Avro серии 504
Удачный опыт использования самолета в годы Первой мировой войны в качестве учебного заставил конструкторов задуматься о возможности оснащения машины одним из новых звездообразных моторов. В результате появилась серия
504N, отличавшаяся от предшественников новым шасси без центральной лыжи и элеронами новой формы. Два таких самолета в 1925 году заказало Министерство авиации, их собрали из двух недостроенных в 1918 году экземпляров. На одну установили 100-сильный звездообразный мотор Bristol Lucifer, на вторую - 180-сильный звездообразный мотор Armstrong Siddeley Lynx. Для серийных машин выбрали мотор Lynx, всего в 1925-1932 годах было построено 598 самолетов.
Самолеты серии 504N в авиационных училищах британских ВВС пришли на смену серии 504K и использовались в качестве связных во вспомогательных ВВС Британии и авиационных эскадрильях университетов.
Обучение пилотированию по приборам в Британии впервые началось в сентябре 1931 года в Уиттеринге, куда поступили шесть самолетов серии 504N,снабженных специальными колпаками и указателями крена.
Фюзеляжи первых серийных самолетов собирались из дерева, но затем перешли на ферменную конструкцию, сваренную из стальных труб. На первые машины ставили сужающиеся в плане элероны, на поздние - элероны прямоугольной в плане формы. Почти 80 ранее построенных самолетов серии 504K модернизировали до уровня серии 504N.
Самолеты серии 504N экспортировались в Бельгию, Бразилию, Чили, Данию, Грецию, Японию, Швецию, Таиланд и Южную Африку. Лицензионная сборка была налажена в Дании и Бельгии. В Канаде некоторое число самолетов серии 504K канадских ВВС силами фирмы "Canadian Vickers" прошли модернизацию в серию 504N, эта же компания также строила серию 504N "с нуля" в сухопутном и морском (с одним поплавком) вариантах.
Один самолет серии 504N продали в 1927 году Японии, где было налажено производство этих машин под обозначением Yokosuka K2Y, а в 1928 году появился K2Y1 с мотором Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose мощностью 130 л.с. производства фирмы "Mitsubishi". В 1929 году начал летать улучшенный K2Y2 с мотором Gasuden Jimpu 2 мощностью 160 л.с. До 1940 года различными фирмами было построено примерно 360 самолетов K2Y.
В 1932 году британские ВВС выбрали для замены учебных Avro серии 504N самолет Avro Tutor. Но некоторое количество самолетов серии 504N продолжали эксплуатироваться как гражданские. На военную службу серию 504 "призвали" в 1940 году, когда семь гражданских машин были реквизированы для военных нужд британскими ВВС. Два из них сгорели при пожаре в ангаре, а еще два пришлось утилизировать. Три уцелевших аэроплана поступили на вооружение звена специального назначения, где их использовали для буксировки деревянных планеров над морем в целях тренировки расчетов РЛС.
Avro серии 504N
Тип: двухместный самолет первоначального обучения
Силовая установка: один звездообразный мотор Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC мощностью 180 л. с. (134 кВт)
Характеристики: максимальная скорость на уровне моря 161 км/ч; крейсерская скорость на оптимальной высоте 137 км/ч; скороподъемность 235 м/мин; практический потолок 4450 м; дальность 402 км
Масса: пустого 718 кг; максимальная взлетная 1016 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 10,97 м; длина 8,69 м; высота 3,33 м; площадь крыльев 29,73 м1
A lively study of F8713, a 504K conversion serving with Cambridge University Air Squadron.
A famous shot of 504N K1244 of the CFS, Wittering, with the blind flying hood pulled over the rear cockpit, June 1931.
Самой известной частью британских ВВС, эксплуатировавшей Avro 504N, стала Центральная авиационная школа. Данный самолет использовался школой с 1931 года. На фотографии хорошо виден колпак, который в раскрытом положении закрывал кабину курсанта.
THE AVRO-LYNX: A development of the 504, this machine differed mainly in the engine unit and undercarriage.
INSTRUMENT FLYING: These two pictures of the same Avro-Lynx illustrate instruction in flying solely by instruments. In the first the head of the pupil can be seen, in the second it is hidden by the hood. The instructor is in the front cockpit.
Известный как Lynx-Avro, 504N сменил 504K в пяти авиационных школах британских ВВС. Самолеты также использовались во Вспомогательных ВВС в качестве связных самолетов и как учебные в авиационных эскадрильях университетов.
Lynx-Avros flown by the Oxford University Squadron group diving in formation over Manston
Oxford University Air Squadron is at present undergoing its annual training at Eastchurch. This photograph shows a formation of "Avros" (Lynx) over the estuary of the Thames.
A FORMATION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES USED FOR INSTRUCTION AT THE CENTRAL FLYING SCHOOL: From left to right, Gamecock, Atlas, Moth, III.F, Avro-Lynx, Siskin and Bulldog.
A MIXED GRILL: A formation of seven different types over Wittering, viz., "Gamecock," "Atlas," "Moth," "Fairey III F," "Avro-Lynx," "Siskin," and "Bulldog."
A unique formation of eight Service types which are normally to be found at Gosport. They are, reading from the top of the picture, Vildebeest, Osprey, Shark, Tutor, Avro 504N, Swordfish, Nimrod and Magister.
Nine Avro 504 Ns put up an unusually good exhibition of formation flying at Hendon on Saturday.
A CAMBRIDGE FORMATION OVER SALISBURY PLAIN: Light blue bands are painted round the fuselage, the chief instructor's machine having two bends.
Another group from the Cambridge University Air Squadron, this trio comprises H9816 (a conversion), J8546 and J8746.
The Oldest and the Youngest.
Old Sarum: An aerial view of one of the Cambridge Air Squadron's Avro-Lynx machines flying low and parallel to the old Roman ruins of Old Sarum in Wiltshire, close to the aerodrome where the Squadron is now in training.
WINGED WORDS. The 150 ft. Remembrance appeal which was towed over London by a Lynx-Avro piloted by Mr. F. Gordon Freeman. The letters, which are of fabric, with stiffeners in the leading edges, are mounted on tapes. The sign is laid out on the ground, and the pilot then flies over it, picks it up with a hook, and "peels" it off. Aerial Sites Ltd., of Hanworth and London, were the operators.
The instructor just avoids collision with his clumsy pupil in the demonstration of instructional flying on Avro-Lynx.
Пара Avro серии 504N выполняют крены в полете на предельно малой высоте. Превосходные летные качества позволяли самолету оставаться на вооружении британских ВВС до начала 1930-х годов.
Flt Lt Damant and Fg Off Beaumont performing their unforgettable crazy flying sequence on two very forgiving Avro 504Ns at the 1931 RAF Pageant, perhaps one of the most popular events in the ’thirties.
Another view of Fg Off G. E. Campbell and Fl Sgt Brown defying all the laws of nature at Hendon in July 1929.
EVENT 11, "CRAZY FLYING": Two Avro-Lynx of No. 2 Flying Training School, piloted by F./O. G. E. Campbell and Flt./Sergt. Brown mix themselves up so much, that we regret we cannot say which is which
Fg Off G. E. Campbell and Flt Sgt Brown cavorting around Hendon Aerodrome at the RAF Pageant in July 1929.
Crazy Flying: F/O Campbell and P/O Whittle, of No. 2 Training School, give an exhibition on Avro-Lynx Machines.
Fg Off G. E. Campbell and Flt Sgt Brown cavorting around Hendon Aerodrome at the RAF Pageant in July 1929.
STUNTING AT HENDON: Avro-Lynx machines flown by Flying Officers Bremridge and Campbell of No. 2 Flying Training School.
THE MORNING'S PROGRAMME: 1, Aerobatics on an "Avro-Lynx."
THE BIRMINGHAM AIR PAGEANT: Three Avro-Lynx "bombers" from No. 605 County of Warwick Squadron attempt to blow up an Eastern Castle Bromwich.
CRAZY FLYING AT NORTHOLT: Three studies of "Air-Madness" on the part of Flying-Officer Campbell and Flight-Sergt. Brown on Avro-Lynx machines
Sherburn Air Pageant: Two R.A.F. officers, Flight-Lieuts. Lydford and Fogarty, put up a thrilling exhibition of crazy flying both on the ground and above. Here Flight-Lieut. Fogarty is seen landing on one wheel in the Avro-Lynx.
"LET'S ALL GO MAD": Crazy Flying at the Birmingham Air Pageant was crazier than ever. We are not quite certain but we think he is flying backwards in the picture.
"LET'S ALL GO MAD": Crazy Flying at the Birmingham Air Pageant was crazier than ever. On the picture Flight-Lieut. F. J. Fogarty is executing a pirouette with one wheel of his Avro-Lynx actually touching the ground.
Flt Lt F. J. Fogarty performing in Avro 504N H2972 at the Birmingham Air Pageant, just a few days after appearing at the RAF Pageant at Hendon, July 1927.
An Avro 504N participates in a forced landing competition at Abu Suier (hence the flag markers). The aircraft’s identity is J8725, the ‘R’ being inserted to denote that it has undergone a rebuild. This practice lapsed in the mid-thirties. An Armstrong Siddeley Lynx radial powered this long-serving ab initio trainer.
Another rebuilt Lynx-engined Avro 504N, JR8983 sports a blind-flying hood, seen folded down behind the pupil’s cockpit. The characteristic oleo-pneumatic undercarriage and twin underwing fuel tanks are well portrayed.
TAKING OFF SOLO BY INSTRUMENTS ONLY: An instructor (Mr. W.E.P.Johnson) takes off solo with the hood up. He put the machine into a spin and flattened out before lowering his hood. We believe that this is the first photograph ever published of this extraordinary feat.
K1813 during deck landing trials in 1931.
"Avro-Lynx" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx"). This is one of the offshoots of that ancient and valiant old warrior, the 504K, which was designed as long ago as 1912, and which has since then passed through several modifications - this particular machine being one. Fitted with the Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx," this version of the 504 has given very satisfactory results. It is safe to say that more pilots have passed through their preliminary training on Avros of various models than any other type. In fact, the Avro is sort of "handy man" always to be relied upon for any purpose.
AB INITIO: The Special Reserve officers of No. 502 (Ulster) (Bomber) Squadron are taught to fly ab initio in the squadron in Avro "Lynx" two-seaters.
Flying Officer Menzies (third from right, standing) poses with a group beside an Avro 504N, a type on which he established a reputation as a “crazy flying” specialist. The 504N was an updated 504K, with the latter’s rotary engine replaced with an Armstrong Siddeley Lynx radial engine, hence being known as the “Lynx-Avro”.
A standard “Lynx-Avro”, showing the two 18gal underwing fuel tanks and the undercarriage suspension.
THE AVRO "504 N": View showing Siddeley "Lynx" engine, oleo undercarriage, and gravity petrol tanks. This machine will be exhibited at Prague.
GENTLE PERSUASION: Staging the "Lynx" engine on one of the C.U.A.S. Avro 504's by means of a Hucks starter.
A 504N of the Cambridge University Air Squadron, has the Hucks shaft mated to the dog in its spinner.
THE AVRO-LYNX: One of the variations on the famous old "504," this machine has been the standard training machine of the R.A.F. for many years. The engine is a "Lynx."
THE AVRO "LYNX" IS A TRAINING MACHINE.
The "Avro-Lynx" will be exhibited at Prague.
Lucifer-powered J733, the first of two 504N evaluation prototypes supplied to the Air Ministry in 1924.
Avro's development aircraft, G-EAJB, with skid and oleo undercarriage and tapered ailerons, at Filton in 1921 as a Lucifer testbed.
A REAL 504 "K": The Avro-Lynx "Tourer" was seen in public for the first time at the Norwich demonstration. It is characterised by wings of bi-convex section, "K" interplane struts, and Frise type ailerons on the bottom plane only. This machine handles extraordinarily well, and the wing section used gives a stationary centre of pressure.
FLYING BETWEEN SERMONS: By using an Avro aeroplane the Bishop of Willochra, S. Australia, who attended the Anglo-Catholic Conference in London, was able to preach in London on Sunday morning last, and in Manchester in the afternoon, Our photograph shows the Bishop at Woodford after landing. His pilot was Mr. Goodfellow, of the Lancashire Aero Club. The machine left London at 1 p.m. and landed at Manchester at 2.30 p.m.
THE KING'S CUP: Some of the first day's starters. 3, Bert Hinkler gets away on the Avro 504N.
NECK AND NECK: Hamersley on the Avro "Lynx" and Watt on his S.E.5A approaching the finishing line in the High-Power Handicap. Watt won by a few feet.
GOOD HANDICAPPING: Four machines approaching the finishing line in the first heat of the Holiday Final Handicap on Easter Monday. The machines are, in the order of finishing: OU (Sempill), QL (Cantrill), JT (Openshaw), and KQ (Hamersley).
"THE FIRST AIR LORD": Mr. John Lord flew over with Bert Hinkler in the new Avro "Tourer" with Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" engine. Inset the machine coming in to land.
One of the tightly packed queues of people waiting for joyrides in an Avro ("Lynx").
The Mongoose-powered Avro 504R variant J9175/G-EBUY at Martlesham in 1929.
This yellow and silver Mongoose-powered Avro 504N was owned by National Aviation Day Displays from April 1934 until March 1936, when it was sold to L. J. Rimmer at Hooton.
Old Avro. This delightful shot of one of Plane Advertising's Lynx-engined Avro 504Ns, G-ACOM (ex-E430), was taken at Ford in 1937, and shows the underwing banner rollers.
Avro 504N G-ADBM was originally K1055, and flew with the CFS until sold off on April 23, 1934. Its first civilian owner was Air Travel Ltd, and after various other owners ’DBM's last prewar home was Heston, with Air Publicity Ltd, where it did much banner towing. In June 1940 ’DBM was impressed into RAF service and was allotted the serial AX871, although it is doubtful if it ever bore service markings. Because of its towing gear the 504N joined the Special Duties Flight at Christchurch, when it was flown by the author, but its career was cut short when it hit a watch hut whilst taking off from RAF Hawkinge on August 1, 1940.
L. G. Anderson’s Mongoose-powered Avro 504N G-ADBS was originally RAF machine K1251 and was attached to the RAF College. It was registered to Anderson in April 1935 but was lost in a crash at Bodmin, Cornwall, on August 16 that year.
Avro 504N G-AECS began life in RAF colours as J8548, originally attached to the CFS, in 1929. It had a habit of hitting stationary aircraft, first Avro 504K F8813 and then Avro 504N K1050. In 1936 it was sold to L. G. Anderson and later passed to the Christchurch-based Bournemouth Flying School. It was dismantled at Christchurch in 1940.
AVROS FOR GREECE: Our photograph shows four of a batch of "Avro-Lynx" biplanes built for Greece. With its Oleo undercarriage and reliable Siddeley "Lynx" engine, the Avro 504N, is a remarkably successful training machine. Standing in front of the second machine from the right are representatives of the Greek Government.
Avro "Lynxes" of The University Air Squadron. The University Crest can be clearly seen.
The three types of machines with which this Squadron is equipped, namely, on the left: the D.H.9, of which there are four; centre the Westland "Wapiti," which number eight, and finally - sundry Avro "Lynx" biplanes.
Three 504Ns of 601 Squadron, Auxiliary Air Force, in dark colour schemes. J8703 and J9420 are nearest.
AUXILIARY AIR FORCE MACHINES AT LYMPNE: In the foreground two Avro-Lynx, and behind a number of D.H.9a's.
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY AIR SQUADRON AT OLD SARUM: The afternoon parade. Three Bristol Fighters and six Avro Lynx.
THE DARK BLUE AEROPLANES: Four "Bristol Fighters" and eight "Lynx-Avros" at Eastchurch. A dark blue line is painted on each fuselage.
A line-up of Cambridge University Air Squadron 504Ns.
THE GOOD OLD AVROS: The training machines of C.U.A.S.
504K conversion H2995, two production 504Ns, J9703 and J9256, and the Hawker Horsleys of the aptly numbered 504 Squadron at Hucknall in 1932.
THE SQUADRON'S AIRCRAFT: In the front are the nine Westland "Wallaces" (Bristol "Pegasus"), while behind are two "Avro-Lynx" training machines with a "Wapiti" ("Jupiter") in between them.
MAKING WAY FOR THE YOUNG ’UNS: A symbolic picture of a new Miles Magister on a visit to one of the few R.A.F. stations with an Avro 504N still on charge. The 504 series (and later the Tutor) were, of course, in the very front rank of training aircraft. Even to-day the Tutor is finding wide employment, but will eventually be superseded by monoplane types.
GENERAL VIEW FROM THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL AERO EXHIBITION AT PRAGUE: The photograph shows the British stand, with the "Avro-Lynx" on the left and the Blackburn "Dart" on the right.
AST grouping within the huge Avro/AW works building on the southern airfield. Foreground, left to right: Avro 616 Avian IVM floatplane G-ABKB, entered service in March 1931 and served on until being impressed, as instructional airframe 2073M, in February 1940. Saro A.17 Cutty Sark G-ACDP served AST from April 1933 until April 1939 when it was scrapped. Avro 504N G-EBKQ was converted by Avro at Hamble and flew for them in several capacities, the most famous of which was as Bert Hinkler’s mount in the gruelling 1925 King’s Cup which was staged out of Croydon over 1,608 miles and two days in July. In 1930 it was converted to 5040 seaplane status and joined AST, retiring in June 1931 to act as an instructional airframe.
AN AVRO FOR GREECE: We show above an Avro-Lynx seaplane about to start on a test flight before being delivered to the Greek Government.
FOR SEAMANSHIP: The good old Avro 504 is sufficiently difficult to handle on the water to teach pupils all there is to know about that side of the training; it is not used for flying training.
WITH "BOOTS" ON: The A.S.T. seaplane fleet flying over our photographer at Hamble. Left to right, the " Avian," "Tutor," "504."
Построенный для арктической экспедиции Оксфордского университета, самолет серии 504Q был спроектирован на базе моделей серии 504N и серии 504P. Самолет отличал фюзеляж большего объема с закрытой кабиной.
AN ARCTIC AVRO: These photographs show the Avro-"Lynx" of the Oxford University Arctic Expedition, which, under Mr. George Binney, has been making good use of the seaplane. The machine and its Armstrong-Siddeley "Lynx" carries a very heavy load, but nevertheless on test got off the water easily. The general views, 1 and 5, give a good idea of the lines of the machine. In 2 it is seen taxying, while 3 shows the special engine mounting designed for the "Lynx." A cowl is, of course, fitted for actual flying in the Arctic. 4 shows the Norwegian sled carried under the deck fairing. The front view, 6, shows the long floats, and the two extra petrol service tanks under the top plane. A third tank is built into the top centre-section.
Capt. Percival Phillips and Mrs. Phillips in front of the victorious Lynx Avro
THE KING'S CUP CONSOLATION HANDICAP: 3, Bert Hinkler, who obtained third place on A. V. Roe's Avro 504N.
Avro 504N K1807 of 607 Squadron was part of a batch delivered to the RAF between September and October 1930. The incident depicted here occurred at RAF Usworth and the 504N was struck off RAF charge in March 1934.
This collision between a pair of Avro 504Ns piloted by Plt Offs Ryland and McInernys took place at Abu Sueir in 1930, but who was in which machine is not known. The distinctive oleo-pneumatic undercarriage and twin underwing tanks of this variant are conspicuous.
"- ducking under the telegraph wires only to finish up in the hedge" - Avro 504N J8748, from which the pilot "had to perform vigorous labours to extricate himself."
A FEW DETAILS AT LYMPNE: 4. The Oleo under-carriage of the Avro-Lynx is characterised by a very long travel.
Avro 504N of E Flight C.F.S. Wittering 1931