Avro серии 594 и серии 616 Avian
Avro серии 594 Avian появился в 1926 году, через год после аналогичного de Havilland DH.60 Moth. Его построили для соревнований двухместных легких самолетов на приз газеты "Дейли мейл", проходивших в Лимпне в сентябре 1926 года. Это важное состязание преследовало
далеко идущие цели - вывести "de Havilland" в передовые ряды европейских конструкторов легких самолетов.
Прототипом Avian стал самолет серии 581, оснащенный звездообразным двигателем Armstrong Siddeley Genet мощностью 75 л.с. (56 кВт). Модифицированный прототип серии 581A летал с рядным двигателем ADC Cirrus мощностью 80 л. с. (60 кВт) и добился определенных успехов в гонках и полетах на дальность, кульминацией которых стал 15-дневный перелет из Кройдона в Дарвин, Северная Австралия, после доведения самолета до стандарта серии 581E.
За двумя предсерийными машинами серии 594 Avian Mk I последовали девять серийных Avian Mk II. Шесть из них оснащались тем же мотором Cirrus, но имели отличия в конструкции шасси. Еще три машины для Австралии получили моторы Genet II мощностью 75 л. с. (56 кВт).
Первый Avian Mk III с ADC Cirrus II мощностью 85 л.с. (63 кВт) взлетел в середине 1927 года и отличался от Mk II лишь более тонкими стальными межкрыльевыми стойками. Всего построили 33 Avian Mk III, в том числе один для британских ВВС. Затем появились три Avian Mk IIIA, отличавшиеся двигателем Cirrus Mk III мощностью 90 л.с. (67 кВт) и построенные для участия в гонках за Королевский кубок. Серийных Avian Mk IIIA с усиленным каркасом выпустили 58 штук. По меньшей мере, два самолета из них имели поплавковое шасси.
Финальным вариантом стал Avian Mk IV с модифицированными элеронами и шасси. В качестве силовой установки снова выбрали Cirrus III. Большую часть Mk IV продали на экспорт.
В канун Второй мировой войны большинство уцелевших Avian использовались как учебные макеты, но четыре аэроплана сохранились и были зафиксированы в британском гражданском регистре, еще два сняли с военной эксплуатации.
Наряду с Avian деревянной конструкции выпускалась серия 616 Avian Mk IVM со стальным трубчатым каркасом фюзеляжа. В1 929 году проводились испытания такого самолета с мотором Cirrus III. Большая масса самолета потребовала более мощный двигатель, поэтому первые серийные Mk IVM имели либо Cirrus Hermes мощностью 105 л.с. (78 кВт), либо Genet Major мощностью 100 л. с. (75 кВт). 18 таких машин с двигателями Genet Major мощностью 135 л.с. (101 кВт) были построены в Канаде для местных ВВС. Как минимум пять машин собрала в США фирма-импортер.
Построили также небольшую партию самолетов серии 616 Sports Avian с двигателями Hermes мощностью 105 л.с. (78 кВт) или de Havilland Gipsy мощностью 100- 120 л.с. (75-90 кВт). Среди необычных разновидностей этой машины можно назвать монопланы серии Avian 625, один с двигателем Genet Major, другой - с Hermes. Оба самолета списали к концу Второй мировой войны.
Один Avian Mk IVA под названием "Малый Южный крест" был построен как дальний одноместный самолет для пилота Чарльза Кингсфорда-Смита. На Avian MkV, полученном от Кингсфорда-Смита, У. Н. Ланкастер попытался в апреле 1933 года совершить перелет из Англии в Кейптаун. Никаких известий о Ланкастере не было, пока в марте 1962 года в Сахаре не были найдены обломки его самолета.
В рамках каждого обозначения выпускались многочисленные субмодификации, поэтому в нижеприведенном перечне описаны только основные варианты:
Серия 581 Avian: единственный прототип, впоследствии модифицированный в серию 581A и серию 581E
Серия 594 Avian Mk I: два предсерийных самолета с опущенной рамой крепления двигателя и шасси с раздельными полуосями
Серия 594 Avian Mk II: девять первых серийных самолетов
Серия 594 Avian Mk III: 33 самолета, в основном аналогичные Avian Mk II, за исключением трубчатых стальных межкрыльевых стоек
Серия 594 Avian Mk IIIA: 58 серийных самолетов с усиленным каркасом
Серия 594 Avian Mk IV: 90 самолетов, дальнейшая разработка Avian Mk IIIA с измененными элеронами и шасси
Серия 605 Avian: два гидросамолета, переделанных из Avian Mk IIIA
Серия 516 Avian Mk IVM: примерно 190 самолетов со стальным каркасом фюзеляжа
Серия 616 Sports Avian: одноместный вариант с улучшенной аэродинамикой, предназначенный для авиагонок
Серия 616 Avian Mk IVA: спецсамолет для сэра Чарльза Кингсфорда-Смита с рядным двигателем de Havilland Gipsy мощностью 120 л.с. (90 кВт) и увеличенным запасом топлива, обеспечивающим дальность 2736 км
Серия 616 Avian Mk V: дальний одноместный самолет, сделанный по заказу сэра Чарльза Кингсфорда-Смита
Серия 625 Avian Monoplane: два низкоплана с расчалочным крылом и шасси в обтекателях
Avro серии 594 Avian Mk IIIA
Тип: двухместный туристский самолет
Силовая установка: один рядный двигатель ADC Cirrus III мощностью 90 л. с. (67 кВт)
Характеристики: максимальная скорость 164 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; крейсерская скорость 140 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; начальная скороподъемность 198 м/мин; практический потолок 5485 м; дальность полета 644 км
Масса: пустого самолета 424 кг; максимальная взлетная 651 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 8,53 м; длина 7,39 м; высота 2,59 м; площадь крыльев 22,76 м:
Flight, August 1926
THE AVRO "AVIAN"
65 H.P. Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet" Engine
IN designing a machine especially for the forthcoming Lympne Light 'Plane Competition for prizes offered by the Daily Mai! and others, there are two lines along which the problem of gaining the highest number of points may be attacked: one is to carry no more than the useful load of 340 lbs. stipulated as a minimum, and to use for the carrying of this load the smallest power plant which can be counted upon to get the machine around the 2,000 miles' course at an average speed of not less than 50 m.p.h., tuning the engine to use as little fuel as possible; the other consists in taking as a starting point the most powerful engine available within the maximum weight allowance of 170 lbs., and designing for it a machine which will carry considerably more than the 340 lbs. useful load. In between these two extremes there are, of course, a number of combinations possible. Mr. Chadwick, chief designer and engineer to A. V. Roe and Co., Ltd., has chosen to follow the latter course, partly as offering the best solution for the competition, but equally because in so doing a machine is, he considers, produced which is of a type likely to be practically useful to clubs, private owners, etc., quite apart from competition considerations.
From the Lympne competition point of view, the Avro “Avian," as the new machine is called, is characterised by very low structure weight and great load-carrying capacity, while with future production in mind, the detail construction is of the simplest imaginable form without departing radically from normal practice. There are rumours of a new Ford "runabout" in which the fuselage is to be built up from stamped-out sides, tops and bottoms, and wings in which the top and bottom surfaces are also stamped out in one operation; but until the day comes when aeroplanes can be produced in thousands the plant necessary to do this is likely to be expensive, and Mr. Chadwick has not quite gone to this extent in his search for cheapness of production. As regards its suitability for "point-getting" at Lympne, it may be stated, although very accurate figures are not yet available, that the "Avian" has an estimated empty weight of round about 750 lbs., while its total loaded weight, within the airworthiness certificate, will be rather more than double that figure. As the longest distance to be covered in the competition without landing is something like 124 miles, the fuel to be carried must be sufficient for this distance plus a margin for head winds, etc. This means that the quantity of fuel to be carried will be fairly considerable, but a rough estimate indicates that the point-scoring load which the "Avian" will be able to carry may be somewhere in the neighbourhood of 750 lbs. To enable the machine to pass the take-off and pull-up tests in the eliminating trials with a total loaded weight of something like 1,580 lbs., wings of large area will, obviously, be necessary, and those of the "Avian" as used in the competition will have an area of no less than 294 sq. ft., which will give a wing loading of in the neighbourhood of 5-375 lbs./sq. ft., a figure which should allow the machine to "unstick" satisfactorily. For the same total loaded weight the power loading (based upon normal power) will be 24-3 lbs./h.p. As the "Genet" engine develops a maximum of 75 h.p. for short periods, the power loading for taking-off purposes is reduced to just over 21 lbs./h.p., so that with the relatively low wing loading the machine should clear the two 25-ft. barriers without difficulty.
A ratio of empty weight to total loaded weight of less than 0-5 is, of course, extraordinarily good, and indicates very great care in detail design. Lest it should be thought by those not intimately acquainted with Avro standards of construction that such a ratio necessarily means a flimsy structure, we would point out that the factors of safety are such that the machine will be eligible for the "aerobatics" airworthiness certificate of the British Air Ministry, which fact may be accepted as sufficient proof of the strength of the machine.
Before turning our attention to the details of the construction of the Avro "Avian," it may be of interest to mention briefly that the machine will be produced in three distinct forms after the competition. Firstly, there is the standard form, possibly with wings of somewhat smaller area than those used in the competition, but otherwise identical with the competition machine. For the Grosvenor Cup race, and for anyone wanting a faster machine than the normal, the "Avian" will be supplied as a low-wing monoplane, with a single strut bracing the wing to the top of the fuselage, as shown in a sketch. Finally, the machine will be "put on floats," when it will have the normal biplane wings. This form also is shown in a sketch. It will thus be seen that the Avro "Avian" should prove a low-powered aeroplane with many applications and suitable, by some very simple substitutions, for a. variety of uses. The detail construction is such as to make for cheap production, and we understand that after the Lympne meeting it is intended to market the "Avian" at a price which should appeal strongly not only to light aeroplane clubs, but also to private owners.
From the fact that it is designed for cheap production one expects the Avro "Avian" to be a very straightforward piece of construction, and during a visit to the Avro works at Hamble last week we were able to determine that this is indeed a fact. So much so, that one might easily fall into the error of dismissing the machine as being perfectly simple and normal, and therefore of no particular interest. In doing this one would not only be unfair to the machine but one would miss an opportunity to appreciate the extent to which the simplicity evident everywhere is due to the very greatest care and thought in design. A close inspection of the details of the construction leaves one with the feeling that the designer had made up his mind at the start that every member was to be as simple and as light as possible, and that such few metal fittings as are used should be of a form that could be produced at an absolute minimum of cost.
The Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet" engine is mounted on an extremely light engine plate of Duralumin, the form and details of which are shown in one of our sketches. Owing to the fact that most of the engine accessories in the "Genet" are placed in front, there is little need to get at the back of the engine, although the engine plate used enables this to be done with great ease if necessary. As the petrol tank is in the top fairing, direct gravity feed can be used, with consequent simplicity of the petrol system. For the competition the "Genet" will be fitted with a single magneto, as the addition of a second would bring the total weight up to more than the 170 lb. stipulated as a maximum. After the competition, however, dual ignition will be fitted as standard, the necessary provision for this having been made in the engine.
The main dimensions of the Avro "Avian" are shown on the general arrangement drawings on p. 535. It is only necessary to add that the weight empty is in the neighbourhood of 750 lb., while the total loaded weight is approximately 1,580 lb. Concerning performance no information can be given for obvious reasons, but in spite of its large area the “Avian" is a clean design and should do well.
Flight, September 1926
British Light ‘Plane Development & Lympne Meeting
THE 1926 MACHINES
No. 9. The Avro "Avian" (Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet")
In many ways this machine may be said to be the most interesting of those taking part in the forthcoming Lympne meeting. It is an entirely new design, and is remarkable for its extraordinarily low empty weight and its high useful load. The former is, approximately, 680 lbs., while the total loaded weight under the certificate of airworthiness is 1,550 lbs. Whether the machine will be loaded up to its full permissible weight at Lympne is not quite certain. A machine in which the useful weight is 60 per cent, of the gross weight, or in other words, the load 1-4 times the weight of the machine bare, is something very much out of the ordinary, and there can be little doubt that the "Avian" will prove a formidable opponent in the competition. Concerning the machine itself, this was described and illustrated in FLIGHT on August 26, 1926, and it will suffice if we recall that it is chiefly remarkable for its very large wings, the total area being no less than 294 sq. ft. The total wing span is 32 ft., in spite of which, however, but a single pair of interplane struts is used on each side, the long, unsupported span being made possible by using a fairly thick wing section. In the Grosvenor Cup race after the competition the "Avian" will probably be fitted with a single wing, turning it into a low-wing monoplane, with a single strut bracing each side.
Flight, March 1928
THE AVRO "AVIAN III”
A.D.C. "Cirrus II" Engine
THE first Avro "Avian" was, it may be recollected, designed and built for the Daily Mail competition held at Lympne in 1926, and was then fitted with the new Armstrong-Siddeley “Genet" engine. Outstanding features of the prototype were: Very low structure weight, wings of large area, and exceptional ratio of loaded weight to tare weight. Thus the tare weight of the competition machine was 695 lb., and the loaded weight 1,600 lb., the load being made up of 77 lb. of petrol and oil, and 828 lb. of useful load (including pilot). A detailed illustrated description of the original "Avian” was published in FLIGHT of August 26, 1926.
Since 1926, the "Avian" has been put into production, and the type which we are about to describe is known as the "Avian" Mark III, which is fitted with the Mark II A.D.C "Cirrus" engine. The latest model differs considerably from the prototype, and among other changes may be mentioned the decrease in wing area, the large area of the 1926 machine being used in order to enable the machine to carry a large useful load and thus score heavily for competition purposes. Incidentally, it is the original machine which Hinkler used on his recent magnificent flight to Australia in 15 1/2 days. The wings, however, are of much smaller area than those used in the competition.
The production type "Avian" has been strengthened a good deal so as to enable it to withstand the varied handling which it may receive from beginners in flying, and when used for school work. The lines have been improved considerably, and the machine now has a remarkably "clean" appearance, the long slender fuselage terminating in front in a neat engine fairing, and merging cleanly into the spinner over the propeller boss.
The fuselage is of the flat-sided three-ply covered type, and the details of its construction are shown in a set of sketches on page 155. The form of construction adopted is simplicity itself, and has the advantage over the wire-braced girder type of construction that it does not require any trueing-up after prolonged service. In front a fire-proof bulkhead separates the cockpits from the engine, which is supported on a very simple mounting of steel tubes, the arrangement of which is illustrated by a sketch. The engine cowling is so arranged as to be entirely detachable, thus leaving the engine exceptionally accessible, the more so as there is little or no bracing to get in the way. What adds further to the facility with which inspection and adjustment of the engine can be carried out is the special type of undercarriage, invented by "Bert" Hinkler, which lowers the machine a good deal when the wings are folded, the top hamper of the engine thus being within easy reach.
The two cockpits are arranged one behind the other in the customary manner, and dual controls are provided, so that the machine may be used for instructional purposes. The "joy stick" in the front cockpit is detachable so as not to be in the way when a non-piloting passenger is being carried.
The controls are, generally speaking, of normal type, but as one of our photographs will show, they are mounted on a complete unit which is independent of the main fuselage structure except in so far as its very simple mounting is concerned. The foot bars are provided with T-shaped pedals, and these, which are made of tubing, are mounted in sockets and provided with bolt holes so that the pedals may be adjusted to suit pilots of different length of legs.
The undercarriage is, as already mentioned, quite different from that fitted on the prototype machine. The original "Avian" (G-EBOV) has an undercarriage of similar type, rigged up by "Bert" Hinkler, its inventor, but the "Avian Mark III" has a slightly modified form, although incorporating the same general principle. The new undercarriage is of the "divided" type, i.e., there is no axle running across from side to side. Instead, the two separate wheel axles are hinged on the centre line of the bottom of the fuselage and bent to a horizontal direction near the wheels. The shock absorbing, or telescopic member is the front "leg" of the chassis Vee, which incorporates rubber block compression rubbers. The rear chassis leg is taken to a point on the lower rear wing spar.
As regards the lower wing, two short wing roots are attached permanently to the fuselage. These roots are triangular in plan view, with the base of the triangle formed by the leading edge and the apex at the rear spar hinge. To brace the root against the undercarriage loads a short diagonal strut runs to the top longeron. When the wings are folded they swing, of course, around the hinge. The point of attachment of the rear chassis strut being situated some little distance out from the hinge, when the wings are folded the upper end of the rear strut moves back with the wing, and in so doing pulls the wheel back with it, and at the same time the wheel moves upward slightly. The combined effect is to lower the machine and to relieve the load on the tail skid. Thus, with the wings folded., the machine can be wheeled along quite easily by one man.
The divided undercarriage has other advantages, such as a wide wheel track which renders possible taxying the machine in a strong cross wind without risk of it being blown over on to a wing tip. The absence of a horizontal axle also lessens the risk of nosing over in long grass or corn, in case of a forced landing.
Telescopic jury struts are used to separate the inner ends of the wings when the latter are folded. When the wings are spread the jury struts are "telescoped" and rest in clips under the top plane.
The wing construction of the Avro "Avian" is of perfectly normal two-spar type. The wings are but slightly staggered in relation to each other, but the gap is large and the biplane arrangement is probably very efficient.
The top plane centre-section contains the petrol tank, which has a capacity of 20 gallons. An interesting feature is that one of the centre-section struts is used as the petrol gravity pipe, the flexible petrol tubing being joined to the lower end of this strut. This is indicated in the side elevation below. The high position of the petrol tanks ensures an ample head of petrol even during a steep climb, and, of course, the petrol system is greatly simplified by using direct gravity feed.
When fitted with the standard "Cirrus" Mark II engine, the tare weight of the "Avian III" is 875 lb. The normal loaded weight of the machine is 1,360 lb., and the certificate of airworthiness covers up to a gross weight of 1,450 lb. for "aerobatics," and up to 1,600 lb. for ordinary straight flying. In other words, if it be desired to use the "Avian" for long-distance non-stop flights, a large tank can be fitted in the front cockpit, and the machine may be loaded up to 1,600 lbs. without exceeding its C. of A. for "non-aerobatic" flying.
The main dimensions of the "Avian III" are given on the general arrangement drawings. The main performance figures are as follows, and apply to the loaded weight of 1,360 lb.: Top speed at ground level 105 m.p.h. (170 km./h.). At 5,000 ft. the top speed is 100 m.p.h. The absolute ceiling is 17,000 ft. (5,180 m.), and the stalling speed, 40 m.p.h. (65 km./h.) Power loading, 17 lbs./h.p. Wing loading, 5-57 lbs./sq. ft. “Wing Power," 0-328 h.p./sq. ft. (3-53 h.p./sq. m.).
"High-speed Figure": 26
"Distance Figure": 4-9
"Altitude Figure" (Ceiling): 7-6
All these figures are high, and well above the average.
Flight, October 1928
British Exhibits At The Berlin Aero Show 1928
A. V. ROE AND CO., LTD.
THERE are two Avro "Avians" at the Exhibition, one fitted with a "Cirrus Mk. II" engine, and the other with an Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet," Mk. II engine. Both machines are standard. It is interesting to note that this type of light aeroplane is being despatched in batches of fifties every six months to A. V. Roe and Co.'s agents in America. This production type "Avian" has been strengthened a good deal so as to enable it to withstand the varied handling which it may receive from beginners in flying, and when used for school work. The lines have been improved considerably and the machine has a remarkably "clean" appearance.
The fuselage is of the flat-sided three-ply covered type, and the form of construction adopted is simplicity itself, having the advantage over the wire-braced girder type of construction that it does not require any trueing-up after prolonged service. In front a fire-proof bulkhead separates the cockpits from the engine, which is supported on a very simple mounting of steel tubes. The engine cowling is very neat and so arranged as to be entirely detachable, thus leaving the engine exceptionally accessible, the more so as there is little or no bracing to get in the way. What adds further to the facility with which inspection and adjustment of the engine can be carried out is the special type of undercarriage, invented by "Bert" Hinkler, which lowers the machine a good deal when the wings are folded, the top hamper of the engine thus being within easy reach.
The two cockpits are arranged one behind the other in the customary manner, and dual controls are provided, so that the machine may be used for instructional purposes. The "joy stick" in the front cockpit is detachable so as not to be in the way when a non-piloting passenger is being carried.
The new undercarriage is of the "divided" type, i.e., there is no axle running across from side to side. Instead, the two separate wheel axles are hinged on the centre line of the bottom of the fuselage and bent to a horizontal direction near the wheels. The shock absorbing, or telescopic member is the front "leg" of the chassis Vee, which incorporates rubber block compression rubbers The rear chassis leg is taken to a point on the lower rear wing spar.
As regards the lower wing, two short wing roots are attached permanently to the fuselage. These roots are triangular in plan view, with the base of the triangle formed by the leading edge and the apex at the rear spar hinge. To brace the root against the undercarriage loads a short diagonal strut runs to the top longeron. When the wings are folded they swing, of course, around the hinge. The point of attachment of the rear chassis strut being situated some little distance out from the hinge, when the wings are folded the upper end of the rear strut moves back with the wing, and in so doing pulls the wheel back with it, and at the same time the wheel moves upward slightly. The combined effect is to lower the machine and to relieve the load on the tail skid. Thus, with the wings folded, the machine can be wheeled along quite easily by one man.
Telescopic jury struts are used to separate the inner ends of the wings when the latter are folded. When the wings are spread the jury struts are "telescoped" and rest in clips under the top plane.
The wing construction of the Avro "Avian" is of perfectly normal two-spar type. The wings are but slightly staggered in relation to each other, but the gap is large and the biplane arrangement is very efficient.
The top plane centre-section contains the petrol tank, which has a capacity of 20 gallons. An interesting feature is that one of the centre-section struts is used as the petrol gravity pipe, the flexible petrol tubing being joined to the lower end of this strut. The high position of the petrol tanks ensures an ample head of petrol even during a steep climb, and, of course, the petrol system is greatly simplified by using direct gravity feed.
When fitted with the standard "Cirrus" Mark II engine, the tare weight of the "Avian III" is 875 lbs. The normal loaded weight of the machine is 1,360 lbs., and the certificate of airworthiness covers up to a gross weight of 1,450 lbs. for "aerobatics," and up to 1,600 lbs. for ordinary straight flying. In other words, if it be desired to use the "Avian" for long-distance non-stop flights, a large tank can be fitted in the front cockpit, and the machine may be loaded up to 1,600 lbs. without exceeding its C. of A. for "non-aerobatic” flying.
The main performance figures are as follows, and apply to the loaded weight of 1,360 lbs. : top speed at ground level, 105 m.p.h. (170 km./h). At 5,000 ft. the top speed is 100 m.p.h. The absolute ceiling is 17,000 ft. (5,180 m.), and the stalling speed 40 m.p.h.
Flight, June 1929
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT OLYMPIA
A. V. ROE & CO., LTD.
OWING to the fact that the material dealing with the exhibits of A. V. Roe & Co. reached us very late, it has not been possible to include the article describing the Avro show machines in its proper place, alphabetically, and we have, perforce, had to place it here, at the end of our advance show report. While regretting the fact, we had no choice in the matter, as it was necessary to go to press with this week's issue of FLIGHT a good deal earlier than usual, and the makeup of the Olympia Show Report could not be deferred until the last minute.
At least four complete aircraft are expected to be shown on the Avro stand; An Avro 10, an Avro 5, an "Antelope," and a metal "Avian" with "Genet Major" engine. This engine is an entirely new type, produced by Armstrong Siddeley Motors, Ltd., and will make its public appearance for the first time at Olympia.
The Avro "Avian" light 'plane two-seater is a machine with a number of famous flights to its credit, among them being Bert Hinkler's flight from Croydon to Australia in 15 1/2 days last year. This performance has not since been beaten, or even equalled, by an aircraft of any power.
The "Avian" is now supplied with three distinct power plants: The "Cirrus III," the Armstrong Siddeley "Genet," and, quite recently, the Armstrong Siddeley "Genet Major" engine of 100 h.p. The performance of the machine naturally varies according to the power plant fitted, but in other respects the machine itself remains almost unchanged, so that the following notes may be taken to refer to all types.
The "Avian," in all its variations, is a tractor biplane with accommodation for pilot and passenger. It may be used for school work or by the private owner, and may be purchased either as a landplane or as a seaplane. In its latest form the "Avian" is partly of metal construction in that its fuselage is of welded steel tube construction, of the same general type as that used in the Avro 10 and Avro 5 machines. The longerons and struts are of circular section and are joined by welding. In the side panels the bracing is by diagonal struts, while in top and bottom panels wire bracing is employed. The stringers of the deck and side fairings are of wood.
The "Avian" wings are mainly of wood construction, with wooden spars and ribs, although the top centre-section is a welded steel tube structure containing the streamline petrol tank, which has a capacity of 24 gallons. The wings are made to fold.
A new type of undercarriage has been produced recently for the "Avian." Previously a type of undercarriage was fitted in which, when the wings were folded, the wheels moved back slightly, thus reducing the load on the tail when the wings were folded. The new undercarriage has radius rods and bent axles hinged to the centre line of the bottom of the fuselage, while the telescopic leg is taken to the top longeron of the fuselage. The shock absorbers in the telescopic legs consist of rubber pads, integrally moulded with metal friction plates and separated by metal washers. The stroke of the leg is long, so that quite large shocks can be effectively absorbed. The wheel track is very wide (6 ft.) for the span of the machine, and the "Avian" can be taxied in a strong cross wind without risk of overturning.
As regards accommodation and equipment, the "Avians" of all types have the usual tandem seating arrangement, with adequate windscreens, dual controls, safety belts and all the usual instruments such as revolution counters, altimeters, airspeed indicators and oil-pressure gauges.
We regret that, owing to the fact that the "Avian" with "Genet Major" engine has but recently been completed, we have no figures of weights and performance of this machine. The standard "Cirrus Avian" landplane has the following dimensions: Length o.a., 24 ft.; wing span, 28 ft.; width, folded, 9 ft. 6 in.; overall height 8 ft. 6 in.
The tare weight of the "Cirrus Avian" landplane is 935 lbs. The load is made up as follows: Pilot, 165 lbs.; passenger, 165 lbs.; 20 gallons of petrol, 155 lbs.; 1 1/2 gallons of oil, 15 lbs. Loaded weight, 1,435 lbs. Total permissible weight (Aerobatics C. of A), 1,450 lbs. Total permissible weight (normal C. of A.), 1,600 lbs.
At a gross weight of 1,435 lbs. the performance of the "Cirrus Avian" is as follows: Full speed at ground level, 102 m.p.h.; maximum speed at 5,000 ft., 98 m.p.h.; cruising speed at 1,000 ft., 87 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 40 m.p.h. Length of run to take off, 70 yards. Length of run after landing, 90-100 yards. Rate of climb at ground level, 750 ft./min. Time to 5,000 ft., 8 min.; to 10,000 ft., 21 min. Absolute ceiling, 18,000 ft. Range, 400 miles.
The "Cirrus Avian" seaplane has the same dimensions as the landplane, but the length is 25 ft. The tare weight is 1,053 lbs. and the loaded weight 1,553 lbs. The total gross weight for "normal" C. of A. is 1,600 lbs.
Maximum speed at sea level, 97 m.p.h.; at 5,000 ft., 93 m.p.h.; cruising speed at 1.000 ft., 82 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 42 m.p.h. Time to take off in still air, 8-10 secs. Rate of climb at sea level, 480 ft./min.; time to 5,000 ft., 14 mins., to 10,000 ft., 39 minutes. Absolute ceiling 13,000 ft. Range, 400 miles.
As the Genet-engined Avro 581 for the 1926 Light Aeroplane Trials.
No. 9. THE AVRO "AVIAN": Three-quarter front view.
THE TWO AVRO'S IN THE TESTS: 4, the "Avian" makes light of the take-off test, in spite of a useful load of 828 lbs.
Winning the S.M.M.T. Race: Hinkler on the Avro "Avian" with Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet" engine won this race at an average speed of 90 m.p.h.
THE LANCASHIRE AIR PAGEANT: The Avro "Avian" and the de Havilland "Moth," both with "Genet" engines, starting neck-and-neck in the Open Handicap.
"BANKING ACCOUNTS" AT LYMPNE: 1 shows the Avro "Avian" in the Grosvenor Handicap.
THE TWO AVRO'S IN THE TESTS: 1, Hinkler lands the "Avian" without difficulty.
LINE UP FOR THE S.M.M.T. RACE: From left to right the machines are: de Havilland "Moth," Avro "Avian," Farnborough "Cygnet," Parnall "Pixie," and Bristol "Brownie." This race was won by Hinkler on the Avro "Avian," at an average speed of 90 m.p.h.
SOME PERSONAL TOUCHES: The daily toilette: Hinkler having the petrol tank of his Avro "Avis" put on board again after one of its many visits to Hythe.
MAKING BOTH ENDS MEET: The Tail and the Engine Mounting of No. 9, the Avro "Avian." The engine is an Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet."
A LONG-DISTANCE JOB: The Avro "Avian," with "Cirrus" Mark II. engine, on which Mr. Bert Hinkler (standing by the machine) proposes to make a flight to Australia shortly. Note the neat nose which the in-line "Cirrus" has made possible.
7-22 февраля 1928г.: скуадрон-лидер Берт Хинклер на своем аэроплане Avro Avian (код G-EBOV) вылетел из Кройдона (Великобритания) в первый одиночный перелет в Австралию. 15 дней спустя, преодолев 17700 км над Италией, Мальтой, Ливией, Индией, Бирмой и Сингапуром, он прилетел в Дарвин.
This is the great "little" Australian pilot, Mr. "Bert" Hinkler, who has stirred the world with his flight to Australia in 16 days as much as Lindbergh did with the lone Atlantic flight last year.
Mr. "Bert" Hinkler, who has now returned to England, is here seen with his Avro "Avian" (Cirrus) at the Larkin Aircraft Company's works at Melbourne during his aerial tour round Australia this year following his record flight from England.
Chadwick, Hinkler and R.O.J.Parrott with 'BOV, January 1928.
THE PRODUCTION TYPE "AVIAN": One of the first Avro "Avians" to be completed under quantity production conditions was purchased by the R.A.E. Aero Club of Farnborough (the amateur designers and constructors of the "Hurricane" and "Sirocco" machines), and was used, almost immediately after delivery, for racing in the various events at the Bournemouth Easter Meeting. This is the machine shown in the photograph, the registration letters being G-EBQN. The engine is a "Cirrus" Mark II.
At a first glance it may seem that this is a picture of an Avro "Avian" (Cirrus) amidst the snow at St. Moritz. Actually it was taken at Woodford Aerodrome, Cheshire, the home of the Lancashire Aeroplane Club
AVRO "AVIAN" FOR SOUTH AFRICA: The machine has been presented to the S.A. Aero Club by the directors of the "Shell" Company. In the photographs are :- From left to right, Mr. R. H. Dobson, Avro works manager; Mr. J. S. Cartwright, South African manager of the "Shell" Company; Capt. "Jerry" Shaw, Mr. Hill, and Mr. Sharp, all of the "Shell" Company.
The "Avian" in Latvia: After his recent nonstop flight to Riga, Mr. Bert Hinkler took the opportunity to demonstrate his Avro "Avian." He is here seen at Riga with a group of Latvian air officers, including Lieut.-Col. Skourbe, Commander of the Latvian Air Force, Gen. Roushkevitch, and Lieut.-Col. Indan, Chief of the Military Aviation School.
The Zurich Meeting: The Avro "Avian" during the light aeroplane race, directly after winning the Basle Cup for greatest speed between St. Gallen and Basle. On the extreme right is Capt. Gsell, who did the course after the last competitor. Next to him is Major Koepke, the Commandant of the aerodrome.
For Scotland: Mrs. Eliott-Lynn left Woodford Aerodrome on September 2, in her "Avian," to lecture in Scotland for a fortnight on behalf of the Air League of the British Empire. She was accompanied by her secretary (seen on the right of the "Avian" and Mr. Hollindrake (on the left), the latter flying his own "Avian." Amongst the places that will be visited are Dundee, Perth, Aberdeen, Glasgow, Ayr and Edinburgh.
AVRO 594 Avian G-EBTU was taken from the Avian II production line to be modified as a Mk.III with overload fuel tanks and an 85 h.p. ADC Cirrus II engine. Named Red Rose, after Lancashire’s county emblem, it was used for a flight to Australia by Capt W. H. Lancaster, in company with Mrs Keith Miller. The pair left Croydon on 14 October 1927 and, after various mechanical problems, reached Darwin on 19 March 1928. This study of Capt Lancaster and Mrs Miller with their aeroplane at Karachi was taken some time before 10 January 1928, the date that they reached Muntok in the Dutch East Indies. The machine became VH-UTU in Australia, and survived until 1936.
THE MARCHIONESS OF TOWNSHEND'S AERIAL FETE: The young Marquis of Townshend selling a programme to Mr. Bert Hinkler
The "Avian" in Latvia: Mr. Hinkler's machine is the object of a close inspection by the flying personnel. The folding undercarriage was much admired. Note how low the nose comes when the wings are folded and the tail raised, thus facilitating inspection of the engine.
THE BRISTOL FLYING MEETING: The winner of this race, Mr. Bert Hinkler's "Avian," with its new undercarriage.
THE BRISTOL FLYING MEETING: "Moths" and "Avians" in the Utility Race.
A Useful Flight: Mrs. Eliott-Lynn beside her new machine, an Avro "Avian," Mk.II, at the Woodford Aerodrome, from which she started on her 1,200-mile flight at dawn on July 19, making 79 landings on the way and finishing the same night at Newcastle.
ONE OF THE AIR LEAGUE CUP COMPETITORS: Mr. Cantrill (Lancashire Ae.C.) starts off for Woodford on the new Avro "Avian" ("Cirrus II").
SOME STARTERS IN THE KING'S CUP RACE: D. A. N. Watt gets away on his "Avian." In the background, the Blackburn "Bluebird" and the Westland "Widgeon III" waiting to start.
"CRAZY-FLYING" AT NOTTINGHAM: Sqdn.-Leader Jack Noakes demonstrating the error of ordinary aerodynamic theory on Mrs. Eliott-Lynn's Avro "Avian."
BRISTOL CLUB'S MEETING: Mr. Hollindrake taking up a passenger in an Avro "Avian."
Good Friday at Bournemouth; 1, Hinkler on the Avian G-EBOV rounding the aerodrome turning point.
A FEW MORE GOOD FRIDAY PICTURES: 2, Cantrill rounding the turning point in second heat of the Final of the Branksome "Cirrus" Handicap.
THE BRISTOL FLYING .MEETING: 2, shows "Dangerous Dan" flying in an "Avian" and a trilby hat.
The Cape Town Flying Club's first Avro "Avian," which was presented to them by the "Shell" Co. Our reader writes that this club has had to close down as it was unable to pay its way without a Government subsidy.
CRAZY FLYING - SLOTTED AND OTHERWISE: Sqdn.-Ldr. Noakes adds a few new spasms to his repertoire of crazy flying on the Avian with Handley-Page slots.
THE HAMPSHIRE AIR PAGEANT: Event 6, the President's Cup Race. Bert Hinkler well away on his Avro "Avian" ("Cirrus"), with new landing chassis.
TWO "AVIANS": Watt on QL just beats Gray on QN in the second heat of Hotels Association Sweepstake. The final of this race was also won by Watt, with Gray third.
AT THE BOURNEMOUTH MEETING: 4, Bert Hinkler on his "Avian" leads Broad on the "Moth" in the Final of the Hotels and Restaurants Race.
Hinkler flying the Avian in 581E form, Bournemouth, Easter 1927.
A FEW MORE GOOD FRIDAY PICTURES: 4, Third, fourth and fifth in Branksome "Cirrus" Handicap were: Pope on PG, Stack on PU, and Gray on QN.
OPEN HANDICAP: Miss W.S. Brown, (centre) on her Avro "Avian" (Cirrus), winning the Open Handicap from Capt. Baker on an Avro "Avian" and Flight-Lieut. T. Rose on the D.H. "Moth" by two seconds.
HOOTON AIR PAGEANT: (4) Mrs. Eliott-Lynn on Avian "QL" (left), Mr. Fielding on Bluebird "SV" (middle), and Mr. Lacayo on Moth "MF" (right) coming in at the end of the first lap in Inter-Club Members' Race.
GOOD HANDICAPPING: Four machines approaching the finishing line in the first heat of the Holiday Final Handicap on Easter Monday. The machines are, in the order of finishing: OU (Sempill), QL (Cantrill), JT (Openshaw), and KQ (Hamersley).
Two Moths, a Widgeon and an Avro 504 approach the finishing line in another race.
THE PRIVATE OWNERS' HANDICAP: The machines are here seen approaching the aerodrome turning point at the conclusion of the second lap. Mr. Norman Jones was so far ahead as to be out of the picture. The others are, in the order given - Longton, on the "Bluebird," de Havilland on "Moth" NO, Col. Sempill on D.H. 51, Hinkler on his "Avian," Lady Bailey on her "Moth," PU, and Scroggs on the Westland "Woodpigeon."
THE BRISTOL FLYING .MEETING: 1, Line-up for the Final of the First Handicap Race. The machines include, from left to right, the Halton "Mayfly," Lady Bailey's "Moth" PU, Watt's "Avian," QL, and the Farnborough Club "Avian," ON.
GOOD FRIDAY AT BOURNEMOUTH: 5, the line-up of the Poole Handicap with Watt nearest the camera.
The Zurich Meeting: The glider shown in this photograph was repeatedly towed behind a Fieseler aeroplane and released, landing in front of the judges' stand. In background may be seen the Avro "Avian."
"Bert" Hinkler adjusting the "Cirrus" engine of his Avro "Avian" light 'plane before setting out on his remarkable lone flight from England to Australia in 1928. He accomplished the journey to his native land in the record time of 14 days, and on arriving there flew on to his home town and other parts of the Commonwealth - naturally receiving an enthusiastic reception everywhere.
HINKLER'S FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: On the left, the "Great Little Man" is seen at work on his engine. On the right a "close-up" of the special vice Hinkler has made. This fits on an engine bearer, and enables work, such as adjusting a tappet rod or dismantling a sparking plug, to be carried out with convenience. The short air intake pipe has, where it joins the carburettor a "choke plate" which Hinkler uses for starting, in place of the usual rag. The "Avian" bristles with special "gadgets" thought out by Hinkler.
HINKLER'S FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: Two views of the special "K" type jury strut used by Hinkler for folding the wings of his "Avian". The photograph on the left shows the "K" strut in place, while on the right it is seen partly folded. A single bolt in the centre is undone, and the two halves of the "K" strut then fold into lower and upper wing respectively, where they are housed in slots in such a way as to fair in with the wing surfaces.
HINKLER'S FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: This view of the "Avian" with wings folded gives a good idea of the way in which Hinkler's special type of undercarriage lowers the front of the machine and makes the "Cirrus" engine very accessible. Also the wheels move aft and relieve the tail skid of nearly all its load.
The Avro "Alpha-Avian" is fitted with the new Avro Alpha engine.
THE NOTTINGHAM FLYING MEETING: Hinkler on the Avro "Alpha-Avian" in the Grosvenor Cup.
Hooton Air Pageant: Squadron-Leader J. Noakes giving an exhibition of his famous crazy flying on an Avro Avian. He also put an Avro Gosport through his crazy tricks. These events were very popular.
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT BERLIN: The Avro "Avian" light 'plane, fitted with the Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet II" engine.
THE AVRO "AVIAN III": Three-quarter front view. Note the neat engine cowling and "clean" nose.
The Avro "Avian" (30-80 h.p. "Cirrus" Engine), which is to operate with the Seal Fisheries in Newfoundland in place of the Avro "Baby," the latter now retiring after several years of useful work.
BRITISH AIRCRAFT AT BERLIN: The Avro "Avian" light 'plane, fitted with the A.D.C. "Cirrus II" engine.
On March 2nd of this year, Mr. Wenlin Chen left Croydon Aerodrome in an Avro Avian. On May 10th, he arrived at Amoy, China. Throughout this 14,000 mile flight across Europe and Asia no trouble was experienced, and Mr.Wenlin Chen expressed complete satisfaction with the machine. This Avro Avian is one of fourteen ordered by the Chinese Government for a school to be opened at Nanking
The lighter, smaller Avro-Avian is specially suited for flying clubs. 100 m.p.h. 20 miles per gallon.
THE AVRO "AVIAN III": Three-quarter rear view.
FLIGHT TO AUSTRALIA: An Avro "Avian" light aeroplane will leave Croydon within the next few days on a flight to Australia. The pilot is Capt. W. N. Lancaster, R.A.F. (Res.), and the passenger is Mrs. Keith Miller, wife of a well-known Australian journalist. The machine is fitted with a 32/80 h.p. Cirrus engine, and is a standard machine except for having larger tanks fitted. The route will be via Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, Rome, Naples, Malta, Khoms and Benghasi in African Italy, Sollum in Egypt, thence via Irak, Persia, Calcutta, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, to Port Darwin, Australia, and it is planned that the flight will take from five to six weeks. The "Avian" will carry a letter from the High Commissioner in London to the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia. It has been christened the "Red Rose," as Capt. Lancaster is a Lancastrian.
To Australia by Light Aeroplane: Capt.W.N. Lancaster and his passenger, Mrs. Keith Miller, in their "Red Rose" before the departure for Australia from Croydon on October 14. In this Avro "Avian" they reached Pisa from Marseilles on October 19, and Rome and Naples the next day. On October 21 Catania in Sicily was gained, and Malta the following day. On October 24 the "Red Rose" reached Tripoli, North Africa. This "Avian" is fitted with the Cirrus 32/80 h.p. engine. Capt. Lancaster is an officer in the Air Force Reserve and his passenger is the wife of a well-known Australian journalist.
Mrs. Hilton Philipson, M.P., taking off from Croydon Aerodrome in an Avro "Avian." She is thought to be the first lady M.P. to have flown.
THE WINNER: Miss Winifred Brown, tired but happy, gives the photographers a chance at Hanworth at the end of the race.
Visitors to the Lympne Meeting: Mr. and Mrs. F.P.Raynham, with their "Avian," which Mr. Raynham has bought for photographic survey work.
Completed in 1928 and first owned by the Liverpool & District Aero Club, Avro Avian IIIA G-EBXY was latterly operated by the Blackpool & Fylde Aero Club. In December 1939 'XY was impressed into the RAF and became instructional airframe 2078M. It is pictured here at Stanley Park, Blackpool.
How it was done in the Twenties and Thirties. Arthur Butler’s Avro Avian being serviced somewhere in the Australian outback.
'WC in company with Avro Avian G-EBWU at Lympne. On July 7, 1928, a club member taxied 'WC, “at great velocity into one of the permanent hangars. The hangar proved to be more permanent than the Moth, which looked uncommonly like a write-off”.
A USEFUL PAIR: Miss Winifred Brown finds that her Armstrong-Siddeley Car makes a very convenient combination with her Avro "Avian" (Cirrus) light aeroplane. This Lancashire airwoman is as skilful a hockey player as she is motorist and air pilot, and in the North Country she is well known in hockey circles. Miss Brown qualified as a pilot with the Lancashire Aero Club, and has been a private owner for a considerable time.
This is a section of the Manchester crowd at the Pageant last Saturday watching the Avro "Avian" (their own production) take-off.
HOME: The Avro "Avian III" ("Cirrus" 30-80 h.p. engine) taxying in at Croydon aerodrome on May 17 after the first solo light 'plane flight from Cape Town to England. In the background are some mechanics of A.D.C. Aircraft whose engine played such a reliable part in Lady Heath's tour.
A lady victorious: Commander Perrin shepherds in Miss Browns winning Avian at the conclusion of the 1930 contest.
An AVRO "AVIAN" CIRRUS MARK III Won the King's Cup Air Race in 1930.
Sir.Charles Wakefield's Gift: The Avro "Cirrus-Avian" presented by Sir Charles to the Federal Government was handed over by Mr. Bruce to the Australian Aero Club; (N.S.W. Section) on March 31 at Mascot aerodrome. In the photograph the machine is seen just after being erected at the Larkin Works, Melbourne.
Capt. H. A. Brown has now joined Avro's "Avian" sales department as demonstrator, and is also the firm's test pilot.
PENALTY OF FAME: Lady Heath was besieged by photographers at Croydon aerodrome when she landed on May 17, and is here seen facing the battery beside her reliable Avro "Avian" ("Cirrus"). A large crowd raised cheers as she stepped from the machine.
CIRRUS-AVIAN FLIGHT TO CHINA: Mr. Wen Lin Tschen (left) is now flying to China in this Cirrus-Avian with Mr. Johannsen (right), a Dane. They left Croydon at the beginning of March and were last reported along the Persian Gulf. This is the first attempt to fly from England to China in a British light 'plane.
SNAPSHOTS FROM SOUTH AFRICA: On the left are Lady Heath, Mr. Brian Russell and Sir James Heath standing before the former's Avro "Avian," which was in course of erection at Young's Field, the aerodrome outside Cape Town. On the right is Lady Heath tightening up the propeller, whilst other energetic workers are seen under the machine and in the rear cockpit.
This is the Avro "Avian" which A. V. Roe and Co. have supplied to the Hampshire Aero Club. It is fitted with the new undercarriage which is automatically swept back when the wings are folded, bringing the machine nearer the ground. Thus the engine is more accessible for inspection and adjustment. Also a good deal of weight is taken off the tail skid, thereby facilitating the manoeuvring of the machine. These photographs were taken at Woodford Aerodrome, Cheshire, after the machine had been tested.
THE AVRO "AVIAN III": This view shows the machine with the port wings spread and the starboard wings folded, to illustrate how undercarriage wheels move back when wings are folded. The telescopic jury struts fold flat aganst the top plane when in flight.
THE AVRO EXHIBIT: The two "Avians," that on the left being fitted with an Armstrong Siddeley "Genet II," the other having an A.D.C. "Cirrus II."
FOLDING TESTS AT ORLY: Our machines showed superiority in the folding tests at the French Light 'Plane Trials. (4) Lady Heath guides her Avro "Avian" safely through in the best time, with Capt. Percival (left) helping.
Service. B.P. refuelling an Avian from one of their portable pumps.
The line up for the Kingston-upon-Hull Air Race.
HULLO, TWINS!: F./O. G. Thorne on the Avro "Avian I" ("Cirrus II") and "J. Wellworth" on the Westland "Widgeon III" ("Genet"), who started together, flew the course together, and finished together!
TAKING OFF AT ORLY: (1) The Avro "Avian" (Cirrus) flown by Capt. Percival.
THE KING'S CUP AND SIDDELEY TROPHY: Some competitors starting from Hendon on the first stage. Bernard Martin on the Avro Avian (No. 22), Wing-Com. S. W. Smith on the D.H. Moth X (No. 15), and Capt. G. de Havilland on another Moth X, take off together.
THE KING'S CUP AND SIDDELEY TROPHY: Some competitors starting from Hendon on the first stage. C. E. F. Boyes (left) and E. W. Percival off together, both on Avians fitted respectively with Armstrong-Siddeley "Genet II" and A.D.C. "Cirrus III" engines.
Mr. Cantrill, in the Avro "Avian," bombing the Austin "Baby."
Taking Over: A new Avro "Avian" going through its acceptance test with Miss Winifred Brown on board, who afterwards purchased it. She is a member of the Lancashire Aeroplane Club and learned to fly as such. One of her recent flights was to Croydon from the north, on the occasion of the visit of the King of Afghanistan.
THE END OF A PERFECT DAY: Miss Brown's "Avian" is seen at the moment of crossing the finishing line.
GETTING THEM DOWN AT WAALHAVEN: Various styles of landing over the tape are shown. 8. Miss Brown, "Cirrus-Avian."
The Avro "Avian" inducing air-mindedness into the people of Napier, a town in the North Island of New Zealand, where an aero club is being formed. On the occasion when these machines were flying, about 300 people were flown at one guinea each.
THE AVRO "AVIAN III": Three views of the machine in flight, as a landplane, and a view of it fitted with floats.
SUCCESSFUL COMPETITORS IN THE 1928 ORLY MEETING: Herr R. Lusser (left) won with 1,691 points on the Klemm (Salmson) machine shown above him. Capt. E. W. Percival (centre) was second with 1,606 points on the Avro "Avian" (Cirrus Mk. III) (above); and Capt. H. Broad (right) third with 1,581 points on the Gipsy-Moth (above).
The Johannesburg Flying Meeting: A close finish. Lady Heath winning the 12-mile handicap race in her Avro "Avian," with Lieut. Bentley a good second in his D.H. "Moth." Note the big crowd.
AT HAMBLE: The two Avro "Avians," flown by Flt.-Lieut. Luxmoore and Capt. H. A. Brown, fighting their duel in the Morris Open Handicap, with the former on "XY" leading.
THE KING'S CUP AND SIDDELEY TROPHY: Some competitors starting from Hendon on the first stage. R. G. Cazalet on a Widgeon III ("Cirrus II"), and just behind him Flight-Lieut. Ragg on an Avian ("Cirrus").
The finish of the Grosvenor Challenge Cup Race: The Newcastle Club's "Moth" 'PT (G. S. Kemp) comes in first with their other "Moth" 'QV (H. L. B. Dixon) second, and the Lancashire Aero Club "Avian " 'EC (A. Goodfellow) third.
SOME OTHER COMPETITORS: (4) Capt. T. N. Stack, who nearly won, on the "Hermes-Avian."
AVRO "AVIANS" AT HOME AND ABROAD: (1) The Lancashire Aero Club's new Avro "Avian" flying over Woodford Aerodrome during the acceptance test by Mr. Hall, Chief Instructor. Note the new type undercarriage. (2) Mr. R. S. Adair (left), a pilot of Aircrafts Proprietary, Ltd., with the official of General Motors Acceptance Corporation, at the conclusion of their 1,500 miles tour of Queensland, Australia, in an Avro "Avian." (3) A very good close-up of a stalled landing on the "Avian" fitted with Handley Page slots. (4) Miss Lya de Putti, the Hungarian film star, nestling to her own "Avian" at the Grand Central Air Terminal, New York. She is now in England and is sending to America for her machine.
RELIABILITY TRIAL: These are pictures of events during Lady Heath's forced landing on the beach at Trouville in the Avro "Avian." The landing cost her 60 points, for she did not reach Le Havre until the next day.
AN "AVIAN" IN SOUTH AFRICA: In this interesting group discussing the unpacking of Lady Heath's "Avian" at Cape Town will be noticed Sir James Heath (with walking stick) and Lady Heath, whilst stroking the glossy neck of the horse is Col. Henderson. The lady rider is Miss Jute, of Johannesburg, who learned to fly with Col. Henderson and was ready to go solo within a week.
Lady Heath's Avro "Avian" (Cirrus) (on photo) and Lt. R. Bentley's D.H. "Moth" (Cirrus) at Broken Hill during the combined flight through Africa.
The Johannesburg Flying Meeting: An interested group round Lady Heath's "Avian." From left to right: Mr. A. N. Other; Capt. Bellin, Instructor to the Jo'burg Club, Major Miller (in white cap); Glen Bateman, the first soloist of any S. African flying Club; Rod Douglas, Secretary of Jo'burg Club; and behind Lady Heath (in cockpit), Lieut. Bentley.
Lady Heath has recently completed a flying tour of several American States on behalf of the American "Cirrus" engine. She flew a Cirrus-Avian and acted as her own pilot, mechanic, and saleswoman. About 3,000 miles were covered, and orders were lodged with her, we understand, for over 100 engines.
LADY HEATH'S TOUR IN SOUTH AFRICA: The arrival of Lady Heath at East London in her Avro "Avian"
In this general view of Croydon Aerodrome under wintry conditions are the many machines which brought their owners to greet Lady Bailey. They include Capt. G. de Havilland's Coupe-Moth, Mr. G. A. R. Malcolm's Gipsy-Moth and Lt.-Col. L. A. Strange's Simmonds "Spartan." Also in the picture, which was taken from a "D.H." Moth piloted by Capt. A. S. White, are the "Daily Mail" "Geraldine" (D.H.61) and Alpha-Avian.
THE BRISTOL AIR PAGEANT: A portion of the "Parade." Nearest the camera is a de Havilland "Cirrus-Moth." Ahead of that a Westland "Cirrus-Widgeon," an Avro "Cirrus-Avian" and a Blackburn "Genet-Bluebird."
BLACKPOOL: General View of the Machine Park, with the private light aeroplanes in the foreground, of which there were about 50, and the Royal Air Force machines, which included night bombers, day bombers and single-seater fighters, in the distance.
The line-up and winners of two of the three racing events at the Newcastle Pageant. Top: Air League Challenge Cup: N. S. Todd. Bottom, Grosvenor Challenge Cup: G. S. Kemp. Both of Newcastle!
AVIANS "EX WORKS." - A batch of Cirrus-Avians at Woodford ready for collection. It will be seen that the one nearest the camera bears Spanish registration marks. The Spanish agent finds it quicker and cheaper to fly his Avians to Spain than to ship them.
Pre-war picture of Avian G-EBZM.
An effort to reconstruct the Avian IIIA, G-EBZM (c/n. R3/CN/160), which has been in store at Southport, is now being made in the Manchester area.
A STUDY IN "NOSES": On the left the "Cirrus-Avian" and on the right the "Genet-Avian.'' Note the novel arrangement of the exhaust pipes on the latter.
The Earl of March with his Avro "Avian" (Armstrong Siddeley "Genet") outside Goodwood House. The registration letters are G-AACF.
A new version of the Avian, which is now at Heston. It belongs to Cellon, Ltd., and has a 7-cylinder Genet Engine.
A METAL AVIAN TO SERVE THE SHELL INTERESTS: This machine is one of the latest acquisitions of the Shell-Mex organisation. They are now launching a scheme whereby an attack will be made on the Dominion markets with the aid of aircraft, and this Avian (Genet Major) was christened, together with two Moths (Gipsy), at Croydon Aerodrome on Thursday, February 6.
Before last year's race: The Avro Avian (Genet Major), which is being flown this year by No. 36, A. H. Tweddle.
The line-up for the Final, with the only biplane, A. H. Tweddle's Avian (Armstrong-Siddeley Genet), in the foreground. Although fairly new to the racing game, Tweedle's flying was remarkably consistent in both Friday's and Saturday's races.
George Reynolds about to flag off A. H. Tweedle in Avro Avian G-ABME, the oldest and slowest aircraft.
Selling "Aviation" in Singapore. A Genet Major Avian in the showroom of Malayan Motors.
George Fuller of Montreal has discovered a photograph of an Avro Type 594 Avian powered by a Genet radial . This Canadian Genet Avian 2-seater of the early 1930s was registered CF-CAR. This has a 1957 echo in that an ex-A.N.A. DC-3 recently converted by Timmins Aviation, Montreal, with retractable wheel /ski u/c. and Arctic colours is now CF-CAR.
An Avro Avian just supplied to A.S.T. for instruction use at Hamble. This Machine is now fitted with Dunlop low-pressure tyres and the Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major Engine.
This is the Avro "Avian" with Armstrong Siddeley "Genet" engine, which Mr. J. D. Siddeley presented to the Ottawa Flying Club, which now has two of these machines. In the group are (left to right), Capt. L. E. Maynard, Ottawa Club Instructor, Capt. M. Windsor, Canadian Manager of Armstrong Siddeley Motors, Ltd., Mr. W. L. McIntyre, General Manager of the Ottawa Car Co., which constructs Avians under licence, and Mr. L. Roberts, Club Secretary.
WELL EQUIPPED "AVIANS": A group of five "Avians" equipped with Goodyear Air-wheels and Handley-Page slots, ready for delivery by the Ottawa Car Co., the Canadian licensees for A. V. Roe, Ltd.
CANADIAN ENTERPRISE: A metal Avro Avian (Genet Major) built in Canada. This aircraft has a wide range of utility in Canada, where the prevalence of lakes and other stretches of water make the seaplane much more practical than the landplane for such work as forest fire patrol and so on.
ENTERPRISE IN CANADA: An Avro Avian Seaplane (Genet Major) on the Ottawa River.
FOR SEAPLANE TRAINING: An "Avian" (7-cyl. Armstrong-Siddeley Genet Major) with all-metal "boots," which is used for training seaplane pilots at Hamble by Air Service Training, Ltd.
AT THE SLIPWAY: A.S.T. have their own slipway at Hamble so that getting their seaplanes afloat does not present much difficulty.
AST grouping within the huge Avro/AW works building on the southern airfield. Foreground, left to right: Avro 616 Avian IVM floatplane G-ABKB, entered service in March 1931 and served on until being impressed, as instructional airframe 2073M, in February 1940. Saro A.17 Cutty Sark G-ACDP served AST from April 1933 until April 1939 when it was scrapped. Avro 504N G-EBKQ was converted by Avro at Hamble and flew for them in several capacities, the most famous of which was as Bert Hinkler’s mount in the gruelling 1925 King’s Cup which was staged out of Croydon over 1,608 miles and two days in July. In 1930 it was converted to 5040 seaplane status and joined AST, retiring in June 1931 to act as an instructional airframe.
WITH "BOOTS" ON: The A.S.T. seaplane fleet flying over our photographer at Hamble. Left to right, the " Avian," "Tutor," "504."
AIRCRAFT IN THE KING'S CUP: Avro "Avian" (85-h.p. "Gipsy").
AN AVIAN DEVELOPMENT: A view of an Avian belonging to the Lancashire Aero Club which is now fitted with 22 in. by 10 in. Goodyear Balloon tyres.
In July 1936 Ernie Clark purchased Avro Avian IV G-AAHE and operated it from Ford in West Sussex. Clark flew the machine regularly, including trips to the Continent, until his return to New Zealand in October that year. The Avian’s C of A expired the following March and it was presumably stored until its acquisition by Horton Kirby Flying Club in Kent in January 1939.
Avro Avian G-AAHN under overhaul on August 3, 1937.
Avro Avian light aeroplane 2-seater.
THE NEW SHELL-MEX AVIAN (GIPSY II): This aircraft has recently been added to the Shell fleet, as we announced in FLIGHT for February 20, and is fitted with Dunlop Semi-Balloon Aero Wheels. With the split axle undercarriage and the sports tyre fuselage top faring it should be an exceptionally pleasant machine.
Bearing the same registration, N-38, as the D.H.60X Moth Gunnestad crashed in the streets of Calais (formerly G-EBSU, c/n 428) in March 1929, Cirrus-engined Avro Avian IV N-38 (c/n 323) was acquired by Gunnestad a matter of weeks later and became LN-ABF in the early 1930s. It later became part of the pilot’s Fornebu Flyveselskap fleet from 1934.
Mr. Alan Goodfellow (left) and Mr. M. L. Bramson, for Lancashire and Hanworth Clubs, respectively, clearing the tape with commendably little to spare when competing for the Hart Trophy.
AIRCRAFT IN THE KING'S CUP: The Avro "Avian" ("Cirrus"). Mr. Dobson's all-metal Avro "Avian" in the machine parade.
LANDING IN THE DESPREZ CHALLENGE CUP COMPETITION: 4, Mr. Ashworth, a member of the Nottingham Aero Club, in his Cirrus-Avian.
Gunnestad (right) and mechanic Ole Naess beside the Avian at an aviation meeting. Naess flew in the Vega in preparation for Gunnestad’s North Sea adventure in October 1933, but did not join him and Thor Bernhoft on the flight. An accomplished parachutist, Naess was tragically killed during one of his demonstration parachute jumps in 1937.
Mrs. B. Simonius, who recently took her pilot's certificate at the Basel aerodrome.
The third to arrive, Flt. Lt. H. R A. Edwards, emerges from his Avro Avian; very wet.
On the Avro Stand: In the foreground the Avro 10; on the left the Avro 5, and on the right the "Avian" with "Genet Major" engine.
SCENES AT THE START: 1 - Nos. 23 (Avian IV Cirrus III), 22 (Avian IV Cirrus III), 21 (Widgeon III Genet II), 28 (Martlet Genet II), 27 (Widgeon III Hermes II) lined up for the start.
A view out of the hangar at Hamble, showing the "Avians," "Cadets," "Atlases" and "Siskins" used by A.S.T.
The staggering formation of aircraft was flown by instructors of Air Training Services Ltd in 1934. The aircraft are, from top to bottom: Avro Avian IVM, Avro Cadet, Avro Tutor, D.H.9J, Avro 626, Armstrong Whitworth Siskin III, Armstrong Whitworth Atlas, Saro Cutty Sark and an Avro Five.
Hermes / Sports
Peter Eckersley’s red-decked silver Avro Avian IV G-AABX. Based at Barton for several years, 'BX was impressed into RAF service during the war as an instructional airframe.
Самолет серии 616 Sports Avian, проданный в Новую Зеландию и летавший еще в 1960-х годах.
The B.L.G. undercarriage in action on an Avro Avian. Above is seen a take-off, showing the front wheels off the ground. On the left is a landing. The pilot was Mr. R. L. Palmer, of the Hanworth School, who has done the testing and is doing the demonstrations of the undercarriage. The elevator is in the neutral position in both cases.
The experimental model of the B.L.G. undercarriage on the Avian. On the left are seen the three wheels, with the rear strut extended. On the right, the rear strut is telescoped. Note the long stroke. The rear strut operates an over-riding device which releases the front wheel brakes as soon as the rear wheel leaves the ground.
One of our own experiments in this tricycle business - the Cowey. It should be useful as a conversion arrangement - for military types in particular. In the photograph the Cowey "third wheel" is at the top of its travel.
A. V. Roe & Co., Ltd., have recently supplied an Avian (Hermes II) to the Gothenburg Aero Club. The machine was subscribed for by prominent business men in Gothenburg, and was flown to Sweden by Mr. Gosta Andree, Secretary of the Club.
THE "SOUTHERN CROSS JNR.": Kingsford-Smith's Avro "Avian Sports" (de Havilland "Gipsy II" engine) on which he accomplished his record flight to Australia.
KINGSFORD-SMITH'S LONG-RANGE "AVIAN": Three-quarter Front View. The engine is a De Havilland "Gipsy II."
COCKPIT AND NOSE OF THE LONG-RANGE "AVIAN": Extra fuel tanks were fitted, giving a duration of about 20 hours.
AFTER THE BAPTISM The B.P. (Jo.'s new Avian (Hermes II) ready for business.
Avro "Avian" ("Hermes II") two seater.
FOR THE BUENOS AIRES EXHIBITION: This Avro "Avian" , "Cirrus-Hermes" II engine, has been shipped to Argentina, where it will be used for demonstration flights at El Palomar aerodrome.
A HERMES AVIAN: Henlys, Ltd., of Piccadilly, have bought this Avian for their aviation representative.
TEAM WORK'S JUST REWARD: Flight-Lieut, de Le Poer Trench holding the Cup which he won in the Kingston-upon-Hull Light Aeroplane Race. A victory which was largely made possible by the keen interest and hard work put in by the A.D.C. ground staff.
AT THE KAI TAX AERODROME, HONG KONG: The "Avian-Hermes" of the Far-East Aviation Co. Mr. Smith (in white trousers) is a director, and Mr. Vaughan Fowler is manager and pilot.
Lionel Balfour and his sister Rachel pose beside Avro Avian II G-EBSD in the airfield in the grounds of the chateau. Lionel went on to become a Director of Portsmouth, Southsea & Isle of Wight Aviation, which provided a highly successful pre-war air ferry service between Portsmouth and Ryde using Airspeed and Monospar aircraft.
P. T. Eckersley, Captain of the Lancashire County Cricket Team and a keen pilot of a Hermes-Avian.
COMPETITORS AND JUDGES: The photograph shows Mr. R. F. Hall and his passenger, Dr. Templeton, who, in a Hermes-Avian, won for the Lancashire Aero Club the S.B.A.C. Cup for a race from London to Bristol.
Flight-Lieut. Trench with his Rally winner, Avro Avian, fitted with a "Cirrus-Hermes" engine
Mr. S. A. Thorn, the new test pilot, and Mr. J. V. Holman, the assistant sales manager, of Cirrus Engines, Ltd.
EDUCATING THE YOUNG IDEA: At the Schoolboys' Exhibition in January last, Henlys, the Avian Agents, instituted an essay competition with free flights as the prizes. The 50 winners were given their flights at Heston on Wednesday and Thursday, April 8 and 9. The broad gentleman on the left is Mr. J. Holman, the Sales Manager of the Cirrus-Hermes Engineering Co., Ltd., who took up many of the boys in the Company's Avian (Hermes) in front of which they are standing. On the right are Mr. B. S. Allen, Henly's Aviation representative and his assistant, Mr. Stace, who of course also used Avians for this work.
THE FATAL STROKE! Mrs. Taylor photographed just after striking the fatal blow! Mr. Allen, of Henly's, evidently thinks his aircraft worth such an anointing.
Miss W. Brown's "Sports Avian" fills up with National Benzole at Hooton.
SCENES AT THE START: 3 - Miss Brown's Avian "Jerry" is nearest the camera (this is of course her new machine and not the one she won on last year), with Lord Douglas Hamilton's Moth just behind.
THE BRITISH REPRESENTATIVES: So far all the British Competitors have been doing well in the Circuit of Europe. Here they are shown during their stay at Heston: 4, Mr. Thorn slows down (Hermes-Avian).
Mr. Thorn (Avian Hermes) well over in the take-off test.
Sqn. Ldr. and Mrs. Edwards after the former had won the Tynwald race with his ancient Avian - which is seen here just after crossing the finishing line at a phenomenally low altitude.
BRISBANE TO ADELAIDE IN ONE DAY: Mr. F. H. Broadbent leaving Essenden (Melbourne) aerodrome after refuelling during his one-day solo flight through four States from Brisbane to Adelaide on August 12. This flight was made in a Sports "Avian," using Shell spirit.
The Auckland Aero Club's Avian (Hermes II) flying over Auckland.
A. SPORTS MODEL: The new Avian ("Hermes") provides for the private owner who wants something with a rather better performance than the ordinary light aeroplane offers. In the centre the well-shaped fairing and folding windscreens, can be seen, while the folding flap in the centre-section allows easy access to the rear cockpit.
THE "CIRRUS HERMES" AERO ENGINE: An Avro "Avian," fitted with the new "Hermes" engine, and piloted by Capt. Neville Stack, touches some 125 m.p.h. at Croydon Aerodrome. Below are two views showing the neat installation and cowling of the "Hermes" in the "Avian."
WAITING FOR THE FLAG: Two "Avro Avian Sports" and a "Puss Moth" on the Starting Line.
MEMBERS OF THE AVRO FAMILY: Beginning with the machine in the foreground, the types lined up are: The "Avian Monoplane," the "Avian" biplane, the "Avro Trainer," the Avro Five and the Avro Six.
The start of the first heat for the Race at Skegness: (Left to right) "Avian," "Cadet," "Avian," "Spartan," "Widgeon" and Autogiro - the last, in its first race.
THE HONG KONG CLUB: The two machines of the Club are shown against a background which makes forced landings undesirable! For this reason, the land undercarriage will also be changed for floats. Both machines are Avians ("Hermes") and a lot of good work has been done on them.
BEDFORD: The line up of demonstration machines, showing Metal Moth (Gipsy I), Puss Moth (Gipsy III). Desoutter II (Gipsy III), Moth (Cirrus III), Avian (Hermes), Autogiro (Genet Major).
BRITISH AIRCRAFT IN THE FAR EAST: A batch of Avro "Avians" with "Hermes II" engines in the hangar at Kai Tak aerodrome. There are approximately 50 "Avians" in China, fitted with either the "Hermes II" or "Cirrus III" engines.
Mr. Thorn's "Avian" (Hermes), No. 41, had very short exhaust stubs, metal fairings to strut ends, wing roots faired into fuselage, passenger's cockpit covered, and a long narrow windscreen for the pilot (117-95 m.p.h.)
Home. It was in this Barton hangar that the author served his apprenticeship. On the right is cricketer Peter Eckersley’s Avro Avian. Other aircraft include Avro 504Ks, a D.H.53 and a D.H.9.
AN AVRO "AVIAN" FOR SURVEY WORK IN TANGANYIKA: Note the air filter fitted to the air intake to prevent dust and from entering the air intake. The Vickers-Potts oil cooler will be noticed.
ROOF-TOP TRANSPORT: How an Avian fuselage arrived at the Gatwick shops of Airwork, Ltd., for repair. It departed homewards by the same method.
APPOSITE: Christmas greetings from Air Service Training Ltd. at Hamble. The message is formed by white-overalled humanity "on the hands down," and the "A.S.T." consists of the ten different aircraft types which form the organisation's fleet: Avro V, 626, Avian, Tutors and Cadets; two-seater Siskin; A.W. Atlas; two Cutty Sarks; and D.H. Leopard Moth and Hornet Moth.
THE AVRO "AVIAN III": Photographic plan view of the control unit. Note the pedal adjustment for pilots of different heights.
THE AVRO "AVIAN III": Above - A top centre-section with and without the petrol tank. Below - A wing root of the lower plane. This is of triangular plan form to suit the folding arrangements of the wings.
EXTRA TANKAGE: Two photographs, taken before the fuselage covering was put on, showing the installation of the extra large petrol tank, &c.
RUNNING ON AIR: A pair of Goodyear 22 x 10-4 Air-Wheels fitted to Avro "Avian" G-AACV owned by Airwork, Ltd., of Heston.