Flight 1938-05
The Rolls-Royce-Merlin-powered Armstrong Whitworth Whitley IV on test near the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Martlesham Heath.
The King inspects machines of the Bomber Group. Above him towers the nose of a Harrow, and behind can be distinguished a Whitley, Wellesley and Blenheim.
The Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley (two Siddeley Tigers)
ARMSTRONG WHITWORTH WHITLEY II and III: Bomber (two Tiger VIII engines 760 h.p. each at 12,750ft.); span, 84ft.; gross weight, 21,660 lb.; max. speed, 215 m.p.h. at 15,000ft.
A specially prepared Flight drawing of the Tiger-engined Whitley bomber, a type used by several squadrons of the Royal Air Force. The speed is well over 200 m.p.h. with an impressive bomb load, the precise weight of which is undisclosed. The inset in the bottom right-hand corner shows the nose of the latest type of Whitley - the Mark IV - ordered for service with Rolls-Royce engines. It will be noted that ejector-type exhaust manifolds, which are very beneficial to performance, are incorporated.
Bristol Blenheim high-speed bombers of No. 44 (B.) Squadron, Waddington, in echelon formation. Despite its amazing performance the Blenheim is very tractable.
Fig. 1. - The rear fuselage portion of the Blenheim is an all-metal semi-monocoque structure. It has “developable” surfaces.
Fig. 2. - Blenheim fuselages, with engines mounted, on the production line.
Fig. 4. - A special crane brings the Mercury VIII engine up to the mounting. Note the pipes for taking air through the oil cooler.
Fig. 6. - Nearly ready to “stand on their own legs.” A row of Blenheims in an advanced stage of assembly, showing the fitting of engines and controls.
Fig. 10. - The final erection stage. Fitting wings, tanks, control surfaces, etc.
Fig. 8. - Quantity production. Bristol Blenheim medium bombers on the line. They are being delivered to the R.A.F. and to several foreign governments.
Fig. 9. - A special double - lifting crane is used for removing the main component assembly from its jig and transporting it to another station in the erecting hall.
Начало сборки серийных "Бленхеймов" на заводе Бристоль
Fig. 11. - Ready for final inspection. Blenheims about to be passed to the production flight shed for flying tests before delivery.
Fig. 7. - Assembling the tail unit.
Fig. 5. - Cleaning the stub pipes before assembly on the exhaust ring collector.
Fig. 3. - The centre-section in its special erection jig, with one engine and one engine mounting fitted, and the rear fuselage portion attached.
All in the picture: Westland Lysander over Vickers Wellington, and Bristol Blenheim over Fairey P.4/34.
BRISTOL BLENHEIM: Bomber (two Mercury VIII engines 840 h.p. each at 13,000ft.); span, 56ft. 4in.; gross weight, 12,030 lb.; max. speed 280 m.p.h. at 15,000ft.
NAVAL CORPULENCE: The new Brewster single-seater fleet fighter for the U.S Navy powered with a Cyclone G Points to note are the method of retracting the undercarriage, the pilot’s headrest and the slinger ring-spinner over the hub of the Hamilton airscrew, which is likely to be of the new reversible-pitch type to retard speed in a dive
Close-up of a modern German fighter - the Heinkel 112 with wing cannon and fixed machine gun “hatch” open. Young Finland is just stepping off the port wing roof after a glance at the works.
The Handley Page Hampden (two Pegasus) will very soon be in service in considerable numbers. The nose of the production type will be more rounded than in the photograph.
The Henschel He.126 is a general-purpose machine particularly suitable for observation (army co-operation) work, due to its parasol layout.
The Henschel Hs.126 (B.M.W. 132DC) is a versatile German army-cooperation type bearing a distinct resemblance to the Douglas O-46-A (Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp Junior).
NO. 111 (Fighter) Squadron from Northolt, with the Hawker Hurricane (Rolls-Royce Merlin) multi-gun fighter, may be said to be making Service history: as the first unit to be equip­ped with the “300 plus” monoplane fighter they are busy evolving the new technique of aerial warfare which that type demands. This striking aerial photograph is one of a series specially taken by the chief photographer of Flight for the Royal Air Force Pavilion at the Empire Exhibition, Glasgow, opened this week.
SOME of the machines of No.111 (F) Squadron
A general impression of the scene at Northolt on Wednesday of last week.
Pilots of No. 3 (F.) Squadron, Kenley, discuss formation flying in the presence of friends. The Squadron is armed with Hurricanes.
Machines and personnel of No. 3 (F.) Squadron, the second unit to receive Hurricanes. The white objects in the foreground are used as signals to denote that QBI conditions are in force at Croydon.
One of the pilots in Irvin suit and parachute, and wearing the combined oxygen and R/T mask.
Forgings are used for attaching the diagonal drag members to the wing spars. On the left, a wing panel is seen in its jig.
When the large detachable panels are removed there is very free access to the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine. The large tungum pipe shown is part oi the Glycol cooling system.
ROYAL APPROVAL: H.M. King George VI inspects one of the Hawker Hurricanes at Northolt. With His Majesty is Sqn. Ldr. Gillan, who flew a Hurricane from Edinburgh to Northolt at more than 400 m.p.h.
The split flaps of the Hurricane extend from radiator casing to root of aileron. They are hydraulically operated.
The retractable undercarriage is raised laterally and inwardly, and the fairings cover the openings completely, leaving a smooth surface.
The tail wheel retracts into the casing seen in the stern of the fuselage
Hawker Hurricane Is of 111 Squadron, RAF.
The general view shows the clean lines of the Hurricane.
A flight of Hurricanes of No. 111 (F.) Squadron gets away over three representative fighter types - Hurricane, Gladiator and Demon I (with turret).
The Hurricane fuselage in skeleton. The construction is of the type used by the Hawker Company with great success for many years.
HAWKER HURRICANE: Fighter (Merlin II engine - 1,050 h.p. at 16,000ft.); span, 40ft.; total weight (approx.) 6,000 lb.; max. speed, 335 at 14,000ft.); span, 30ft.; gross weight, 3,609 lb.; max. speed, 223 m.p.h. at 16,400ft.
In the side elevation but a small percentage of the equipment of the Hurricane can be shown. For instance, the eight machine­ guns are placed in the wings, four on each side, and operated by remote control.
The “motif ” of the wing construction is well brought out in the sketch on the left. The drag members produce, with the spars, a structure remarkably stiff in torsion.
The centre-section of the wing (right) is a single unit bolted the fuselage at four points, carries the retractable undercarriage.
Details of spar construction and wing rib attachment (right bottom). The bridge piece is used over the rear spar only. Sheet metal covering is used over the leading-edge, and extends over the top of the front spar.
The graceful lines of the Fairey Battle are shown to advantage in this view of a flight of No. 12 (Bomber) Squadron, Andover.
Handley Page Harrow bombers of No. 115 Squadron taxying in after a cross-country flight. The nose of a Battle gives a decorative touch.
The Fairey Battle with a single Rolls-Royce Merlin II
During certain periods ground personnel are expected to work in their gas masks to accustom them to the “feel.”
FAIREY BATTLE: Bomber (Rolls-Royce Merlin II engine - 1,050 h.p. at 16,250ft.); span, 54ft.; gross weight, 10,775 lb.; max. speed, 257 m.p.h. at 15,000ft.
FULL-LOAD TRIALS: Twice last week the Short-Mayo composite made successful tests of separation with Mercury loaded to 20,800 lb. The trials took place off Felixstowe, and on the first occasion the machines were piloted by Short’s test pilots, Messrs. Parker and Piper. On the second they were flown by Sqn. Ldrs. Martin and Pickles, of the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment. With practically no wind, the take-offs were made in about 17 seconds. The picture shows Mercury being lifted by the Felixstowe crane. Maia can be seen afloat beyond the jetty.
Mercury, upper component of the Short Mayo Composite, being lowered on to Maia prior to a full-load separation
Hart Trainers, flown by instructors of No. 3 F.T.S., South Cerney, in an effective Empire Air Day formation.
The same machines demonstrate “flights line abreast.” Folded blind-flying hoods may be discerned on the nearest air­craft.
Back to those happy-go-lucky days: the old-timers’ park, with the Gordon-Bennett Bleriot flanked by two less racy Bleriots.
THIS MILES HAWK TRAINER, completed recently, is claimed to be the first aeroplane to be assembled and partly built in India. It was built by the Aeronautical Training Centre of India under licence granted by Phillips and Powis Aircraft through their agents for India, R. K. Dundas, Ltd., of New Delhi and Portsmouth
The Westland Lysander, the newest Army co-operation machine ordered for the R.A.F.
A unique formation of eight Service types which are normally to be found at Gosport. They are, reading from the top of the picture, Vildebeest, Osprey, Shark, Tutor, Avro 504N, Swordfish, Nimrod and Magister.
AIRSPEED OXFORD: Advanced trainer (two Cheetah X engines - 350 h.p. each at 7,600ft.); span, 53ft.; gross weight, 7,300 lb.; max. speed, 185 m.p.h. at 7,500ft.
The Airspeed Oxford twin-engined trainer demonstrates its agility at Martlesham.
Two modern trainers; The De Havilland Don with a single D.H. Gipsyking engine and the twin-engined Airspeed Oxford. Both machines are being flown by Martlesham test pilots.
OUT AND UP. This unusual picture by a Flight photographer shows the Armstrong Whitworth Ensign tucking-up ner wheels as she takes off from her makers’ aerodrome. She was due to go to Martlesham yesterday.
The big Arado 95 torpedo bomber floatplane in the German exhibition hall.
Adopted for high-speed target towing, the Hawker Henley has a Rolls-Royce Merlin engine.
The Dornier Do.17 bomber has two Daimler Benz inverted vee engines and is capable of something like 280 m.p.h. Similar machines, with the older B.M.W. engines, have been in service with the German Air Force for a considerable time.
A Gloster Gladiator four-gun fighter breaks formation with the photographic machine. The Gladiator is the most advanced fighter biplane in service and is capable of 255 m.p.h.
A PAIR of Hawker Fury single-seater fighters of the Advanced Training Squadron, No. 3 Flying Training School, South Cerney, skating along on their sides in a “crazy formation” rehearsal for Empire Air Day.
HAWKER FURY: Fighter (Kestrel V engine - 640 h.p. at 14,000ft.); span, 30ft.; gross weight, 3,609 lb.; max. speed, 223 m.p.h. at 16,400ft.
VICKERS WELLESLEY: Bomber (Pegasus XX engine - 925 h.p, at 10,000ft.); span, 74ft. 7in.; gross weight, 12,500 lb.; max. speed, 220 m.p.h. (approx.) at 10,000ft.
The Junkers Ju.86K bomber with twin Junkers Jumo engines. Machines of this type equip a number of German squadrons.
AMERICAN SHOWMANSHIP: The mass formation is led by Northrop A.17.A attack machines, followed by Douglas B.18s, which may be regarded as the bomber derivative of the commercial D.C.2; Picture is from the M.G.-M. film Test Pilot, which has its premiere at the Empire Theatre, London, tomorrow (Friday).
Gauntlet single-seater fighters being put to bed in Bessoneau hangars at No. 3 Armament Training Station, Sutton Bridge. The transportable Bessoneau hangar, which was of great service during the war, still has its uses in the R.A.F. to-day.
A pair of Gloster Gauntlet single-seaters over the ranges at No. 3 Armament Training Station, Sutton Bridge.
A close line-abreast by Gloster Gauntlet single-seater fighters. The Gauntlet has two guns, does 230 m.p.h., and is very manoeuvrable.
Hawker Hinds of No. 50 (B.) Squadron, Waddington, climb­ing in formation. The leader is in communication with the other pilots by R/T.
HAWKER HIND: Bomber (Kestrel V engine - 640 h.p. at 14,000ft.); span, 37ft. 3in.; gross weight, 4,958 lb.; max. speed, 186 m.p.h. at 16,400ft.
Hawker Hector army co-operation machines of No. 13 Squadron, racks laden with practice bombs, in the act of making a diving attack on a ground
HAWKER HECTOR: Army co-operation (Napier Dagger III engine - 805 h.p. at 5,000ft.); span, 37ft. 3in.; gross weight, 4,887 lb.; max. speed, 187 m.p.h. at 6,560ft.
BLACKBURN SHARK: Torpedo-spotter-reconnaissance (Tiger VI engine - 810 h.p. at 5,000ft.); span, 46ft.; gross weight, 7,870 lb.; max. speed, 152 m.p.h. at 5,500ft.
A Supermarine Walrus and a Fairey Sea Fox glimpsed from one of the Felixstowe hangars.
SAUNDERS ROE LONDON: Flying boat (two Pegasus X engines - 875 h.p. each at 6,250ft.); span, 80ft.; gross weight, 22,000 lb.; max. speed, 155 m.p.h. at 6,250ft.
NOT ANOTHER “COMPOSITE” - just a pair of Short Singapore flying boats (two Kestrel VIII and two Kestrel IX) of No. 209 (General Reconnaissance) Squadron practising near Harwich for their Empire Air Day display. This picture was secured from the third machine in the echelon.
Short Singapore IIIs of No. 209 (General Reconnaissance) Squadron, Felixstowe, through the window top machine in an echelon formation
A formation touch-down by Singapore IIIs of No. 209 (G.R.) Squadron.
SHORT SINGAPORE III: Reconnaissance flying boat (two Kestrel IX and two Kestrel VIII engines - 730 h.p. each at 5,250ft.); span, 90ft.; gross weight, 27,500 lb.; max. speed, 145 m.p.h. at 2,000ft.
SUPERMARINE STRANRAER: Flying boat (two Pegasus X engines - 850 h.p. at 4,000ft.); span, 85ft; gross weight, 19,000 lb.; max. speed, 165 m.p.h. at 6,000ft.
Avro Anson general reconnaissance machines in an appropriate setting with a flotilla of destroyers below.
In the air with one of the Ansons, looking forward. The navigator is at his chart table (with chart pockets and essential instruments in front of him) on the left, and a pupil is using the course­setting bomb sight in the nose.
In an instructional Anson again, this time looking towards the tail. The radio operator is seen at work, and a pupil is using a bubble sextant.
The Blackburn Skua dive bomber fleet fighter just before diving tests at Martlesham Heath.
A dive bomber fighter for Fleet work, the Blackburn Skua has folding wings. A Mercury or Perseus engine may be fitted.
A pupil attached to the Torpedo Training Squadron, Gosport, releases the massive projectile from his Swordfish.
Atlantic patrol: Fairey Swordfish torpedo-spotter reconnaissance biplanes over their mother ship, H.M.S. Glorious. A machine of the same type is just landing-on.
FAIREY SWORDFISH: Torpedo-spotter-reconnaissance (Pegasus III engine - 750 h.p. at 3,500ft.); span, 45ft. 6in.; gross weight, 7,720 lb.; max. speed, 154 m.p.h. at 4,000ft.
VICKERS VILDEBEEST: Torpedo bomber (Pegasus IIM engine - 635 h.p. at 5,000ft.); span, 49ft.; gross weight, 8,100 lb.; max. speed, 142 m.p.h. at 4,930ft. (Picture shows Vildebeest IV with Perseus engine.)
DELIVERED: A pleasantly informal snap from Hatfield, showing Aero O/Y pilots taking delivery of their Company's second D.H. Rapide. Left to right : Mr. Peter de Havilland, Flt. Capt. Raunio, W/O Nylund, Mr. Geoffrey de Havilland and Mr. George Gibbons.
A few of the visiting machines on the tarmac at Helsingfors Airport last Sunday. The machine on the left is the L.O.T. Lockheed 14, while in the foreground, just to be seen, is one of the Aero O/Y two Rapides.
Line-up of 214 Squadron Harrows photographed early in 1938 at RAF Feltwell.
Handley Page Harrow long-range bombers, showing the installation of the Nash and Thompson power-driven turret in the nose.
HANDLEY PAGE HARROW II: Bomber (Two Pegasus XX engines - 925 h.p. each at 10,000ft.); span, 88ft. 5in.; gross weight, 23,500 lb.; max. speed, 200 m.p.h. at 10,000ft.
Vickers Valentia bomber-transports (two Pegasus) over Cairo. Though of somewhat antiquated type, the Valentia is still doing yeoman service out East.
Three-engined aircraft for long distance service on main traffic lines. ACCOMMODATION FOR 18/24 PASSENGERS. USEFUL LOAD 5000 Kgs. CRUISING SPEED 320/345 Kms.p.h. (199/211 m.p.h.). RANGE UP TO 2000 Kms.
The S.75 which, though it has the same power plant and general form as the S.83, is considerably larger.
Twenty-four passengers can be transported at over 200 m.p.h. in the roomy cabins of the S.75, but the usual three-abreast arrangement is for 18 seats.
This view give a good idea of the appearance of the prototype Arpin. The engine at present fitted is a 68 h.p. British Salmson.
Hendons oi No. 38 Squadron. The depth of the wing and the unusual cockpit arrangements are worth noting.
A Fairey Hendon bom­ber belonging to No. 38 (B.) Squadron takes off from Marham for an Empire Air Day rehearsal
A Hawker Demon two-seater fighter, showing the installation of the Nash and Thompson power-driven gun turret.
HAWKER DEMON: Fighter (Kestrel V de-rated engine - 625 h.p. at 12,000ft.); span, 37ft. 3in.; gross weight, 4,490 lb.; max. speed 185 m.p.h. (approx.) at 15,000ft.
UP AND AWAY: An interesting little representative of the too-slowly-growing ranks of rotating-winged aircraft is the Kay gyroplane, which was demonstrated at the R.Ae.S. Garden Party. It has controllable-incidence rotor blades.
INTERLUDE: On the face of it, hardly an air transport subject, this photograph of Mr. H. F. Broadbent (with two sentries and five porters), standing in front of his sun-protected Vega Gull at Sesok, on Flores, where he landed on his outward record attempt. Nevertheless, Qantas, K.L.M. and K.N.I.L.M., not to mention the Netherlands navy and the D.H. company, made it possible for a new airscrew to be sent and fitted in record time.
Castor moored in the Solent shortly before the war.
Castor on dry land. The surrealistic piece of mechanism is the beaching gear, with its buoys.
Somebody wanted to know if Calpurnia had been well greased underneath - just in case.
A derrick, for which fittings are provided on the engine nacelles, assists in the servicing of the Pegasus Xc engines and D.H. airscrews. Note the oil-draining funnels on the staging.
More surrealism: The curious objects depending from the bow hatch of Cooront; (a Qantas boat) are drogues, or sea-anchors, hung out to dry.
Tail wheels - and a nice line in nether garments.
At the Helsingfors Airport opening. Lt. Viisapaa, the <...> of the Finnish State Aircraft Factory.
At the Helsingfors Airport opening. Lt. Viisapaa, the <...> of the Finnish State Aircraft Factory is seen in a low-down state of inversion <...> Viima trainer.
ATTACHED:Imported for use of Col. Vincenzio Coppola, the Air and Military Attache to the Italian Embassy in Washington, this Cant monoplane has three 110 h.p. inverted four-cylinder Fiat engines. It was assembled at the Floyd Bennet Field.
The S.75, though it has the same power plant and general form as the S.83, is considerably larger.
Slot, flap and elevator treatment are shown well in this view of the S.83.
Luggage on both 83 and 75 is stowed below the cockpit and cabins. Either two-position or constant-speed Savoia-Marchetti metal airscrews can be fitted.
That the S.83 is no exception to the rule of neat grouping of controls and instruments on the modern transport machine may be gathered from the photograph.
In a side view the Alcor C-6-1 does not appear to be unusual, although the forward position of the two airscrews is apparent. The Alcor Junior Transport seats eight.
Pusher fighter: Another type that has been mentioned in the controversy is the Bell XFM-1. It has two 1,000 h.p. liquid-cooled Allisons with exhaust-driven superchargers.
Two shell-guns and three marine guns form the armament the Allison-engined five-seater Bell pusher fighter
In the news: The Boeing XB-15 bomber, which the newspapers delight in calling “the flying fortress.” At present it has four 1,000 - 1,100 h.p. P. and W. Twin Wasps.
CENTRAL ENOUGH: A Cessna seaplane on the ramp at one of New York’s “Skyports.”
Four Osprey IIIs, K3616-3619, were delivered to the R.A.F for communications duties with No. 24 Squadron and later served with No. 1 C.A.A.C.U., as shown here
Hawker Ospreys of No. 1 Coast Artillery Co­operation Unit in their un­usual camouflage.
THE KING’S ENVOY: A pleasing impression of the Royal Airspeed Envoy (two Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah IX), in which His Majesty toured between four representative Royal Air Force stations last Monday.
Experience of modern aircraft construction is gained from the Blackburn H.S.T.10.
HAWKER NIMROD: Fleet fighter (Kestrel IIS engine - 550 h.p. at 13,000ft.); span, 33ft. 6 1/4 in.; gross weight, 4,042 lb.; max. speed, 181 m.p.h. at 16,400ft.
Making its public bow: The Marendaz Mark III, not quite finished but looking eager to go somewhere quickly. It seats four, and the motor is a Gipsy Six.
The not-so-little brother of the Boeing XB-15, the YB-17, would be more likely to enter into the present argument, it has four 850 h.p. Cyclone G motors.
AMERICAN SHOWMANSHIP: Boeing YB-17 four-engined bombers bring up the rear. The machines in the line-up below are also YB-17s. Picture is from the M.G.-M. film Test Pilot, which has its premiere at the Empire Theatre, London, tomorrow (Friday).
A training and communications type, the Miles Mentor has a 200 h.p. De Havilland Gipsy Queen engine.
The Sparmann S.1 single-seater trainer monoplane in the Swedish section. The makers of this machine are now in the Svenska Aeroplan A.B. group.
ITALIAN ECHELON: Caproni A.P.1. two-seater fighter-attack machines of the Regia Aeronautica put up a very creditable piece of formation flying.
ANOTHER PUSHER: Developed by Tuscar Metals, Inc., of New Philadelphia, this tailless two-seater cabin pusher is now under test. It is said to do 120 m.p.h. with a 95 h.p. engine.
MID-WING: The New American Bennett monoplane, which may be considered as a small transport or luxury private-owner type, is interesting particularly because it is of mid-wing design and because it is of all wood construction. The engines of the prototype are Jacobs with Hamilton controllables, and the engine cowlings are unique in that there is no obvious gap between them and the nacelles. After its first test flight this machine was landed on its belly without structural damage.