doubt the "24" will spin with sufficient provocation, but it is difficult to imagine that ordinary carelessness will produce anything worse than an expensive sink into the deck.
Criticisms are limited to the toe-operated brakes, which do not give one full accuracy of control on the ground and gave me an ankle-ache, and to the view, which, excellent in every normal direction, is non-existent to the rear and poor during steep gliding turns. Apparently the roof window has been discarded as unnecessary.
If our expansion programme goes on as it is going now there will be no full-size light aeroplanes to be bought over here, and machines like the Fairchild "24" will just fill the gap. A pity; but it is nice to think that something will be available during the lean years. No price has yet been fixed, but it is probable that the Ranger-engined machine will be sold at about ?1,400 and the Warner-engined model at about ?1,350.
THE FAIRCHILD "24."
150 H.P. 6-cyl. RANGER ENGINE,
Weight empty 1,551 lb.
Gross weight 2,400 lb.
Max. speed 127 m.p.h.
Cruising speed 121 m.p.h.
Rate of climb 650 ft./min,
Take-off run 470 ft.
Landing speed 47 m.p.h.
Cruising range 500 miles
Distributors: Malcolm & Farquharson, Ltd., Heston Airport, Hounslow, Mddx.
Flight, March 1938
THIS YEAR'S "24"
Some Flying Impressions of the Latest Fairchild - Now Available as a Full Four-seater with Either Warner or Ranger Engine
FLYING costs and conditions are so very different in America that it is customary to treat their luxury private-owner types almost as one would treat small transport aeroplanes. Whereas the difference in running costs between a 100 h.p. and, say, a 300 h.p. machine is comparatively small in that country, such costs are of considerable importance over here, and very few enthusiastic people are in a position to afford the advantages which unlimited power can provide in the way of equipment and roomy comfort.
Among American cabin machines the Fairchild 24 is one of the few which are comparable in size and power with the light aeroplanes which have been developed in this country. Nevertheless, the interior arrangements of the latest version are on lines to which we have become accustomed in machines from the other side of the Atlantic - and, regrettably enough, to which we are far from being accustomed in this country. Where the young and enthusiastic aeronaut is concerned the general appearance of the outside and, particularly, of the inside of a machine is not very important, but it is impossible to overestimate the value of familiar furnishings and fittings, designed to give an appearance of immense solidity, when one is attempting to interest the newcomer.
To a very large extent the Fairchild 24 makes the best of both worlds. Although flying only on 165 h.p. - in the case of the Ranger version - the compromise in favour of comfort has not been made at too great an expense in cruising speed.
It is idle, of course, to pretend that any particular American aeroplane is more perfect than a typical English one - in fact, the average "ship" has flying characteristics which are distinctly peculiar to English hands and feet - but some of these visitors certainly tend to give one ideas above one's station. The wide car-type seats, the solid-looking control arrangements, the superior finish and the very complete standard equipment should always (but rarely does) provide salutory ideas for our own manufacturers. In the case of the Fairchild the standard equipment includes an electric starter, navigation lights, fire extinguisher and, interestingly enough, a built-in first-aid kit, while amongst approved accessories which the machine has been designed to take are such items as two-way radio, landing lights and all the mass of special instruments which, for ordinary flying, are amusing rather than essential.
Although the word "visitor" applies to the Fairchild, Mr. Antoine Gazda, who has been empowered by the company to arrange for its distribution in this country, is looking out for a possible manufacturer over here. In its imported form the cost of the De luxe model is not likely to be very much less than £1,900 or £2,000, but the suggestion is that if some firm could be encouraged to make the machine over here the price would be in the region of £1,400 - which is reasonable enough when its performance, capacity and equipment are taken into consideration.
As a flying machine the new "24" is not very different from that dealt with in Flight of September 2, 1937, but the controls are rather lighter and smoother, the cabin is roomier, the finish is better and, most important of all, the payload has been increased so that the machine may be treated as a full four-seater with either the 165 h.p. in-line Ranger Six - or the radial Warner Super-Scarab. The one which I flew is fitted with the Ranger, which, though not permitting quite so large a payload as that in the case of a machine fitted with the Warner, is likely to find greater favour, particularly as this engine has been designed for really hard wear rather than for maximum efficiency in terms of power-weight ratio. It is interesting to surmise what the machine’s performance and characteristics would Ire like if it could be fitted, for instance, with a Gipsy Six.
In common with the best American private-owner types, the Fairchild’s most outstanding feature from the pilot's point of view is its rigid stability in all axes, and it is probably fair to say that it requires less attention in the air than any British light aeroplane. It will fly and turn accurately on either the ailerons or the rudder, though the effect is more accurate the latter case when the machine is trimmed to a climbing attitude. The stall with the flaps either up or down is harmless enough.
For the best results a rather special take-off technique is applied. During the initial part of the run the stick is kit in the neutral position with tail just clear of the ground, ana this is lifted only a few seconds before the moment when tin machine is airborne. Once one is off the ground the machine can be held firmly in the air, and it is neither necessary nor advisable to attempt to level off in order to gain speed. Again, for better results, the take-off is made with the flaps in the half-down position.
Remembering its innocuous stall, the approach can be made, if necessary, very slowly indeed, and the flaps, even when fully down, are not so potent that the hold-off period, even at a gliding speed of 55 m.p.h., is dangerously shortened. These flaps, however, are very effective at somewhat higher speeds and in case of emergency, or if there was any doubt about one's ability to reach a particular field during a forced landing, the nose can actually be pointed at the boundary while the speed, at anything less than a sheer diving angle, does not increase above 80 m.p.h. This excess speed can be quickly removed at the last moment with full rudder and a sufficient amount of opposite aileron to prevent the machine from turning. A strong capacity for accurate sideslipping is one which is rather missed in some of the more modern high-efficiency types. The Fairchild sideslips strongly with the flaps either up or down. These flaps are directly operated by means of a lever between the two front seats. Incidentally, at the speeds above 75 m.p.h. the airflow past the flaps can be heard, and this whistling noise might sometimes be useful as an aural guide to approach speed.
The cabin is as quiet as one can expect in a single-engined machine, and entry does not demand gymnastics or contortions. When the side windows are open there is no draught except when the speed is very low. My only complaints concern the view to the rear, which is non-existent (though not altogether necessary with efficient differentially acting brakes), the position of the trimming crank in the roof, and the arrangement of the pedal-operated brakes. No doubt one soon becomes accustomed to the trimming crank movement, and sufficiently well trained in the feet and legs to be able to operate the brake pedals with accuracy. Nevertheless, as a purely personal opinion, I think that all pedal operation for brakes should be abolished. There are two wing tanks and the gauge and control system for these is very simple, with two gauges on each side of the cabin at the wing roots and two plain on-off taps beside them. One can either fly on both tanks, or on one at a time, depending on whether fuel consumption is a matter of importance.
On the face of it there is nothing really outstanding about the Fairchild 24, except a degree of comfort to which we are certainly not accustomed over here, but the machine is an excellent example of pure compromise. It is extremely easy and safe to fly, it carries four people and their luggage, and its cruising speed on the matter of 165 h.p. is quite as high as that required by the private owner.
THE DE LUXE FAIRCHILD “24”
165 b.p. Six-cylinder Ranger Engine
Span 36ft. 4in.
Length 24ft. 10in.
Weight, empty 1,561 lb.
All-up weight 2,550 lb.
Cruising speed (optimum altitude) 132 m.p.h.
Landing speed 47 m.p.h.
Rate of climb 730 ft./min.
Cruising range 560 miles
Enquiries to: Mr. Antoine Gazda, Dorchester Hotel, London, W.l.
Построенный в 1946 году в варианте Model 24W, этот самолет и сейчас остается в гражданском регистре США. На него установлен мотор Ranger.
Fairchild Argus - связной самолет военного времени, весьма востребованный на авиарынке и после войны.
Fairchild Argus G-BCBL, photographed by GORDON BAIN while flying from Shoreham on September 4 last year in the hands of its owner, John Turner.
The Fairchild Model 24J De Luxe Four-seat Cabin Monoplane (145 h.p. Warner "Super-Scarab" engine).
Little is known of the history of L7044, a Fairchild F24, procured in America for the use, it is believed, of the British Air Attache in Washington.
Reference was made to this Fairchild F.24 (L7044) in Part I of "U.S. Aircraft in the British Services" in the July issue. This photograph, along with fresh information, was kindly supplied by Air Commodore T. E. B. Howe.
The 1935 Model of the Fairchild "24" three-seater cabin monoplane. A 145 h.p. Warner Super Scarab is to be found beneath the scalloped cowling.
Two baby antelopes on arrival at Los Angeles from Wyoming, a distance of 1,500 miles.
Loading a young antelope, destined for a zoo, into a Fairchild 24 cabin monoplane
Two ex-British aircraft which recently visited Bromma Airport, Stockholm, were Argus 2, OH-FCG (c/n. 858, ex-G-AJSR), and Lodestar 18-56, SE-BUF (c/ n. 2070, ex-G-AGBR). The former, once owned by Pasolds Ltd. at White Waltham, was sold to Finland in 1951 and is now owned by J. Tapanainen and based at Maarianhamina.
Opening day, June 1, 1939; as well as the various airliners on show, three privately-owned aircraft were on hand to celebrate the airport’s inauguration. They were Taylor J-2 Cub LN-EAN (the tail of which is visible here), Taylorcraft A LN-FAG and Fairchild 24 LN-EAF. In the background is DNL’s Caproni Ca 310 LN-DAK Brevduen.
Argus 2, G-AJPI, at the White Waltham Jubilee Air Display 14/5/77 in R.A.F. marks as "EV-851".
The Fairchild UC-61A Forwarder Light Utility Transport (165 h.p. Warner R-500-7 Super-Scarab engine).
ВВС Армии США заказали 976 машин UC-61. Из них 670 самолетов передали британским ВВС, где они интенсивно использовались. На фотографии показан самолет UC-61A.
A fine impression of fleet-footed pronghorn buck - known in America as antelope - fleeing in the shadow of the photographer's plane
Fairchild "24" 165 h.p. "Ranger"
"STYLING," as the Americans call decorative schemes, is a feature of the latest Fairchild 24, with 150 h.p. in-line Ranger engine. A luxury interior offers a choice of five upholstery colours, and fourteen colour combinations are available for the exterior. Cruising at 123 m.p.h., it carries three, and one of the well-established Warner-radial-engined models is available as a four-seater. Malcolm and Farquharson, of Heston, state that these machines may appear on the British market.
A striking impression of the Fairchild "24" in action
The Fairchild Model 24K De Luxe Four-seat Cabin Monoplane (165 h.p. Ranger engine).
THE NEW FAIRCHILD: One of the first - if not the first - private machines to land at the new St. Moritz landing ground was a Fairchild 24 brought over by Herr Kronfeld. The 1938 version of this machine, for which M. Antoine Gazda is offering concessions in this country, is a full four-seater with ample luggage accommodation.
The way in which the fuselage shape is "humped" to provide head-room may be seen in this view of the machine.
The Fairchild UC-61K Forwarder Light Utility Transport (200 h.p. Ranger L-440-7 engine).
Built in 1944, this Fairchild UC-61K Argus III reached Britain in September that year and served briefly with the ATA. In post-war years and civil guise it remained in Europe and has now been restored to wartime finish by the publishers of "After the Battle" magazine.
Liverpool based Argus 3 G-AJPI is painted in USAF livery with serial 43-14887, its original identity
A Douglas Dolphin and a brace of Fairchild 24s at their St. Petersburg (Florida) base
NORDIC SEA BOOTS. Reader L. Wilkins queries the size of Cub floats and whether many European aircraft are fitted with floats. The accompanying photograph should satisfy most flotation gear enthusiasts. Taken in 1950, near Oslo, the aircraft are (left to right) Noorduyn UC-64A Norseman (LN-PAE); Fairchild UC-61K Forwarder or Argus III (LN-HAO); the sole Norwegian Honningstad C-5 Norge (LN-DBW) and Piper L-4J Cub (LN-RAD) . The two black and white buoys were once German sea mines.
Inside the Fairchild's cabin. The general layout is arranged on lines comforting to the car owner and the dashboard scheme is worthy of note. The flap lever is in the centre.
The Fairchild UC-61K Forwarder Light Transport.