Miles M.1 Satyr и M.2 Hawk
В 1932 году Ф. Г. Майлз поднял в воздух небольшой одноместный биплан Miles M.1 Satyr. Был построен всего один такой самолет, летал хорошо, но был списан в 1936 году. Ранее Фредерик Майлз принимал участие в проектировании британских бипланов Southern Martlet ДальшеMore>>>
и Metal Martlet, поэтому решил разработать двухместный самолет, рассчитанный на массовый спрос. M.2 Hawk выполнил первый полет в марте 1933 года, самолет стал предшественником последующей серии великолепных монопланов марки Miles. Изначально на Hawk стоял 95-сильный мотор Cirrus IIIA. Поздние самолеты варианта M.2c оснащались мотором de Havilland Gipsy III мощностью 120 л.с. К другим вариантам относятся M.2a с закрытой кабиной, одноместный M.2b большой дальности с мотором Hermes IV мощностью 120 л.с., трехместный M.2d. Всего построено 55 самолетов Hawk.
Дальнейшие работы привели к созданию серии Hawk Major с мотором de Havilland Gipsy Major мощностью 130 л. с., как у первого варианта M.2F. Строились и другие варианты, обозначавшиеся от M.2G до M.2T. Всего построили 64 самолета серии Hawk Major.
Первые одноместные гоночные модели известны как Hawk Speed Six, построили три самолета с мотором Gipsy Six мощностью 200 л. с. Другим гоночным вариантом несколько меньших размеров стал M.5 Sparrowhawk; построено пять машин. Их прототип пережил войну и в 1953 году прошел модернизацию с установкой двух ТРД Turbomeca Palas тягой по 150 кг. После чего самолет стал именоваться M.77 Sparrowjet, его максимальная скорость составляла 370 км/ч. Финальным вариантом всего семейства стал учебно-тренировочный M.2X Hawk Trainer; построено 25 машин. На основе M.2X разработали Miles M.14 Magister.
Flight, February 1934
A THREE-SEATER "HAWK"
BUILT at Reading by Phillips & Powis, Ltd., the three-seater version of their Miles "Hawk" ("Cirrus III") has a performance as suitable for joyriding as the old and well tried "Avro 504." Mr. Miles has re-designed the standard "Hawk" fuselage to carry two passengers seated comfortably one behind the other in the rear cockpit, access to which can be obtained from deep and wide doors either side of the fuselage. The outer portions of the wing of this machine remain exactly the same as the standard "Hawk," but the centre section has been increased in span by 2 feet, thus providing something in the region of an extra 12 square feet of wing area and putting up the aspect ratio to about 7 to 1. The result has been that although only powered with a Cirrus III engine, the "Hawk" three-seater, carrying an all-up weight of 1,800 lb., has the most remarkable take-off of anything we have seen for a very long time. Not only can it be pulled off the ground after a very short run indeed, but both the angle and rate of climb are large. This "Hawk" can also be dropped on to the ground from a very coarse glide and, even without the use of brakes, the resulting landing run is very short. Characteristics like these, coupled with the fact that it is exceedingly easy to get in and out of the passenger cockpit, and that the construction of the machine is such as to preclude the possibility of the need for repairs due to ordinary wear and tear, make it a proposition of outstanding merit for joyriding. When in the hands of an expert like Mr. Miles himself, this "Hawk" can be pulled off the ground very much more quickly than the figures shown in the table, and, moreover, can thereafter be held at a steep angle of climb which, although it looks exaggerated, is perfectly safe, and in that position the machine is still fully controllable. The machine is being supplied fully equipped with instruments, including compass, the new special down-turned exhaust manifold system making it quiet and pleasant to fly in, Bendix wheel brakes having differential movement controlled by the rudder bar and a hand lever for pulling up and parking, and, of course, it is built, as is the custom with all "Hawks," to factors considerably in excess to those required by the Air Ministry. Although Phillips & Powis are one of the youngest aircraft manufacturing firms a visit to their factory is exceedingly educative. They have studied the matter of economical production very carefully indeed, and for this reason they are able to turn out machines at the price they do. We have already described the neat manner in which the plywood covering of the wing, and for that matter the fuselage etc., is held to the spars, ribs, longerons and struts by an ordinary office stapling machine during glueing. These staples squeeze together the parts to be glued, more efficiently than do screws or tacks, and when the glue is dry they are quickly removed, leaving the surface absolutely clear and free for finishing. The finish is yet another point about the "Hawk." Phillips & Powis have realised that machines for private use sell as much on finish and comfort as they do on performance, and the new hand finish, which is standard on the "Hawk," is certainly as good as that of the average motor car. The Titanine dope with which this is attained has been particularly developed for the purpose, and the glass-like surface is achieved with only a very few coats, thereby saving the great weight of the 17 to 23 coats which it is understood is required by some of the American machines, about the finish of which a great deal has been advertised. This finish also has the advantage that it decreases the skin friction appreciably and adds to the performance of the machine. An Indication of the strength of the "Hawk" is gained from the knowledge that, in its standard form, it is strong enough to be fitted with any engine up to 200 h.p. The firm has recently received recognition of its capabilities, by being approved for design by the Air Ministry.
Flight, July 1934
NEW AEROPLANES IN KING'S CUP RACE
In last year's race Wing Com. Probyn started as one of the strongest favourites in a very attractive-looking Miles "Hawk," a machine which had at that time just started in production in the works of Phillips & Powis, Ltd., at Reading, whom Mr. Miles had joined as designer. Unfortunately, Wing Com. Probyn, when doing extremely well, lost a push-rod from his engine and had to retire.
D.H. "GIPSY III,” 120 II.P. ENGINE.
Span 33 ft. (10,1m)
Aspect ratio 6.6 to 1
Wing area 169 sq. ft. (15,7 m1)
Gross weight 1.800 lb. (816,5 kg)
Tare weight 1,085 lb. (492,1 kg)
Wing loading 10.6 lb./sq. ft. (51,7 kg/m')
Power loading 15.0 lb./h.p. (6,8 kg/hp)
This year there are three versions of the "Hawk" in the race. One flown by Mrs. Patterson is a standard machine with a "Cirrus III" engine; the second is fitted with a "Gipsy III" engine, and has a full cantilever, single-strut undercarriage. For the race it is, of course, a single-seater, but with the front cockpit "opened up" it is the forerunner of the "Hawk Major," a drawing of which appears in this issue, and which is about to be launched on the market by this firm. In the race this "Gipsy III" engined model has been entered by Capt. G. R. D. Shaw, and will be flown by Mr. Tom Rose, the instructor of the Northamptonshire Aero Club, at Sywell. The third machine is a "Hawk," similar in most respects to the "Gipsy III" model, but having instead a "Gipsy Six" engine of 200 h.p. It has been built as a high-speed machine, having a particular appeal for racing. The entrant, Sir Charles Rose, will fly it himself. The loading with this engine, remains just about as in the standard "Hawk" when carrying a pilot and passenger, so the landing speed should still be very low, but naturally with the increased power a high top-speed performance is expected. It is a tribute to the robustness of the "Hawk" that very few modifications in the way of strengthening have been found necessary for it to get its Certificate of Airworthiness.
D.H. "GIPSY Six," 200 H.P. ENGINE.
Span 33 ft. (10,1 m)
Aspect ratio 6.6 to 1
Wing area 169 sq. ft. (15,7 m')
Gross weight 1,900 lb. (861,8 kg)
Tare weight 1,355 lb. (614,6 kg)
Wing loading 11.3 lb.Mq. ft. (55,2 kg/m*)
Power loading 9.25 lb./h.p. (4,2 kg /hp)
Flight, July 1934
A "HAWK MAJOR"
High Top Speed, Low Landing Speed and Small Cost Are the Chief Points of This New Machine for Private Owners
THE Miles ''Hawk'' has become very widely known during the last year as one of the most economical aeroplanes for the private owner, and certainly as one which involves the purchaser in only a small capital outlay. Scenting a demand for a machine with an even better performance, Mr. Miles has now produced the "Hawk Major." This will have the "Gipsy Major" engine and, although the use of this engine and a cantilever undercarriage has raised the top speed to 150 m.p.h., the landing speed will still remain at 42 m.p.h. The standard "Hawk" has an excellent take-off and short landing run, so this new model should be even more ideal for getting out of small fields of the kind many private owners wish to use when visiting people.
This new "Hawk" will have a range in still air of over 700 miles. As can be seen from our artist's impression, the undercarriage has been faired in very cleanly and the drag should be very low The Palmer wheels will be braked with Bendix brakes operated by differential rudder bar control and by a hand lever. A very high finish, comparable to that found on motor cars, in any single colour, is offered without extra charge.