de Havilland DH.85 Leopard Moth
Самолет DH.85 Leopard Moth появился в 1933 году как наследник модели DH.83 Puss Moth. При внешнем сходстве с предшественником он обладал рядом отличий, в том числе новой конструкцией фюзеляжа. Силовой набор из стальных труб заменили деревянным из ели и фанеры
с кабиной для пилота и двух пассажиров, сидевших плечом к плечу на заднем сиденье. Прототип впервые взлетел 27 мая 1933 года в Стэг-Лэйне. Всего через две недели он выиграл ежегодные авиагонки на Королевский кубок в Хэтфилде. Еще два таких же самолета заняли третье и шестое места. Это хорошее начало гарантировало коммерческий успех. За три года построили, сначала в Стэг-Лэйн, а затем в Хэтфилде, 132 таких аэроплана.
DH.85A Leopard Moth: обозначение прототипа после переделки под установку мотора de Havilland Gipsy Six R мощностью 230 л.с. (172 кВт) с винтом изменяемого шага для испытаний
de Havilland DH.85 Leopard Moth
Тип: трехместный спортивно-туристический самолет
Силовая установка: рядный поршневой мотор de Havilland Gipsy Major мощностью 130 л.с. (97 кВт)
Летные характеристики: максимальная скорость 220 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; крейсерская скорость 192 км/ч на оптимальной высоте; начальная скороподъемность 168 м/мин; практический потолок 6555 м; дальность полета 1151 км
Масса: пустого самолета 637 кг; максимальная взлетная масса 1009 кг
Размеры: размах крыла 11,43 м; длина 7,47 м; высота 2,67 м; площадь крыла 19,14м2
Flight, November 1933
DE HAVILLAND "LEOPARD MOTH"
WHEN the de Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., produced the first batch of six "Leopard Moths," three of which took part in the King's Cup Race and one of which won the race, piloted by its designer, Capt. Geoffrey de Havilland, it was known that these six machines were the forerunners of a new standard de Havilland model. The six machines have been flown fairly hard between last July and the present time, and so the experience accumulated before the final details of the production model were settled has been fairly extensive. This should mean that the production machines should be without those minor "snags" which can be so irritating to customers, and which may in exceptional cases be serious enough to mar the future of a new type. The first production "Leopard Moth" was finished a short time ago, but as the purchaser has not yet made up his mind about the colour scheme, the second production model was actually the first to go into the air, which it did early this week. The following notes and sketches, etc., were prepared from the production machines, but time did not permit us to include photographs of the actual production machine, and the two photographs published herewith show the winner and third respectively in the King's Cup Race. The changes made in the production model are not great, and would not be noticeable except by very careful inspection of the machines themselves.
Although resembling the famous "Puss Moth" a good deal in outward appearance, the "Leopard Moth" differs from the earlier machine both in structural features and in the layout of the seating accommodation. Whereas the "Puss Moth" was primarily a two-seater, with provision for an occasional third seat, the "Leopard Moth" is fundamentally a three-seater, with pilot in front and the two passengers side by side behind him. The cabin furnishings are extremely comfortable and of attractive appearance, and the view is, thanks to the generous window area and the inverted "Gipsy Major" engine, very good indeed. In the matter of external appearance the "Leopard Moth" differs from the "Puss Moth" mainly in that its monoplane wing is strongly tapered in plan view, while the undercarriage struts do not run to the top longerons, but to points down the sides of the cabin.
Structurally, the main difference is that the "Leopard Moth" has an all-wood fuselage, while that of the "Puss Moth" was of welded steel tube construction. The wing construction also differs in details, but not greatly in the general principles adopted.
After some years' experience of metal construction, the de Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., came to the conclusion that there was, after all, much to be said for the old wood construction. Generally speaking, it was found that whenever a machine was produced in metal, it proved heavier than the corresponding wooden machine, and also in most cases a good deal dearer. When the firm produced the “Fox Moth” there were those who regarded this machine as a retrograde step, because it was made entirely of wood except for a few highly stressed steel fittings. But the answer to the critics was that the "Fox Moth" had an amazing ratio of gross to tare weight, and that it could be sold at a competitive price, neither of which could have been realised had the machine been of metal construction. In the "Leopard Moth" similar structural principles have been employed, although the fact that the machine is a strut-braced monoplane has necessarily led to certain detail changes.
The fuselage of the "Leopard Moth" has a light skeleton of spruce, with a covering of plywood. The sides are flat, but the deck and bottom are cambered. The bottom of the primary fuselage structure is fiat, but under it run lengthwise two floor bearers or stringers, which project below the level of the longerons. The outer covering of the bottom is fabric, and here and there in the fuselage bottom are large inspection holes. The fabric is laced on in the vicinity of these holes, so that a portion of it can be turned back and the fuselage structure inspected through the holes in the plywood bottom. The space between the longitudinal bottom stringers is made use of for housing the controls, which are thus readily accessible for inspection and adjustment, but protected by the inner plywood bottom and the outer fabric covering.
The fuselage is built in two sections, which meet on a solid bulkhead behind the cabin, and are joined together by bolts through the longerons. Cupped steel washers are used under the bolt heads and nuts, so that the wood can shrink quite an appreciable amount without slackness developing.
In the wing construction also spruce and plywood are the chief structural materials. The two spars are of box type, with spruce flanges and plywood walls. The leading edge is covered with plywood, and the inner half of the wing is covered with plywood on the lower surface, from the wing root to the wing strut attachments. The wing ribs in the inner portion have spruce flanges and solid plywood webs. The drag member is in the form of a stout spruce beam, some 2 in. square, which runs from the inner end of the rear spar to the wing strut attachment on the front spar. This strut lies at the bottom of the wing section and is glued to the under surface plywood covering. The petrol tanks are placed in this part of the wing.
Bracing of the wing is by streamline-section steel-tube struts, hinged at their lower ends to the fuselage and attached to the wing by steel fittings. In order to "bury" the joint of the struts to the wing, plywood "boxes" are taped on after the wing fittings are in place, and "gaiters" with curved upper ends fair the struts into these "boxes." The wings are designed to fold, and the locking device on the front spar is illustrated by two photographs. When the locking catch has been turned, the locking pin is withdrawn by means of a cable lying inside the wing and terminating at its outer end in a ring which projects from the lower wing covering where the wing struts join the wing. From this position the pilot is well placed for folding the wing when the catch is released. To permit the folded wings to clear the top of the fuselage, the inner portions of the trailing edge are hinged upwards.
The undercarriage of the "Leopard Moth" is of the divided type, the vee struts being hinged at their upper ends to fittings on a stout wooden member on the bottom centreline of the fuselage. The telescopic legs are hinged to the sides of the fuselage, and are used as air brakes by being turned "broadside on." This is done by a transverse shaft which ends, like the upper ends of the telescopic legs, in toothed quadrants. The operating handle is on the right-hand side of the cabin. Dunlop wheels and brakes are fitted, and under the tail is a fully-castering tail wheel.
A steel-tube framework of square-section tubes supports the "Gipsy Major" engine, which is neatly cowled in. The wing tanks give, gravity feed to the carburetter. An oil tank is placed transversely across the fuselage, behind the engine bulkhead.
In the matter of performance, the "Leopard Moth" appears to be remarkably "clean." For example, the Everling "High-speed Figure" has a value of 30.5, which is far and away above the average. This figure relates speed to power and wing area, and a high value means that for the particular wing area the power used to attain the speed is low. The fuselage must obviously be of good shape, and the amount of interference between wings and fuselage must be very small indeed.
The cleanness of the machine is also reflected in the other performance figures, and it is interesting to record that the gliding angle is 1 in 12. When the air brakes are "on," this is lowered to a gliding angle of 1 in 9. The length of run to take off is 140 yd. at normal weight and 215 yd. at maximum gross weight. The take-off times are 12 sec. and 17 sec. respectively. By using the wheel brakes the landing run is reduced to 105 yd. and 140 yd, for the two loadings. The stalling speed is 45-50 m.p.h.
From the point of view of structural efficiency, the "Leopard Moth" appears to be of average "goodness." When the machine is fully equipped, the tare weight is 1,341 lb. As the maximum permissible gross weight for "Normal" C. of A. is 2,225 lb., the ratio of gross to tare weight is 1.66, so that the machine carries 66 per cent, of its own weight as disposable load. In view of the fact that the machine is a monoplane, this must be regarded as a satisfactory figure.
Flight, April 1936
MODERN LIGHT AIRCRAFT REVIEWED
For those who want a rather higher speed and a longer range than those provided by the Hornet, there is still the Leopard Moth, which can be considered to be the descendant of the ever-popular Puss Moth and has many of the same pleasant characteristics. With a Gipsy Major engine the Leopard Moth carries three people at a cruising speed or 117 m.p.h.
Although the Moth as we knew it is dead, the Tiger Moth is very much alive, and is used as a primary trainer all over the world. Since it is an excellent aerobatic performer, the word "primary" does not imply that its value as a trainer ends after a pupil's first solo.
The specification of the Leopard Moth is as follows: Span, folded, 12ft, 10in.; length, 26ft. 6in.; weight empty, 1,405 lb.; disposable load, 820 lb.; maximum speed, 138 m.p.h.; cruising speed a at 1,000 ft. 117 m.p.h.; stalling speed, 50 m.p.h.; initial climb, 625 ft./min.; range, 695 miles. Makers: De Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., Flat field, Herts.
Благодаря двигателю Gipsy Major мощностью 130л.с. (97 кВт) и обтекаемым формам, DH.85 (на рисунке) превосходил DH.80A по летным качествам. После установки мотора Gipsy R мощностью 230л.с. (172 кВт) самолет сменил обозначение на DH.85A. Он проходил испытания в ходе подготовки к созданию гоночного самолета DH.88 Comet.
После Второй мировой войны самолеты Leopard Moth продолжали летать в Африке, Австралии, Индии, Англии и Швейцарии. На этом швейцарском самолете отчетливо видна стреловидная передняя кромка DH.85, придававшая крылу трапециевидную форму.
FIRST PUBLIC APPEARANCE: The de Havilland "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major"). This is one of the experimental machines. Those in the King's Cup Race will have the registration numbers G-ACHB, ACHC and ACHD. For the last machine it may be remembered that "DH" is flying "HD."
TAKING DELIVERY: Sir Derwent Hall Caine standing by the de Havilland "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major") which has just been delivered to him. This is the machine entered by Sir Derwent in the King's Cup Race, and flown by Mr. Styran.
THIRD HOME: Mr. A. J. Styran, flying Sir Derwent Hall-Caine's "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major"), crossing the finishing line.
Mr. A. J. Styran flying Sir Derwent Hall-Caine's "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major") in which he won the Heston-Cardiff race on Saturday, July 22.
AN EARLY "LEOPARD MOTH": The machine entered by Sir Derwent Hall Caine and flown by the late Mr Styran in the 1933 King's Cup Race.
THE PROTOTYPE: The "Leopard Moth" which won the King's Cup Race this year, piloted by Capt. de Havilland himself. The production model does not differ in outward appearance from this machine.
В модификацию de Havilland DH.85 Leopard Moth ввели изменения, схожие с изменениями версии DH.83 Puss Moth - новое трапециевидное складное крыло со стреловидностью передних кромок, а также смещенные верхние точки крепления амортизаторов основных стоек шасси.
RESERVED FOR THE AVIATOR: Cloud such as these are often to be seen even in mid-winter, but usually it is necessary, as in the case of this de Havilland "Leopard Moth," to go to a height of more than 9,000 ft. to get into the sunshine.
The De Havilland Leopard Moth (Gipsy Major);
A small fast monoplane. The D.H. Leopard Moth
Leopard Moth G-ACLL is refuelled at Newtownards in June 1964. The elephant was going to be photographed in the Skyvan seen in the background to highlight the latter’s capacity - but Nellie had other ideas.
Mr. A. Henshaw's winning Leopard Moth (Gipsy Major) arrives at Ronaldsway, having averaged 126.75 m.p.h.
FOR FUEL AND OIL SERVICE: Mr. J . Taylor, a pilot and a member of the aviation staff of Shell-Mex & B.P., Ltd., standing beside one of the company's aeroplanes, a D.H. "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major").
MAKING READY: Private-owner and other types inside the big service hangar at Heston. This hangar will, in due course, be taken over by British Airways and another service shop erected elsewhere.
D.H. Leopard Moth G-ACSF with Dunlop Anticer strips fitted to the wing, tailplane and fin leading edges.
Joe Wright, Dunlop Aviation’s general manager, points out the Anticer on Leopard Moth G-ACSF.
D.H. Leopard Moth G-ACSF with wings folded. Note the Anticer strip along the leading edge.
Filling up: The refuelling and "re-oiling" pumps are all conveniently concentrated at the tarmac end of the new building. The oil, incidentally, is supplied under pressure through a number of filters.
TO ASSIST SALES: The "Leopard Moth" recently acquired by Morris Motors Ltd.
Fig. 4 (top): The Leopard Moth in straight flight; the tufts indicate a stall just beginning at the wing roots. Fig. 5: A sideslip of 14 deg. immediately before the stall.
Leopard Moth BD148, at Colerne in August 1945, was G-ACMA before impressment and was restored as such in 1946.
HIGH AND LOW: Mrs. Butler ("Leopard Moth") and F/O. Leech (Arrow "Active") taking the corner on the aerodrome at Hatfield in the middle of the final.
PALMAM QUI MERUIT FERAT: Capt. G. de Havilland is seen crossing the line to win the King's Cup Race in his latest production, the "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major"). As a pioneer and the "old man" of the de Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., his popularity is great, and the enthusiasm with which his win was greeted was very sincere indeed. His staff are loyal and support him on all occasions.
Mr. H. F. Broadbent came from Australia in 6 1/2 Days by D.H. Leopard Moth
Mt. Blanc (15,780 ft.) towering above a sea of clouds - a photograph by DOUGLAS FAWCETT.
WINNER OF THE KING'S CUP AIR RACE, 1933 CAPT. GEOFFREY DE HAVILLAND FLYING A D.H. LEOPARD MOTH DOPED WITH "TITANINE"
FOR A PORTUGUESE VENTURE: The De Havilland "Leopard Moth" on which Lt. Humberto da Cruz of the Portuguese Air Force intends to carry out a flight from Portugal to Timor, the farthest Portuguese possession. The machine was purchased by a national subscription, and Lt. Humberto da Cruz proposes to fly back from Timor via Hong Kong.
The Leopard Moth with his companion Mrs. Brodrick standing alongside
SOME BRITISH VISITORS AT BUC: Mr. Gordon Selfridge Jnr. and Miss Von Treschow and their "Leopard Moth."
The "Leopard Moth," on the aerodrome at Belp, with Mr. Fawcett's companion and Herr W. Eberschweiler.
Cooling themselves synthetically in the shade of a "Leopard Moth" are (left to right), Miss Fontes, sister of Luis Fontes of motoring fame, who was second in the Grosvenor Trophy Race, Mrs. Macdonald, Mrs. Battye, Mrs. Paterson, Mr. Roy Harben and Mr. Harold Perrin, Secretary of the Royal Aero Club, who appears to be blowing on his ice, presumably to raise its temperature before eating it.
De-spatted and unpropped - Sir Derwent Hall-Caine's Leopard Moth, flown by Capt. Hope, receives ministrations on Thursday.
A FLYING AMBASSADOR: His Excellency Sir Francis Humphrys, the British Ambassador at Baghdad, is a flying ambassador, for he owns and flies his own machine. The latter, a D.H. "Leopard Moth," was flown out to him from England recently, and here we see him starting up the engine prior to a 200-mile flight to Mosul, in Northern Iraq, with his son and daughter - who may be seen in the background on the right.
Aeroplane with the "Blanvac" silencer fitted in the exhaust system: a D.H. "Leopard Moth" (Gipsy Major).
In the main hall: Over the aisle is the D.H. "Leopard Moth" in which Lt. Humberto da Cruz and Sgt. Mech. Lobato flew from Lisbon to Portuguese Timor, and suspended from the roof is the Portuguese "Varela Sid" flying-boat glider.
UN COIN ANGLAIS: In the foreground the de Havilland Aircraft Co. are together with their agent showing three types of aeroplane. On the left is the Miles "Hawk," and on the right can be seen Herr Schwabe's "Klemm" in which he has recently returned from a flight to Capetown.
APPOSITE: Christmas greetings from Air Service Training Ltd. at Hamble. The message is formed by white-overalled humanity "on the hands down," and the "A.S.T." consists of the ten different aircraft types which form the organisation's fleet: Avro V, 626, Avian, Tutors and Cadets; two-seater Siskin; A.W. Atlas; two Cutty Sarks; and D.H. Leopard Moth and Hornet Moth.
Anticer stripping on a Leopard Moth’s tailplane at Schiphol Airport, Holland in 1935.
The tail wheel has a solid rubber tyre, and is free to rotate through 360 deg. Springing is by rubber in compression.
The De Havilland Gipsy Major I, here seen in a Leopard Moth, runs for 1,000 hours between overhauls.
SECURING THE WING FOLDING: A spring-loaded plunger passes through the forked end on the spar and through the eyebolt on the fuselage. When the plunger is sent home it is locked by turning the tap which engages with the notch on the plunger shown in the left-hand photograph.
A FINE FLIGHT: Mrs. Butler, wife of the Chairman of the de Havilland Aircraft Co., Ltd., piloted a "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major") with great skill throughout the Race. Mr. Butler was her navigator.
NEAT: The dashboard of a "Leopard Moth" ("Gipsy Major") belonging to Mr. Hunt, of South Africa. Besides the usual range of Smith's Instruments and the Husun Compass, there is an air log, at the top on the left-hand side, a Reid & Sigrist Turn and Bank Indicator in the centre, with a Pitch Indicator alongside it, which is showing a steep angle of climb, and a Smith's clock on its right.
THE CABIN OF THE "LEOPARD MOTH": Comfortable seating is provided for two passengers side by side. The rear set of controls is removable.
Mr. S. R. Crow’s flying scale-model Leopard Moth.
Mr. Henery's 1 1/2 in. to 1 ft. Leopard; even the instruments are to scale
DESIGN AIDS TO SPEED (3) A small curved guard on a D.H. "Leopard Moth," where the exhaust pipe was short, which served to keep the the fumes from coming up to the cockpit windows.
DESIGN AIDS TO SPEED (6) The "Leopard Moth" also has the aileron balance under the wing but exposed to the air stream.
D.H.85 "Leopard Moth" D.H.Gipsy Major Engine